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For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402

.839
1998 b
Pt.2
Copy i
LL

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE

F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, JR., Wisconsin, Chairman SHERWOOD L. BOEHLERT, New York GEORGE E. BROWN, JR., California HARRIS W. FAWELL, Illinois

RALPH M. HALL, Texas CONSTANCE A. MORELLA, Maryland BART GORDON, Tennessee CURT WELDON, Pennsylvania

JAMES A. TRAFICANT, JR., Ohio DANA ROHRABACHER, California

TIM ROEMER, Indiana JOE BARTON, Texas

JAMES A. BARCLA, Michigan KEN CALVERT, California

EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON, Texas ROSCOE G. BARTLETT, Maryland

ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida VERNON J. EHLERS, Michigan |

LYNN N. RIVERS, Michigan DAVE WELDON, Florida

ZOE LOFGREN, California MATT SALMON, Arizona

MICHAEL F. DOYLE, Pennsylvania THOMAS M. DAVIS, Virginia

SHEILA JACKSON LEE, Texas GIL GUTKNECHT, Minnesota

BILL LUTHER, Minnesota MARK FOLEY, Florida

DEBBIE STABENOW, Michigan THOMAS W. EWING, Illinois

BOB ETHERIDGE, North Carolina CHARLES W. (CHIP) PICKERING,

NICK LAMPSON, Texas Mississippi

DARLENE HOOLEY, Oregon CHRIS CANNON, Utah

LOIS CAPPS, California KEVIN BRADY, Texas

BARBARA LEE, California MERRILL COOK, Utah

BRAD SHERMAN, California
PHIL ENGLISH, Pennsylvania

Vacancy
GEORGE R. NETHERCUTT, JR., Washington
TOM A. COBURN, Oklahoma
PETE SESSIONS, Texas
Vacancy

TODD R. SCHULTZ, Chief of Staff

BARRY C. BERINGER, Chief Counsel
ROBERT E. PALMER, Democratic Staff Director

VIVIAN A. TESSIERI, Legislative Clerk

+ Vice Chairman.
* Ranking Minority Member.

(See “History of Appointments” for further information concerning Membership on the Committee on Science.)

(II)

CONTENTS

WITNESSES

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Biography

Discussion

Relationship of Senate Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol to the FY

1999 Budget Submission

Dependence of Budget Initiatives on Proposed Tobacco Settlement

Differences Between Climate Change Technology Initiative and Cli-

mate Change Action Plan

Impact of Improved Automotive Technology on Emissions

Promotion of Alternative Vehicles

Effectiveness of Tax Credits

Potential of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Comparison of U.S. and Foreign Incentives for Automobiles

Efficiency of Tax Proposals ....

Existing Tax Credits for Wind and Biomass

Extension of Ethanol Tax Credit

Promotion of Carbon Sinks

Priority of Fossil Fuel R&D

Agency Lead on Carbon Sequestration

Impact of Proposed Program on Global Warming

Cost and Benefits of Proposed Program ....

U.S. Capability of Meeting Kyoto Protocol Emissions Target

Creation of Markets for Alternative Vehicles

Role of Federal Government in Automotive Industry Infrastructure

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APPENDIX 1

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Members of the Committee

on Science

The Honorable John H. Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science

and Technology, and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy ..

Answers to Post-Hearing Questions Submitted by Chairman F. James

Sensenbrenner, Jr.:

“Clear and Compelling Evidence” That Human Activities Are Caus-

ing Climate Change

Climate Change and Extreme Events

Documentation of 1997 Temperature Statistics

“1997 Warmest Year of Century, NOAA Reports,” U.S. Depart-

ment of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin-

istration (NOAA) Press Release, NOAA 98-1, January 8, 1998

"Global Temperature Trends,” National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies

D.E. Parker, E.B. Norton, and M. Gordon, “Global and Regional

Climate in 1997,” Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and

Research, Meteorological Office, February 5, 1998

Rob Quayle, Tom Peterson, Catherine Godfrey, and Alan Basist

“The Climate of 1997 Global Temperature Index: 1997 Warm-

est Year of the Century,” NOAA National Climatic Data Cen-

ter, January 12, 1998

Land- and Sea-Based Versus Satellite Temperature Measurements

David R. Easterling et al., “Maximum and Minimum Tempera-

ture Trends for the Globe,” Science 277, July 18, 1997, pp.

364-367

Evidence for Significant Regional Ecosystem Response to Warming

Experienced During the Period 1981-1991

R.B. Myneni et al., “Increased plant growth in the northern

high latitudes from 1981 to 1991,Nature 386, April 17, 1997,

pp. 698_702

Records of Total Rainfall and Extreme Rainfall of the United States

Over the Last Century

Thomas R. Karl and Richard W. Knight, “Secular Trends of

Precipitation Amount, Frequency, and Intensity in the United

States,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79,

February, 1998, pp. 231-241

Extreme Weather Events

Kevin E. Trenberth, “Conceptual Framework for Changes of Ex-

tremes of the Hydrological Cycle with Climate Change,Cli-

matic Change 36, 1998

IPCC “Business As Usual” Scenario

J. Leggett, W.J. Pepper, and R.J. Smart, “Emissions Scenarios

for the IPCC: an Update,” in Climate Change 1992: The Sup-

plementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Report

prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) by, Working Group 1, J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callender
and S.K. Varney, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press,

1992), pp. 69–95

Valuation of Ecosystems

Robert Constanza et al., “The value of the world's ecosystem

services and natural capital,” Nature 387, May 15, 1997, pp.

253-260

Objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Change ...

Impacts on Global Agricultural Activity

Cynthia Rosenzweig, Martin L. Perry, and Günther Fischer,

“World Food Supply," in As Climate Change: International Im-

pacts and Implications, Kenneth M. Strzepek and Joel B.

Smith, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995),

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