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(C) the development of an administrative procedure which provides reasonable promise for resolving differences between vocational educators, community and junior college educators, college and university educators, elementary and secondary educators, and other interested groups with respect to the administration of the program authorized under this part; and (D) the development of a long-range strategy for infusing occupational education (including general orientation, counseling and guidance and placement either in a job or in postsecondary occupational programs) into elementary and secondary schools on an equal footing with traditional academic education, to the end that every child who leaves secondary school is prepared either to enter productive employment or to undertake additional education at the postsecondary level, but without being forced prematurely to make an irrevocable commitment to a particular educational or occupational choice; and
(E) the development of procedures to insure continuous planning and evaluation, including the regular collection of data which would be readily available to the State administrative agency, the State Advisory Council on Vocational Education, individual educational institutions, and other interested parties (including concerned private citizens).
(2) Planning activities carried on by the State Commission under this section shall involve the active participation of—
(A) the State board for vocational education;
(B) the State agency having responsibility for community and junior colleges;
(C) the State agency having responsibility for higher education institutions or programs;
(D) the State agency responsible for administering public elementary and secondary education;
(E) the State agency responsible for programs of adult basic education; (F) representatives of all types of institutions in the State which are conducting or which have the capability and desire to conduct programs of postsecondary occupational education;
(G) representatives of private, nonprofit elementary and secondary schools;
(H) the State employment security agency, the State agency responsible for apprenticeship programs, and other agencies within the State having responsibility for administering manpower development and training programs;
(I) the State agency responsible for economic and industrial development; (J) persons familiar with the occupational education needs of the disadvantaged, of the handicapped, and of minority groups; and
(K) representatives of business, industry, organized labor, agriculture, and the general public.
(c) The Commissioner shall not approve any application for a grant under section 1057 of this part unless he is reasonably satisfied that the planning described in this section (whether or not assisted by a grant under this section) has been carried out. (20 U.S.C. 1135b-5) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 318, 319.
PROGRAM GRANTS FOR STATE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
SEC. 1057. (a) From the allotments available to the States under section 1052 (b) (upon application by the State administrative agency designated or established under section 1055), the Commissioner shall make grants to any State which has satisfied the requirements of section 1058. Such grants may be used for the following purposes
(1) assist the State administrative agency designated or established under section 1055;
(2) the design, establishment, and conduct of programs of postsecondary occupational education (or the expansion and improvement of existing programs) as defined by section 1080 of this part:
(3) the design, establishment, and conduct of programs to carry out the Jong-range strategy developed pursuant to section 1056 (b) (1) (D) for infusing into elementary and secondary education occupational preparation. which shall include methods of involving secondary schools in occupational
placement and methods of providing followup services and career counseling and guidance for persons of all ages as a regular function of the educational system;
(4) the design of high-quality instructional programs to meet the needs for postsecondary occupational education and the development of an order of priorities for placing these programs in operation;
(5) special training and preparation of persons to equip them to teach, administer, or otherwise assist in carrying out the program authorized under this part (such as programs to prepare journeymen in the skilled trades or occupations for teaching positions); and
(6) the leasing, renting, or remodeling of facilities required to carry out the program authorized by this part.
(b) Programs authorized by this part may be carried out through contractual arrangements with private organizations and institutions organized for profit where such arrangements can make a contribution to achieving the purposes of this part by providing substantially equivalent education, training, or services more readily or more economically, or by preventing needless duplication of expensive physical plant and equipment, or by providing needed education or training of the types authorized by this part which would not otherwise be available. (20 U.S.C. 1135b-6) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 319, 320.
ASSURANCES; JUDICIAL REVIEW
SEC. 1058. (a) Before making any program grant under this part the Commissioner shall receive from the State Commission an assurance satisfactory to him that the plannnig requirements of section 1056 have been met and from the State administrative agency assurances satisfactory to him that
(1) the State Advisory Council on Vocational Education has had a reasonable opportunity to review and make recommendations concerning the design of the programs for which the grant is requested;
(2) Federal funds made available under this part will result in improved occupational education programs, and in no case supplant State, local, or private funds;
(3) adequate provision has been made by such agency for programs described in section 1057 (a) (3) ;
(4) provision has been made for such fiscal control and fund accounting procedures as may be necessary to assure proper disbursement of, and accounting for, Federal funds paid to the State under this part;
(5) to the extent consistent with the number of students enrolled in nonprofit private schools in the area to be served by an elementary or secondary school program funded under this part, provision has been made for the effective participation of such students; and
(6) reports will be made in such form and containing such information as the Commisisoner may reasonably require to carry out his functions under this part.
(b) (1) Whenever the Commissioner, after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing to the State administrative agency, finds that any of the assurances required by subsection (a) are unsatisfactory, or that in the administration of the program there is a failure to comply with such assurances or with other requirements of the part, the Commissioner shall notify the administrative agency that no further payments will be made to the State under this part until he is satisfied there has been or will be compliance with the requirements of the part.
(2) A State administrative agency which is dissatisfied with a final action of the Commissioner under this section or under section 1055 (with respect to approval of State administration) may appeal to the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the State is located by filing a peition wih such court within sixty days after such final action. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Commissioner, or any officer designated by him for that purpose. The Commissioner thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his action, as provided in section 2112 of title 28, United States Code. Upon the filing of such petition, the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action of the Commissioner or to set it aside,
in whole or in part, temporarily or permanently but until the filing of the record the Commissioner may modify or set aside his action. The findings of the Commissioner as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, but the court, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Commissioner to take further evidence, and the Commissioner may thereupon make new or modified findings of fact and may modify his previous action, and shall file in the court the record of the further proceedings. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence. The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any action of the Commissioner shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28, United States Code. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless so specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Commissioner's action. (20 U.S.C. 1135b-7) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 320, 321.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE; MODEL PROGRAMS
SEC. 1059. (a) The Commissioner shall make available (to the extent practicable) technical assistance to the States in planning, designing, and carrying out the program authorized by this part upon the request of the appropriate State agency designated or established pursuant to section 1055 or section 1202 and the Commissioner shall take affirmative steps to acquaint all interested organizations, agencies, and institutions with the provision of this part and to enlist broad public understanding of its purposes.
(b) From the sums reserved to the Commissioner under section 1051, he shall by grant or contract provide assistance
(1) for the establishment and conduct of model or demonstration programs which in his judgment will promote the achievement of one or more purposes of this part and which might otherwise not be carried out (or not be carried out soon enough or in such a way as to have the desirable impact upon the purposes of the part);
(2) as an incentive or supplemental grant to any State administrative agency which makes a proposal for advancing the purposes of this part which he feels holds special promise for meeting occupational education needs of particular groups or classes of persons who are disadvantaged or who have special needs, when such proposal could not reasonably be expected to be carried out under the regular State program; and
(3) for particular programs or projects eligible for support under this part which he believes have a special potential for helping to find solutions to problems on a regional or national basis.
(c) In providing support under subsection (b) the Commissioner may as appropriate make grants to or contracts with public or private agencies, organizations, and institutions, but he shall give first preference to applications for projects or programs which are administered by or approved by State administrative agencies, and he shall in no case make a grant or contract within any State without first having afforded the State administrative agency reasonable notice and opportunity for comment and for making recommendations. (20 U.S.C. 1135b-8) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 321, 322.
SEC. 1060. For the purposes of this part—
(1) The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and (except for the purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of section 1052) American Samoa and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
(2) The term "postsecondary occupational education" means education, training, or retraining (and including guidance, counseling, and placement services) for persons sixteen years of age or older who have graduated from or left elementary or secondary school, conducted by an institution legally authorized to provide postsecondary education within a State, which is designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment as semi-skilled or skilled workers or technicians or subprofessionals in recognized occupations (including new and emerging occupations), or to prepare individuals for enrollment in advanced technical education programs, but excluding any program to prepare individuals for employment in occupations which the Commissioner determines, and specifies by regulation, to be generally con
sidered professional or which require a baccalaureate or advanced degree. (20 U.S.C. 1135b-9) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 322
PART C-ESTABLISHMENT OF AGENCIES
ESTABLISHMENT OF BUREAU OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
SEC. 1071. (a) There is hereby established in the United States Office of Education a Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education hereinafter referred to as the Bureau, which shall be responsible for the administration of this title, the Vocational Education Act of 1963, including parts C and I thereof, the Adult Education Act, functions of the Office of Education relating to manpower training and development, functions of the Office relating to vocational, technical, and occupational training in community and junior colleges, and any other Act vesting authority in the Commissioner for vocational, occupational, adult and continuing education and for those portions of any legislation for career education which are relevant to the purposes of other Acts administered by the Bureau.
(b) (1) The Bureau shall be headed by a person (appointed or designated by the Commissioner) who is highly qualified in the fields of vocational, technical, and occupational education, who is accorded the rank of Deputy Commissioner, and who shall be compensated at the rate specified for grade 18 of the General Schedule set forth in section 5332 of title 5, United States Code.
(2) Additional positions are created for, and shall be assigned to, the Bureau as follows:1
(A) Three positions to be placed in grade 17 of such General Schedule, one of which shall be filled by a person with broad experience in the field of junior and community college education,
(B) Seven positions to be placed in grade 16 of such General Schedule, at least two of which shall be filled by persons with broad experience in the field of postsecondary-occupational education in community and junior colleges, at least one of which shall be filled by a person with broad experience in education in private proprietary institutions, and at least one of which shall be filled by a person with professional experience in occupational guidance and counseling, and
(C) Three positions which shall be filled by persons at least one of whom is a skilled worker in a recognized occupation, another is a subprofessional technician in one of the branches of engineering, and the other is a subprofessional worker in one of the branches of social or medical services, who shall serve as senior advisers in the implementation of this title. (20 U.S.C. 1135c) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 322, 323.
COMMUNITY COLLEGE UNIT
SEC. 1072. (a) There is established, in the Office of Education, a Community College Unit (in this section referred to as the "Unit") which shall have the responsibility for coordinating all programs administered by the Commissioner which affect, or can benefit, community colleges, including such programs assisted under this Act, and the Vocational Education Act of 1963.
(b) The Unit shall be headed by a Director who shall be placed in grade 17 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code. (20 U.S.C. 1135c-1) Enacted June 23, 1972, P.L. 92-318, sec. 186 (a) (1), 86 Stat. 323.
TITLE I-COMMUNITY SERVICE AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
SEC. 105. (a) Any State desiring to receive its allotment of Federal funds under this title shall designate or create a State agency or institution which has special qualifications with respect to solving community problems and which is broadly
1 Note: Sec. 186 (a) (2) of P.L. 92-318 provides as follows:
(2) The positions created by section 1071 and section 1072 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 shall be in addition to the number of positions placed in the appropriate grades under section 5108, title 5, United States Code.
representative of institutions of higher education in the State which are competent to offer community service programs, and shall submit to the Commissioner through the agency or institution so designated a State plan. If a State desires to designate for the purpose of this section an existing State agency or institution which does not meet these requirements, it may do so if the agency or institution takes such action as may be necessary to acquire such qualifications and assure participation of such institutions, or if it designates or creates a State advisory council which meets the requirements not met by the designated agency or institution to consult with the designated agency or institution in the preparation of the State plan. A State plan submitted under this title shall be in such detail as the Commissioner deems necessary and shall
(1) provide that the agency or institution so designated or created shall be the sole agency for administration of the plan or for supervision of the administration of the plan; and provide that such agency or institution shall consult with any State advisory council required to be created by this section with respect to policy matters arising in the administration of such plan;
(2) set forth a comprehensive, coordinated, and statewide system of community service programs under which funds paid to the State (including funds paid to an institution pursuant to section 107 (c)) under its allotments under section 103 will be expended solely for community service programs which have been approved by the agency or institution administering the plan (except that if a comprehensive, coordinated, and statewide system of community service programs cannot be effectively carried out by reason of insufficient funds, the plan may set forth one or more proposals for community service programs in lieu of a comprehensive, coordinated, statewide system of such programs);
(3) set forth the policies and procedures to be followed in allocating Federal funds to institutions of higher education in the State, which policies and procedures shall insure that due consideration will be given
(A) to the relative capacity and willingness of particular institutions of higher education (whether public or private) to provide effective community service programs;
(B) to the availability of and need for community service programs among the population within the State; and
(C) to the results of periodic evaluations of the programs carried out under this title in the light of information regarding current and anticipated community problems in the State;
(4) set forth policies and procedures designed to assure that Federal funds made available under this title will be so used as not to supplant State or local funds, or funds of institutions of higher education, but to supplement and, to the extent practicable, to increase the amounts of such funds that would be the absence of such Federal funds be made available for community service programs;
(5) set forth such fiscal control and fund accounting procedures as may be necessary to assure proper disbursement of and accounting for Federal funds paid to the State (including such funds paid by the State or by the Commissioner to institutions of higher education) under this title; and
(6) provide for making such reports in such form and containing such information as the Commissioner may reasonably require to carry out his functions under this title, and for keeping such records and for affording such access thereto as the Commissioner may find necessary to assure the correctness and verification of such reports.
(b) The Commissioner shall approve any State plan and any modification thereof which complies with the provisions of subsection (a). (20 U.S.C. 1005) Enacted Nov. 8, 1965, P.L. 89-329, Title I, sec. 105, 79 Stat. 1220; amended Oct. 16, 1968, P.L. 90-575, Title II, sec. 202, Stat. 1036.
TITLE VI-FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE INSTRUCTION
STATE COMMISSIONS AND PLANS
SEC. 603. Any State desiring to participate in the program under this part shall designate for that purpose an existing State agency which is broadly representa