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scientific considerations, without the necessity of relating such support in each instance to immediate economic, military or political objectives. Stated another way, the recommendation would aim toward supporting foreign, or cooperative U.S.-foreign endeavors of outstanding scientific merit as an immediate scientific objective of U.S. foreign policy.
U.S. support of international science should include the following: (a) widespread interchange of scientific information with other countries; (b) increased interchange of scientific personnel; (c) fundamental research, including facilities for such research; (d) applied research and development; (e) a buildup in the scientific manpower potential of friendly and neutral countries; and (ƒ) improved scientific representation and liaison. Specific recommendations dealing with each of these areas are set forth in the sections which follow.
It is understood that the support of foreign science must take into account the status of relations prevailing at any given time between the United States and the country concerned. Obviously, the United States would not support the buildup of the scientific potential of the U.S.S.R. on any occasion in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, as pointed out earlier, increased communication among scientists tends to ease international tensions and to break down artificial barriers erected by totalitarian countries. In giving support to the categories of international scientific activity listed above, the United States must phase its actions according to reciprocal actions taken by other countries in sharing scientific information and resources. Consequently, support to the interchange of scientific information does not rule out reciprocal arrangements with Iron Curtain countries. At the other end of the scale, with respect to applied science and the building up of scientific manpower resources, support should be limited to friendly and neutral countries.
A. Interchange of scientific and technical information
The interchange of scientific and technical information on a worldwide basis is indispensable to healthy scientific development. Impediments to such interchange are especially costly to the United States, which has unusual capabilities in the practical utilization of basic discoveries. Such interchange must recognize the different potentialities of countries in various stages of scientific development. In the larger view it is not in our national interest to insist on a strict quid pro quo exchange, especially from friendly countries. Less highly developed friendly countries should receive scientific and technical documents they are capable of utilizing, regardless of their ability to supply an equal amount of information in exchange.
Russia and its satellites fall in a special category. Every effort should be made to increase the flow of scientific and technical information received from Russia on an exchange basis. However, such efforts should recognize that Russia cannot be forced into any exchange arrangement by withholding information or by insisting that official channels be utilized. It is not difficult for Russia to obtain indirectly any unclassified material which is generally available in the United States. Experience indicates that considerable benefits to the United States have resulted from informal scientist-to-scientist exchange arrangements with Russian and satellite nations.
1. Scientific and technical information, the release of which can seriously damage the national defense, or be prejudicial to the defense interests of the United States, is required to bear a security classification. Unclassified scientific and technical information should be freely available for exchange with scientists in other countries. It is difficult for other countries to understand the necessity for restrictions upon the flow of such unclassified information. Simultaneously, restrictions in this flow by the United States result in similar restrictions by other countries, especially the U.S.S.R. Also, such restrictions puzzle and irritate U.S. scientists and make it difficult to consummate effective exchange arrangements with foreign scientists or agencies who become aware of them. Accordingly, it is recommended that all regulations and procedures restricting the export of unclassified scientific and technical information should be reviewed, with a view toward their simplification or rescission.
2. Not all Government agencies are in a position, from the standpoint of authority or financial ability, to enter into arrangements with foreign agencies or institutions to exchange unclassified scientific information. For example, the Armed Services Technical Information Agency is not authorized to provide any documents to foreign agencies, although ASTIA is officially established as the technical information center of the Department of Defense. In the interest of effective exchange of U.S. Government-developed unclassified scientific and technical information it is recommended that all Government agencies originating scientific and technical information should be encouraged, and authorized where necessary, to exchange such information with foreign agencies and institutions.
3. In many instances private agencies assume that there is U.S. Government policy objection to their supplying scientific and technical information to certain foreign countries. Since Russia and its satellites can easily obtain such information through agents in the United States or in Western Europe, any such ban has no practical effect in withholding unclassified scientific data from Russia. It is recommended that private agencies originating unclassified scientific and technical information should be encouraged to make such information available to foreign agencies and institutions by sale, exchange, or gift.
4. Since many friendly countries that can profitably utilize many types of scientific and technical documents are not in a position to purchase them and have little to offer in exchange, it is recommended that arrangements be made by the appropriate Government agencies to donate their scientific and technical publications and reports to friendly countries on the basis of their ability to profit from receiving them, where such countries are not in a position to purchase the documents, or to offer equivalent materials in exchange.
5. On the basis that significant scientific and technical publications and reports originating outside the United States are of definite interest and value to many U.S. scientists, and will contribute to their effectiveness, it is recommended that efforts be intensified to ensure that all significant scientific and technical publications originating outside the United States are procured for use in the United States; are available in some form to any interested U.S. scientist; are abstracted in the appropriate English language abstract journals; and, if especially important, and appearing in some inaccessible language (e.g., Slavic or oriental languages) are translated into English.
6. Since many U.S. scientific and technical reference tools are of unique value on a worldwide basis (e.g., Chemical Abstracts) it is recommended that efforts be intensified to improve the quality of U.S. basic scientific reference tools (abstracts and bibliographies) in support of world science.
B. Exchange of persons
The following recommendations are intended to strengthen United States and international science through expanding the opportunities of U.S. scientists to study abroad as well as to work and confer with scientists of other nations, and through offering continued opportunities for foreign scientists to visit and study in the United States. Such actions as are proposed should result in strengthened scientific manpower at home and abroad, and should assure a greater utilization of the scientific resources of the United States and the rest of the free world.
1. There is need on the part of the Federal Government for continuity and greater program emphasis focused upon the objective of increasing throughout the world the supply of gifted scientists and improving the quality of their training. Current Government-supported programs have been supplemented by the activities of private foundations and organizations, among them the recently established Eisenhower exchange fellowships which are awarded to foreign nationals for advanced study and work in the United States in a wide range of fields.
It is therefore recommended that current exchange of persons activities of the Federal Government be broadened to include countries not now participating and to allow increased numbers of scientists to be exchanged in both directions. If necessary, authorization should be sought for new programs directed specifically to the exchange of scientists.
2. In recent years there has been increasing concern with the restrictions imposed by the Federal law which became effective in December 1952 on the temporary admission of alien visitors. Evidence has been cited previously by the National Science Foundation that under existing statutes a large percentage of all foreign scientists who apply to enter the United States meet difficulties or serious delays. These delays as well as actual refusals of permission for entry damage the United States in its international scientific relationships. Accordingly, it is recommended that the law governing the temporary admission of alien visitors be reviewed in order to determine how it might be modified to improve procedures and more readily permit the temporary admission of scientists and students in the sciences.
3. There are indications that the United States has not been able to play as positive a role in supporting international scientific congresses and meetings as its position of international leadership would suggest, both because of the visa problems associated with holding such meetings in the United States and because of the limited funds available for such purposes. To illustrate the first point, the International Congress on Genetics recommended in 1953 that its international meetings not be held in any country where "scientists would be refused
permission to enter on grounds of race, nationality, place of birth, or political association, past or present." Funds for support of international scientific meetings in foreign countries have generally been limited to defrayment of travel expenses of some of the U.S. participants.
Therefore, it is recommended that the United States should actively and wholeheartedly support international scientific congresses and meetings. This should include review of the visa law as indicated in (2) above, and the provision of adequate funds for necessary support of international scientific congresses and meetings.
4. The opportunity for American scientists to attend international scientific meetings is of great importance in that it fosters the exchange of scientific information for the mutual benefit of the participating nations. It provides U.S. scientists with a knowledge of foreign research activities and personnel which results in increased competence of these persons and it strengthens the international position of the United States. It is recommended that the United States participate more actively in international scientific meetings. New legislative authority is not in most instances required for such increased participation. It will be necessary, however, that modest funds be appropriated annually in order to carry out the intent of this recommendation.
C. Support of fundamental research
It is recommended that a program of further support of basic research in foreign countries be undertaken on a limited and experimental basis with funds being provided by nonmilitary sources.
The support of basic research in foreign countries by the United States should be on a limited and experimental basis. Such support in foreign countries should be limited to those areas of science where unique competence exists or where breakthroughs might be particularly significant. In order that the motives underlying such support be not misunderstood, it is important that the support be provided from nonmilitary sources.
Special attention might well be given to the support of basic research in foreign countries with appropriate capabilities where this might be regarded as an extension to the President's atoms-for-peace plan. In the case of certain countries, notably Japan, such support would be a considerable factor in creating goodwill, out of all proportion of the funds expended.
D. Support of applied research and development
It is recommended that support be provided for applied research and development activities in foreign countries where the results of the research are of direct practical value to the supporting agency, or where the end item of the applied research and development is directly related to the mission of the supporting agency.
Support of applied research and certain phases of technological development in a foreign country can be of immediate benefit to the foreign country and to the United States. It is of direct benefit to the United States in providing an extension of the total research and development effort, without simultaneously aggravating further our scientific manpower problems. It is of advantage to the foreign country in providing hard currency support for activities which will be to its long range advantage in the development of its industrial technology.
However, applied research and development is, and should remain, an area to be supported only as determined by the agency of the Government responsible for the special program to which it relates. In other words, applied research and development abroad should continue to be supported by the military agencies to the extent they deem appropriate in the light of military objectives, by ICA in the light of economic objectives, etc. It is recommended, however, that any new congressional authorization that may be given for support of international science, as herein recommended, contain authority for the support of applied science projects judged to be of direct benefit to the United States. Such authority is needed to fill a gap between existing authorization to support basic research where it is in the general interest of U.S. science and authority to support applied science where it is in the support of military or economic objectives.
E. Improvement in scientific manpower potential of friendly and neutral countries
The college contract and foreign research scientist fellowship programs of ICA are contributing significantly, but not to an optimum degree, in improving the quantity and quality of scientific manpower in other countries. Additional support to this objective by the United States will not only serve to build up free
world strength but also will tend to meet partially the need of the United States for new fundamental scientific knowledge.
1. It is recommended that the foreign research scientist fellowship program of ICA be continued, to the extent that such action is consistent with the economic objectives of ICA,
2. It is recommended that the college contract program of ICA be expanded to include additional "science components" to the extent that such action is consistent with the economic objectives of ICA.
3. It is recommended that congressional authorization be sought for the National Science Foundation or other agencies to grant fellowships to science students from friendly and neutral countries to pursue advanced study in the United States.
F. Scientific representation and liaison
Among the necessary elements of a successful U.S. program in international science are the following: (a) effective machinery for bringing to bear the potentialities and interests of science upon the day-to-day formulation and conduct of international relations; (b) full participation and cooperation by the United States in international scientific organizations; and (c) an adequate system of scientific liaison offices in American missions abroad, with provision being made for representation, the collection and distribution of specific items of information as required, and advice to the chief of mission on the scientific aspects of problems being faced by him. The following recommendations are directed toward the provision of the aforementioned elements.
1. It is recommended that the role of the science adviser to the Secretary of State be strengthened, to the end that the conduct of U.S. foreign affairs may continuously reflect the increasingly important role which science and technology must play in relations between the United States and other countries.
This problem was treated exhaustively in the report of Dr. L. V. Berkner to the Secretary of State in April 1950 (published by the Department of State as "Science and Foreign Relations"). While the Berkner recommendations resulted in the establishment of an Office of Science Adviser, this office has not as yet received status commensurate with its responsibilities.
2. It is recommended that the U.S. Government take immediate steps to insure full and prompt fulfillment of U.S. membership obligations in international scientific organizations.
Damage has been done to the prestige of the United States in foreign countries as a result of delays and arrears on the payment of membership dues in ICSU and its constituent unions. Similar difficulties have arisen from time to time with respect to U.S. contributions to the specialized agencies of the United Nations.
3. It is recommended that a new science attaché program be established providing for broad geographic coverage and numerically adequate complements in U.S. missions abroad. These attachés should be backstopped by a civilian scientific agency of the Government.
At the present time, the Department of State provides science attachés to only four of its overseas missions, and these appointments are due to expire in the near future. The present attaché program has been allowed to languish and has not produced the results foreseen in the Berkner report. Steps must be taken to provide the backstopping necessary to enable the attachés to pursue actively what are important scientific responsibilities in foreign countries.
4. It is recommended that a high degree of interagency coordination be achieved in the operations of official U.S. scientific liaison activities abroad.
It is essential that there be no competition between various elements of U.S. liaison activities, and that all such groups maintain a consolidated U.S. position in their dealings with foreign governments and individuals.
5. It is recommended that private interests in the United States who plan overseas liaison offices or projects in science and technology be encouraged and provided with guidance and advice from qualified governmental sources in order to assure actions consistent with U.S. foreign policy objectives.
G. Some criteria which might guide activities of the Federal Government in the advancement of science internationally
1. There are advantages to the use of multilateral channels, such as international organizations, where feasible. It is especially important that activities of the U.S. Government in the area of science not be tagged internationally as another weapon in our cold war arsenal (although in fact, the activities proposed herein, ostensibly divorced from cold war objectives, would constitute effective weapons
indeed). The use of such multilateral channels would minimize such a possi-
2. Collective efforts among groups of countries in the advancement of science
3. Other considerations being equal, special attention should be given to those
4. Bilateral support activities of the U.S. Government should be based upon
H. Program magnitude
1. The magnitude of financial support by the U.S. Government in behalf of the
2. The magnitude of additional financial support by the U.S. Government to
I. Program framework
1. It is not possible without intensive interagency study and consultation, to
2. What is needed at the immediate next stage is interagency consideration of