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but the dawning consciousness on the part of the citizens of a state that they form a community in every sphere of life. It is a democratic movement, impossible under absolutism. It represents that particular epoch in the history of mankind at which nearly all developmental lines center in the state. It is not the goal of development, but a step, a transition-point in the great process of human evolution. The accomplishment of its particular historic tasks removes it from the stage of history.Waldemar Mitscherlich, Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, XXXVI, No. 3. P. W.

Die phaseologische Methode in der Soziologie.-Since Comte the function of science has been stated to be foresight, but sociology has not yet made definite attempts to foresee, with the exception of Marx's historical materialism. A method by which such foresight might be acquired is the study of the transition of one stage of culture into another, with the object of determining the direction and the laws of evolution, and of projecting the line of evolution into the future. Such a method would systematize historical materials, would make it sociological and would be of value in determining future movements, not in a fatalistic way, but in such a way as to give information about desirable lines of activity.-F. Müller-Lyer, Vierteljahrschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie, Heft II, 1912. E. H. S.

Prejudice, Education, and Religion.-Prejudice means the inability or refusal to consider anything from more than one of several possible points of view. There are generic and racial prejudices, geographical, political, and economic ones, and personal prejudices. Each prejudice has at some time served a useful function. Harmful prejudice is located in deficiency or excess, in lack of mental and moral balance. It is the function of religion and education to rid us of our secondary prejudices and so to control the primary and more fundamental ones that no evil consequences will come of them.-Josiah Morse, Journal of Religious Psychology, July, 1912. S. A. Q.

La réalité sociale.-The social reality is the social bond, which is psychic in nature and is realized in the consciousness of the individuals, while at the same time it extends beyond that consciousness in content and duration. From the socio-sophic point of view it is the social mind, from the historical point of view it is civilization. Civilization is the sum of the values produced by man, and it is this sum of values which forms the social bonds and consequently the social reality.-W. M. Kozlowski, Revue philosophique, June, 1912. E. H. S.

La formation de l'élite dans la société moderne.-Since the industrial revolution societies have become exceeding complex and interdependent, and more real social qualities have been required. This concerted action has presupposed direction by a large, varied, and supple class, educated for the purpose of direction. This class has developed somewhat haphazardly in agriculture, industry, and commerce. It is necessary to know more definitely the functions of this élite, the qualities demanded of them, and the kind of training needed to produce these qualities. Some knowledge of this kind has been secured.-Paul de Rousiers, La science sociale, October, 1912, pp. 76. E. H. S.

Erkenntniskritik und Staatswissenschaft.-Historical thinking is subject to the general law of thought that keeps it under the influence of its time. The objectivity of the historical method is an illusion. Social science can never reach the unconditional certainty, the independent position above its object, which the mathematical sciences have. In the social world, however, we can understand causal relationships immediately, for their cause operates as purpose. Political science can attain to a one-to-one relationship with the life it aims to grasp intellectually, because it grows up out of that life; but the consequence and the very condition of its capacity to gain a full truth-content is the perishable character of the science in each of its historic manifestations. The thought that pretends to be the intellectual expression of a law of life must be subject to the same law of evolution which life itself obeys. There can be no generally valid science of state and law, but only historic ideas concerning them. Every attempt to comprehend historic life in a single formula or in a single law of economic development founders on the rocks of a multiform and refractory historic reality.-Georg Jaeger, Schmoller's Jahrbuch, XXXVI, No. 3. P. W.



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