Negotiating Survival: Four Priorities After Rio

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Council on Foreign Relations, 1992 - 90 pages

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Page 75 - States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation.
Page 37 - Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
Page 75 - The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof.
Page 81 - Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account the fact that economic and social development and eradication of poverty are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.
Page 85 - Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health: (h) Prevent the introduction of. control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species...
Page 78 - These policies and measures will demonstrate that developed countries are taking the lead in modifying longer-term trends in anthropogenic emissions consistent with the objective of the Convention, recognizing that the return by the end of the present decade to earlier levels of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol would contribute to such modification.
Page 75 - In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Page 80 - ... above, a certain degree of flexibility shall be allowed by the Conference of the Parties to the Parties included in annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, in order to enhance the ability of these Parties to address climate change, including with regard to the historical level of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol chosen as a reference.
Page 87 - Articles 20 and 21 with the aim of sharing in a fair and equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other...
Page 76 - A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties...

About the author (1992)

Richard Newton Gardner was born in Manhattan, New York on July 9, 1927. After military service with the Army News Service in New Jersey, he studied international economics at Harvard College. He received a law degree from Yale University in 1951 and a Ph.D. in economics from Oxford University in 1954. His doctoral thesis became a book entitled Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order. He taught international law at Columbia University. In the early 1960s, he was deputy assistant secretary of state for international organization affairs under President John F. Kennedy. He was the American ambassador to Italy from 1977 to 1981 and the American ambassador to Spain from 1993 to 1997. He was an adviser to several Democratic presidential candidates including Jimmy Carter, Al Gore, and Bill Clinton. He returned to academia between his diplomatic postings, retiring in 2012. His memoir, Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War, was published in 2005. He died from congestive heart failure on February 16, 2019 at the age of 91.

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