« PreviousContinue »
Appendix A. Excerpts from the National Defense Education Act
* * * *
Appendix C. Excerpts from the Civil Rights Act of 1964
71 Appendix F. Grant Terms and Conditions (General) Appendix G. Special Grant Terms and Conditions
In a decade that discovered poverty and the disadvantaged, neither the college nor the school can properly be expected to use old forms for new purposes without some stress or strain. And, by the same token, the institute concept of the past can no longer be expected to meet future needs without some change or cant. Along with other aspects of American education, especially in view of the impact made by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, institute programs are also undergoing a critical self-examination.
Certainly the earlier form of institutes, both those sponsored by the NSF and under the NDEA*, have provided unparalleled training opportunities for thousands of school teachers. At the same time, although far less well known, many hundreds of college teachers of science, modern foreign languages, history and English, etc., were brought into the business of training teachers-a particular group of academicians that had never previously shown any special concern for the needs of the schools or had the opportunity to meet them effectively.
As a result, a dialogue between the college professor and the schoolteacher has started, one that appears to be a major, if unplanned, development of the last decade and one which holds great promise. Undoubtedly, such communication has helped to question traditional roles and to initiate a full and frank examination of the university vis-a-vis the preparation of teachers in America, long overdue.
Though often innovative, institute programs mostly remained variants of the summer or academic year program. Because they were designed to offer opportunities for an intensive experience which met the particular needs of participants, usually they were more effective than the summer schools they challenged but did not replace. While institutes could have been viewed as a form of inservice training, generally they were not. Rather, they were something special, an "extra." Thus, the teacher continued to go to college but the professor seldom went to school.
*National Science Foundation; and the National Defense Education Act of 1958, as amended, the authorization for which expires with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968.
Though the university has helped to improve the qualifications of individuals through institutes, still it has managed to remain apart from inservice training per se; it has provided a service without becoming involved. While institutions of higher education will continue to determine their own role in this connection, it is already apparent that the institute concept is changing. It is becoming more versatile. Clearly institute programs, at least, must attempt to meet the needs of schools more directly, off as well as on campus.
While short-term summer programs will doubtless continue to predominate and some academic year programs will be supported, it is hoped that the institute will become a many-sided vehicle providing many kinds of training. Hence, flexibility and variety are being encouraged. Part-time or inservice programs may help to create opportunities for a more intense or immediate experience, and seminars, workshops, colloquia, symposia and conferences are but some of the ways by which the institute concept can be made more meaningful. Such increased flexibility and variety will be particularly relevant to the needs generated by titles I and III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 89–10), both of which have built-in, and largely unexplored, training possibilities.
This manual is itself something of an innovation. With the advice and consent of consultants from the several areas of specialization, the guidelines for three institute programs have been reviewed, reconsidered, revised and consolidated. This year a single manual replaces that for title XI and the one for title V-B of the National Defense Education Act, and the Guidelines issued for the arts and humanities institute program.
More and more there is concern about the manpower requirements of the Nation's schools. Increasingly, the education of the children in a democracy which supports them is becoming less a matter of lip service and more a matter of life itself. Improving the qualifications of educational personnel so that elementary and secondary education can better meet the demands made upon it is basic to this concern. While the seemingly magical recruitment of college teachers from campuses all over the country continues to be an essential ingredient in a new mixture that allows the university and the school to reexamine their relationship, institute programs will continue to provide many more thousands of educational personnel with an opportunity to study, to learn and to think.
DONALD N. BIGELOW,
Director, Division of Educational Personnel Training.
Institutes for advanced study, including study in the use of new materials, may be conducted by institutions of higher education for public and private nonprofit elementary and secondary school personnel and certain other individuals. Programs among them workshops, seminars, symposia, colloquia, conferences, and others may be designed for the country as a whole or for a region. They may also serve as local inservice training vehicles for educational personnel from a school district or a single school. And, in some instances, they may provide training for a mixed group of participants from various places.
While programs may be short or long term and may run for a few days up to a calendar year, they need not be held on successive days or for a set number of weeks. They may be conducted during the summer, or part time (inservice) during the academic year; or they may be regular session programs running for a trimester, a semester or an academic year or any combination of these Part-time programs usually are offered only for participants from communities or school districts in a region small enough to allow easy commuting.
Authorization and Appropriation
Institute programs are authorized by two statutes: the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958, as amended (titles V-B and XI), and the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act (NFAHA) of 1965 (sec. 13). Programs proposed at this time will usually be conducted between July 1, 1968, and June 30, 1969, although some latitude is possible and some programs may begin earlier. However, all programs will be supported with funds appropriated by the Congress for fiscal year 1968 which, at the time this manual was printed, had not been determined or appropriated.
While the amount authorized totals $63,750,000 (with $500,000 for the arts and humanities program), the appropriation will neither automatically nor necessarily be the same. The President's budget is $43.25 million. Last year the appropriation was $37.75 million. Hence, since each of the three programs will be administered in accordance with the authorization and with the appropriation, the