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must be approached with systematic energy until there will hardly be a school in the United States but what will be regularly inspected. One difficulty has been that the local dentists often do not know just how to proceed. A method of handling inspection in the most approved style from start to finish, should be worked out, and instructions sent to the local district societies. Already we have the earnest co-operation of the school authorities, by all means let us not let this opportunity slip.
There is one line of public dental education that has not been worked out as yet, but which is very efficient; we refer to allied organizations assisting in lines of public health. Among these organizations may be mentioned, the United Charities, the anti Tuberculosis League, the various state and civic public health conventions, and other similar organizations. These societies thru their circulars, charts, and lectures render the profession considerable aid, and would be in a position to do so very much more, if we were in a position to cooperate with them. This committee should be in a position to provide charts, photograph and other equipment necessary in the promotion of this line of work.
In the matter of publicity given to us by our patients and friends, we have no criticism to offer. They are doing nobly in this work, and are our greatest asset.
There is one other means of public dental education that has arisen in the past two years, and partly thru the efforts of this committee; we refer to the standard of advertising as now being adopted by commercial houses with dental preparations for sale. Many manufacturers in their advertisements, now call attention to the fact that teeth should be examined twice a year. Up-to-date methods of brushing the teeth, and instruction in the care of the gums are also included. A short time ago a leading manufacturer carried a full page illustration on the back of a prominent ladies journal, showing a school room with children having a tooth brush drill. Such intelligent advertising is a very good thing. As a result of this advertisement there is not a hamlet in this country but what some women have had notice brought to them that the better schools now have dental instruction. It would be well for this committee to be prepared to assist any manufacturers with such advice as they may ask for. Recommendations exchanged both ways between manufacturers and this committee concerning publicity would result in advantages to all and prevent any controversy arising between the profession and the manufacturers.
The program of this committee as thus outlined is a large one, and three things are necessary to put it into operation; they are, time, energy and organization. Our work has been greatly hampered because we have had no official organ by which we could reach every individual dentist. We
hope that we shall soon have a worthy official journal, and a means of communication to all members as well as a publicity committee in local and state affairs. Your committee, if continued, should consist of five members, each of whom should have charge of one of the great divisions of this work. We advise that each state have a Public Dental Education Committee, and also each district society, to act in co-operation with this committee.
What we need is some good men on these committees, men that will work, and see that these things are accomplished. If such an organization can be effected, it will save the president of this society any worry as to whether the public are sufficiently educated. Instead of his worry will be, "Can we deliver the goods." In the near future, under such a system, it will mean to the public not merely having dental work done, but to have dental work done right, and at a commensurate fee.
C. B. WARNER,
ON MOTION, duly seconded, the Public Education Committee Report was referred to Committee on Reports of offi
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ORAL HYGIENE. The Chairman of the Oral Hygiene Committee begs to submit the following report:
First, a friendly criticism and suggestion is offered regarding the appointment of such a committee. No matter how competent the personnel of a committee may be, if they are separated by a thousand or fifteen hundred miles, they are badly handicapped in working out the various problems that may confront them especially for mouth hygiene.
Merely preaching the gospel of the tooth brush will not produce the results we, as a profession, hope to obtain. Your chairman believes that the work should be concentrated upon some definite effort or demonstration, the same as that which is done for research work. In order that such a demonstration may be carried out and the burden equally divided, the members of such a committee should be within a reasonable traveling distance of each other. In fact it would add to their efficiency if a majority of the committee were located in the same city. The time will come when the dental profession will accept some definite plan of action and then the committee can work to advantage from various parts of the country, but until that time comes a more effective work can be accomplished by concentrating the committee.
We have made an effort to advance mouth hygiene in four directions. First, by dental colleges.
Second, by asking the co-operation of the State Examining Boards to adopt an examination in prophylaxis. Third, by requesting the various state societies to feature their meetings with oral hygiene papers and clinics. Fourth, to produce a textbook that would outline a course for the education and training of Dental Hygienists.
Dr. W. H. G. Logan of Chicago reports that all but five dental colleges now have a course of lectures on oral hygiene. If the students graduating from the dental colleges can enter the profession with a knowledge of the importance of mouth hygiene and sufficiently trained to perform prophylactic treatments, it will be of great aid in the near future in spreading this important work.
Dr. Stanley L. Rich of Nashville, Tenn., reports that he has written to many of the state Boards and has received many encouraging letters. Practically all of the boards heard from are in favor of having examinations in prophylaxis and some of them have such examinations already in force. If the student in the college knew that it would be necessary to pass a theoretical as well as a practical examination on prophylaxis before he could secure a license to practise, a keen interest would be taken in the subject while in college.
Dr. C. A. Martin of Winfield, Kansas, reports the following regarding his efforts for mouth hygiene in dental societies in the West: Dr. Alfred C. Fones, Chairman,
My dear Doctor:
On February 2nd, I addrest a circular letter, a copy of which I forwarded to you at the time, to The Secretary of the State Society of every state west of the Mississippi, requesting them to feature their State Program with Prophylactic Clinics and Oral Hygiene papers and lectures. received favorable replies from the secretaries of Oklahoma, Missouri, Texas and Wyoming only. Texas is quite active in this field and thru the efforts of some of the members of the dental profession who are interested in this feature of the work, chapters on Oral Hygiene have been incorporated into the school textbooks. I regret very much to have to report that no greater enthusiasm was shown than would appear as the result of this letter. However, I feel that the seed has been sown from many sources and while results are not very apparent, I feel that the effort of the many men who are Oral Hygiene enthusiasts have not been in vain. Of course, as far as my own state is concerned, I feel that much has been accomplished along this line. Our meeting was featured with both papers and clinics, and we were especially fortunate in securing Dr. Gillette Hayden of Columbus, Ohio, who instilled a great deal of enthusiasm into the members of the society.
In conclusion I wish to make a few suggestions. After six or seven years of active interest in this work, I have reached the conclusion that the most practical solution for the present is the introduc
tion of the school nurse into the public schools. The nurse to be a general hygienist whose duty it will be to look after everything pertaining to the physical welfare of the child, make recommendations to school boards and parents and to make visits to the home, teaching general hygiene from every angle. I think it behooves the dentist to broaden out in his ideas on hygiene, and while he should always specialize in his particular field, yet he should make recommendations pertaining to the whole body.
The school clinic, school inspection, text books and teaching will have a very beneficial effect, but we will be following this endless chain several generations from now unless we acquire a knowledge that will enable us to make recommendations in this generation which in the course of two or three generations following, will permit nature to build a perfect dentition, as we know she will do when she is unhandicapped, each tooth typical in its form; its contact with fellow perfect and its occlusion normal. As artisans we are only a few steps from the ideal, so if we expect to advance we must advance to our ideal.
Dr. C. M. Gearhart of Washington, D. C., has made no report.
The reason that your chairman undertook to formulate a text book for the education of the Dental Hygienist can best be told by quoting the preface of this book which is to be published by Lea & Febiger of Philadelphia and will be ready in the early fall.
The Preface reads as follows:
Dentistry is in a position today where the subject of mouth hygiene must be solved in a practical manner. The medical profession is now beginning to realize that unsanitary mouths with diseased teeth are a very potent factor for ill health and systemic infection.
Altho many of the leading investigators and writers of the dental profession have repeatedly called attention to the mouth as a cause for systemic disease, the cry has not been heard by the mother profession until a comparatively recent period. Now that we know that this gateway to the body must be kept clean, the teeth sound and the gum tissue maintained in a healthy condition, the question arises how such an enormous work that is before our profession can be successfully accomplished. Surely the dentists alone cannot cope with it.
Judging from the condition of the mouths of the children in our public schools, fully ninety per cent of our population in this country has decayed teeth. If all of the dentists in the United States devoted all of their time to reparative work alone, they could not care for one-eighth of the people. But operative dentistry is expensive. It is beyond the means of the great working
class who need sound teeth and good health. There must be some cheaper and better solution than merely to follow the endless chain of repair. We must get at the source of this universal disease and try to check it by educational and preventive means.
The source is the children in our public schools. We know that with extreme cleanliness, the elimination of improper foods and with surface treatments of the teeth at regular intervals, fully ninety per cent of dental decay can be eliminated. this knowledge and service can be given to the children as well as to those who are patients in private practise who is to give it? Apparently the only solution seems to be the woman who has been educated and trained as a Dentist Hygienist.
This is woman's work and there is an immense field open for thousands of women in dental offices and public institutions. Such a course of education and instruction should be annexed to the training of the medical nurse as her services for mouth hygiene in the hospitals and sanitariums would soon prove to be invaluable. The statement has been made repeatedly, "Where are we going to secure such women, educated and trained as Dental Hygienists? Where are they to secure such an education? What should constitute such a course for lectures and practical training? Are there text books that they may study to comprehend and perfect themselves in this preventive work?"
The main object of this publication is to present a definite answer to these questions-"An educational Course for Dental Hygienists"-that will prove to be something definite and tangible at the start.
In the fall of 1913, the men whose names appear as lecturers, were approached and asked if they would aid in such a cause, if they would come to Bridgeport and deliver their lectures to a class of thirty women, the lectures to be taken down in shorthand, sent to them for correction and condensing so that the pith of the subject might be published in a text book for the education of these women assistants in prophylaxis.
Hardly without exception the men asked agreed to come and when we consider the list of names and what such a sacrifice of time and trouble meant to them, it shows that the milk of human kindness and the desire to help others is quite plentiful on the top. The lectures were held in the evenings on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and with the exception of a vacation Christmas time, ran from the seventeenth of November until the thirtieth of March. Of the fiftyone lectures delivered, but one man failed to keep one of his lecture dates and that was on account of illness. The time was needed for another lecturer who used it and at a later date two lectures were given in one evening.
The class assembled at seven-thirty and a review of the previous lectures was taken up by one
of the quizz-masters. At eight o'clock the lecturer of the evening stept on the platform and lectured until nine-thirty or until train time. Eleven written examinations were held, and out of the class of thirty-two all but six past above seventy per cent, nine passing above ninety.
The most we could hope for in such a course of lectures was to give the student a good reading knowledge and an intelligent grasp of the various subjects presented.
It is our earnest desire that educational institutions, such as dental colleges, will take up this work and establish a course of education and training for women as Dental Hygienists. We believe that the title, Dental Nurse, is a misnomer as these women are not to perform any service that resembles the work of a medical nurse. They are prophylactic operators and although they have a knowledge of dental diseases, their services are limited by law to the plus side of the health line. When the value of such a service as theirs is fully appreciated by the dental and medical professions, there will be a great demand for these practical workers for mouth hygiene, not only in private office but in public schools. It is our hope that this educational course will help to speed the day.
Aside from our obligation to the lecturers, quizz masters, a loyal office force and a number of kind friends who are influential in the dental profession and whose aid proved so valuable, we are also grateful to the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company for their display of generosity in loaning us sixteen new Diamond chairs for our course in practical training.
Raymond C. Osburn, Ph. D., Professor in Barnard College, Columbia University, New York City. Alexander M. Prince, M. D., Instructor in Medicine and Physiology, Medical Department of Yale University.
L. F. Rettger, Ph. D., Assistant Professor in Bacteriology, Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University.
R. H. W. Strang, M. D., D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn., Specialist in Orthodontia.
George M. McKee. Instructor in Dermatology, College of Physicians and surgeons, New York City.
Edward S. Kirk, Sc. D., D. D. S., Dean of Dental Department, University of Pennsylvania.
Eugene H. Smith, D. M. D., Dean of Dental Department, Harvard University.
M. L. Rhein, M. D., D. D. S., New York City, Lecturer on Pathology, Dental Department, University of Pennsylvania.
R. G. Hutchinson, Jr., D. D. S., New York City, Specialist in Treatment of Pyorrhea Alveolaris. R. Ottolengui, M. D. S., New York City, Editor of Items of Interest.
Chas. M. Turner, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of
Mechanical Dentistry and Metallurgy, Dental Department, University of Pennsylvania.
Leroy S. M. Miner, M. D., D. M. D., Assistant Professor in Surgery, Harvard Dental School.
Russell H. Chittenden, Ph. D., L. L. D., Sc. D., 'Director of Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University.
M. I. Schamberg, M. D., D. D. S., New York City, Specialist in Oral Surgery.
C. Ward Crampton, M. D., Hygienist and Director in Physical Training, Public School System, New York City.
Herman E. S. Chayes, D. D. S., New York City. Professor Irving Fisher of Yale University, Chairman of Committee of One Hundred on National Hygiene.
William G. Anderson, Dr. P. H., M. D., Professor and Director of Yale University Gymnasium. Thaddeus P. Hyatt, D. D. S., New York City. Miss Cordelia O'Neill, Cleveland, Ohio, Principal of Marion School.
Alfred C. Fones, D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn.
R. H. W. Strang, M. D., D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn.
T. A. Ganung, D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn. W. J. McLaughlin, D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn. A. C. Fones, D. D. S., Bridgeport, Conn. Secretary of Lecture and Practical Courses, Mrs. J. I. Newman, Bridgeport, Conn.
Stenographer for Lecture Course, George S. Hawley, Court Stenographer, Bridgeport, Conn.
Commencing the eighth of April, a seven weeks' course in practical training was held, the first three weeks of which being devoted to instruction and to practise on manikins, the next two weeks to work on children, over five hundred receiving treatment and instruction in mouth hygiene, and the last two weeks to work on adults, to the number of over two hundred. We feel that at the end of this practical course each of the stuudents who were graduated has an intelligent idea of dental prophylaxis, and considering the short time given to the practical course, many of them developed a high degree of skill in handling instruments and polishers.
To give the members of the National Association a more comprehensive idea of this educational work, a series of photographs are on exhibition at this meeting that will show the work accomplished in its successive stages.
It is not the intention of your chairman, at least for the present, to repeat this course in Bridgeport. The establishment of an educational and prophylactic dental clinic in the public schools of that city will occupy his time for the next year or two. We believe that there is great need of a book on Mouth Hygiene for the teachers and pupils in our public schools and it is the earnest desire of your Committee that the President ve empowered to appoint a committee of three to present such a book for the approval of the Co
mittee on Dental Education that may be used as a text book on Mouth Hygiene in our public schools thruout the United States.
W. H. G. LOGAN,
STANLEY L. RICH,
ALFRED C. FONES, Chairman.
June 15th, 1914.
ON MOTION, duly seconded, the Oral Hygiene Committee Report was referred to Committee on Reports of Officers.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTA-
Your Committee on Transportation and Place of Session, respectfully report that in February, 1914, they applied to all of the Railway Transportation Associations of United States and Canada, for a concession of the railway transportation rates for members at points in their respective territories, who wish to attend the National Dental Association meeting at Rochester, New York, July 6-10th, 1914.
None of the above Railway Associations would take action upon the matter until after April 15th,
All but one of the Associations finally reported to your Committee the action of their Board either favorably or unfavorably.
A number of the Associations granted a concession of two cents per mile. Other Associations advised your Transportation Committee that the summer excursion rate adopted by their Association, in some instances exceeded a reduction of more than two cents a mile and therefore recommended the employment of the general excursion tickets offered by their Association to Rochester, or to near-by, contiguous points.
Your Transportation Committee prepared a schedule, noting the concession in passenger railway rates and plan of excursion rates from the territories controlled by each of the railway associations, with suggestions, including all necessary information obtainable and presented copies to the dental journals of the states and Canada, with the request that they publish the same in their June number. These copies were forwarded to the journals early in May. It was intended that they be forwarded earlier. Some valuable information well to be added was finally obtained a little later and was forwarded. Also a copy of the schedule was forwarded to the Secretary of the National Association and published in the June number of the Association Bulletin, which was forwarded to all members of the Association.
Your Committee on Transportation and Place of Session submits the following report regarding the place of Meeting of the Association in 1915, and calls attention to the unanimous action of the Na
tional Dental Association at the Washington meeting of 1912, in accepting the invitation of the Committee of the Organization of the Panama Pacific Dental Congress to meet in conjunction with them at San Francisco, in 1915.
Again at the meeting of the National Assocíation at Kansas City, July, 1913, the plan of the National Association meeting at San Francisco, in 1915, was fully discust. The Congresses to assemble on August 30th, 1915, and continue in session ten days, not including Sunday. It is understood that the meeting is to be held in the new Million Dollar Auditorium.
VICTOR H. JACKSON, Chairman,
40 East 41st St., New York. H. F. HOFFMAN, Denver, Colo. L. P. DOTTERER, Charleston, S. C. T. SYDNEY SMITH, Palo-Alto, Cal. WM. W. BELCHER, Rochester, N. Y. Rochester, New York, July 6-10th, 1914. ON MOTION the report was adopted.
DR. BURKHART recommended that the President and Secretary formulate an order of business between now and the next session of the House of Delegates, and that the chairman of the different committees be notified to have their reports ready.
DR. FRANK L. PLATT, of San Francisco, California, spoke in behalf of Panama Pacific Dental Congress to be held in San Francisco, Cal., Aug. 30 to Sept. 9, 1915.
ON MOTION of Dr. Logan, which was duly seconded, it was voted that this meeting recess until 4:00 o'clock tomorrow, July 8, at Exposition Park, same building.
Third Session-Wednesday, 4:00 P. M., July 8
The third session of House of Delegates was held at Exposition Park July 8 at 4:00 P. M.
Dr. Brown, the president, called the meeting to order.
Roll call of delegates.
The President announced that he had received a telegram from Congressman Brumbaugh advising him that S. J. Resolution, authorizing the appointment of governmental delegates to Sixth International Dental Congress had passed the House. This information was enthusiastically received.
Discussion in relation to Sixth International Dental Congress at London.
VOTED that the gentlemen referred to, who are ethical practitioners of dentistry in the British provinces, be made associate members of this Association and that credentials, signed in blank, be taken by our representatives to London and awarded to them.
The President called on Chairman of Rules and Order Committee to report order of business.
COMMITTEE ON RULES AND OR DER OF BUSINESS: Reported that they had agreed that the Committee on Reports of Officers shall be heard first, followed by the Report of the Committee on Amendments, to be followed by the reports of other chairmen having reports to make.
(At this point the President called for either the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Vice President, but none of them being present, Dr. W. H. G. Logan was called to the chair while the President's address was under consideration.
Report on President's Address read by Dr. L. L. Barber.
(Report published in Official Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 4, Pages 133-135.)
VOTED that the report of Committee on President's Address be received and that such parts of the President's Address as are not referred to committees be discussed at this time.
Discussion on President's Address.
VOTED to adopt recommendation in regard to Miller Memorial.