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NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS
The National Bureau of Standards was established by an act of Congress March 3, 1901. Today, in addition to serving as the Nation's central measurement laboratory, the Bureau is a principal focal point in the Federal Government for assuring maximum application of the physical and engineering sciences to the advancement of technology in industry and commerce. To this end the Bureau conducts research and provides central national services in four broad program areas. These are: (1) basic measurements and standards, (2) materials measurements and standards, (3) technological measurements and standards, and (4) transfer of technology. The Bureau comprises the Institute for Basic Standards, the Institute for Materials Research, the Institute for Applied Technology, the Center for Radiation Research, the Center for Computer Sciences and Technology, and the Office for Information Programs.
THE INSTITUTE FOR BASIC STANDARDS provides the central basis within the United State of a complete and consistent system of physical measurement; coordinates that system with measurement systems of other nations; and furnishes essential services leading to accurate and uniform physical measurements throughout the Nation's scientific community, industry, and commerce. The Institute consists of an Office of Measurement Services and the following technical divisions:
Applied Mathematics-Electricity-Metrology-Mechanics-Heat-Atomic and Molecular Physics-Radio Physics -Radio Engineering-Time and Frequency-Astrophysics-Cryogenics."
THE INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH conducts materials research leading to improved methods of measurement standards, and data on the properties of well-characterized materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; develops, produces, and distributes standard reference materials; relates the physical and chemical properties of materials to their behavior and their interaction with their environments; and provides advisory and research services to other Government agencies. The Institute consists of an Office of Standard Reference Materials and the following divisions:
Analytical Chemistry-Polymers-Metallurgy-Inorganic Materials-Physical Chemistry. THE INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED TECHNOLOGY provides technical services to promote the use of available technology and to facilitate technological innovation in industry and Government; cooperates with public and private organizations in the development of technological standards, and test methodologies; and provides advisory and research services for Federal, state, and local government agencies. The Institute consists of the following technical divisions and offices:
Engineering Standards-Weights and Measures
Invention and Innovation - Vehicle Systems Research-Product Evaluation-Building Research-Instrument Shops-Measurement Engineering-Electronic Technology-Technical Analysis.
THE CENTER FOR RADIATION RESEARCH engages in research, measurement, and application of radiation to the solution of Bureau mission problems and the problems of other agencies and institutions. The Center consists of the following divisions:
Reactor Radiation-Linac Radiation-Nuclear Radiation-Applied Radiation. THE CENTER FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts research and provides technical services designed to aid Government agencies in the selection, acquisition, and effective use of automatic data processing equipment; and serves as the principal focus for the development of Federal standards for automatic data processing equipment, techniques, and computer languages. The Center consists of the following offices and divisions:
Information Processing Standards-Computer Information - Computer Services - Systems Development-Information Processing Technology.
THE OFFICE FOR INFORMATION PROGRAMS promotes optimum dissemination and accessibility of scientific information generated within NBS and other agencies of the Federal Government; promotes the development of the National Standard Reference Data System and a system of information analysis centers dealing with the broader aspects of the National Measurement System, and provides appropriate services to ensure that the NBS staff has optimum accessibility to the scientific information of the world. The Office consists of the following organizational units:
Office of Standard Reference Data-Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical
'Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg, Maryland, unless otherwise noted: mailing address Washington, D.C. 20234. Located at Boulder, Colorado 80302.
Located at 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE • Maurice H. Stans, Secretary
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS • Lewis M. Branscomb, Director
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
The Center for Computer Sciences and Technology of the National Bureau of Standards has responsibility under the authority of Public Law 89-306 (the Brooks Bill) for automatic data processing standards development, for consultation and technical assistance to Federal agencies, and for supporting research in matters relating to the use of computers in the Federal Government.
This selective literature review is one of a series intended to improve interchange of information among those engaged in research and development in the fields of the computer and information sciences. Considered in this volume are the specific areas of overall system design considerations, including the problems of requirements analysis, system networking, terminal design, character sets, programming languages, and advanced hardware developments.
Names and descriptions of specific proprietary devices and equipment have been included for the convenience of the reader, but completeness in this respect is recognized to be impossible. Certain important developments have remained proprietary or have not been reported in the open literature; thus major contributors to key developments in the field may have been omitted.
The omission of any method or device does not necessarily imply that it is considered unsuitable or unsatisfactory, nor does inclusion of descriptive material on commercially available instruments, products, programs, or processes constitute endorsement.
LEWIS M. BRANSCOMB, Director