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they crowded so thickly about the arc lights as to almost completely obscure them. I was not on the ground again for some little time, but was advised by the men that Monday night there was a very marked reduction in the number and that Wednesday night there was practically none at all. I had nothing except a bottle of chloroform with which to collect specimens, but by simply pouring this down one of the posts it was possible to secure plenty of specimens which were in excellent condition. CHARLES RUFUS HARTE, Construction Engineer.
A Rhododendron Borer (Corthylus punctatissimus Zimm.) This ambrosia beetle was found the latter part of September working in rhododendron stems. The borers entered the plants near or just a little below the surface of the ground and so thoroughly riddled the affected parts that the shoots wilted and were easily broken off. There were a series of closely set, circular, nearly horizontal galleries with numerous vertical brood chambers. These series were double or treble and were united by more or less vertical connecting galleries. The work of this borer was not found more than six inches above the ground and the galleries rarely extended more than two or three inches below the surface. We found no cases of root invasion though in some instances the insects worked close to the crown of the plant. This beetle seems a rather serious, though distinctly local pest in the vicinity of New York City. It can be controlled by cutting out and burning the affected stems. Care should be exercised not to break infested shoots since there is then danger of some of the beetles escaping destruction. The insect seems to display a marked preference for well shaded plants.
E. P. FELT.
THE 26TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS
The 26th annual meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists will be held in Atlanta, Ga., during the week beginning December 29, 1913, under the Presidency of Professor P. J. Parrott, of Geneva, N. Y. Arrangements will be made for holding sectional meetings of Horticultural inspection and Apiary inspection. During the week a program will be arranged so that closely related subjects will be grouped as much as possible.
During the same week the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America will be held, and it is anticipated that many papers of great interest to working entomologists will be presented for consideration and discussion. The program of the meeting of this Association will be issued in the December number of the Journal, and this preliminary announcement is being made, so that all members may be advised and can make plans to be present at this important meeting.
A. F. BURGESS, Secretary.
OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS
The editors will thankfully receive news items and other matter likely to be of interest to subscribers. Papers will be published, so far as possible, in the order of reception. All extended contributions, at least, should be in the hands of the editor the first of the month preceding publication. Contributors are requested to supply electrotypes for the larger illustrations so far as possible. The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged.-EDS.
The Ohio State University, in a recent issued circular, offers a comprehensive course in applied or economic entomology, extending through a period of four years, beginning with fundamental studies in zoology and making provision in later years for a study of various phases of applied entomology. This is a significant commentary upon the importance of practical work in this branch of science. The authorities of the University and the head of the department directly responsible for the venture, are to be congratulated upon taking this progressive step.
The international character of American work in economic entomology is becoming increasingly apparent with the progress of time. We were favored in 1911 by a visit from a noted German entomologist (a summary of his impressions is reviewed elsewhere in this issue), while this season a well-known French savant has been studying our methods. Students have begun to avail themselves of our special facilities for studying large-scale operations in practical entomology. This is a most sincere form of approbation and, while gratifying. should also prove stimulating. It is not sufficient to have attained the desired end. The leadership must be maintained and the latter may mean more strenuous efforts than the former.
Our friends from abroad have naturally had a better opportunity of seeing the strong, rather than the weak points in our system. Every American entomologist is cognizant of hampering conditions in some direction, occasionally in many. The demand for "immediate" or "practical" results is frequently insistent. There is often need of a better correlation between research and extension work, since one is apt to overbalance the other; the former may lose much of its effectiveness if there is too little of the latter, and vice versa. Inspection and quarantine service, desirable though they may be, absorb time. and strength in some instances at least, from relatively more important work. Then, if in addition, a considerable amount of time must be given to instruction, it is obvious that some line of productive effort
must be slighted. There is more or less undesirable duplication of work and overlapping of spheres of activity. These obstacles to the best progress are being gradually overcome, and for the most part it is gratifying to state that they are of minor importance, though noteworthy factors as competition becomes more keen.
Entomology, with Special Reference to its Biological and Economic Aspects, by J. W. FOLSOM. Second revised edition, pages 402, plates 4, text figures 304. Blakiston Sons & Co. 1913.
The new edition of this standard work has been reset and thoroughly revised. Much new matter has been incorporated here and there, the most important being a chapter on the transmission of diseases by insects. There are several new figures, others have been improved, and over 100 titles added to the well selected and extensive bibliography. The slightly larger pages and thinner paper have effected a desirable reduction in thickness and weight. The colored plate of the first edition is omitted in the revision, and the same is true of a chapter on origin of adaptations and species.
We have in this volume an admirable summary of the fundamentals of insect biology and ecology, with special reference to the economic applications. It is an invaluable supplement to our somewhat numerous taxonomic works. Familiarity with its contents is one of the best possible preparations for the economic entomologist, the man who is primarily concerned in ascertaining biological relationships. This edition, price $2.25, should be in the library of every working entomologist.
The Reduction of Domestic Flies, by EDWARD HALFORD Ross. pages, 18 illustrations; J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, and John Murray, London. 1913. Net, $1.50.
This volume is a companion to the author's "The Reduction of Domestic Mosquitoes" which appeared a year or more ago. It is written by an Englishman and from an English standpoint. The book contains twelve chapters with titles as follows: "The Importance of Domestic Flies; The Fly-Egg, the Larva, and the Chrysalis; The Life and Habits of Domestic Flies; The Fly's Enemies; How to Reduce Flies; The Beginning of the Anti-Fly Campaign; Early Fly Reduction; The Organized AntiFly Campaign; Opposition; The Justification of Expenditure of Money and Energy; The Life and Death of Worry the Fly; Sanitary Education, Flies, and the Coming Generation."
This book is not without faults, yet it has a mission, for many will see it in libraties and from it learn how to start a campaign against flies. The sooner that the people are interested and educated in insect sanitation, the better for human life and health. We should therefore welcome any intelligent discussion of the subject, though there is no better authority, or one whose advice is safer to follow, than our own Doctor L. O. Howard.
W. E. B.
A Laboratory Guide to the Study of Parasitology, by W. B. HERMS. The Macmillan Company, p. 1-72, 1913.
The teacher of biology will find much suggestive in this guide to the study of parasitology, using this term in a somewhat broad sense and with special reference to its economic bearings. The author has not hesitated to include one or two forms which may not prove to be pathogenic, since it is comparatively easy to omit lesson or two. Outlines are given for the study of various types of insects mouthparts and their bearing on the dissemination of disease elucidated. Representative types, such as the bird and true lice, bed bugs, cone-noses, mosquitoes, horse flies, house flies, stable flies, etc., are assigned to one or two periods of two and one-half to three hours. Parasiticides, amoeba, trypanosomes and malarial parasites are also provided for in the course, a total of about 40 lessons.
Part 2 is devoted to helminthology, the various types of worms being stu-led in much the same way, one lesson dealing with anthelminthics.
The provision for biological work in part 3 adds greatly to the value of the guide in our estimation since the students thus have an opportunity of seeing a portion of the processes in operation. The author has naturally selected for this easily obtained and handled forms such as the house fly, the mosquito and fles.
There is enough in each lesson to guide the student working under competent direction though comparatively little can be learned from the guide itself. The student is compelled to study the material or rely in large measure upon the instructor, our ideal in laboratory guides.
Biologien heimischer Schmetterlinge schädlich in Garten, Feld und Wald. By PAUL IHLE. Böhler u. Recke, Biebergasse 8, Frankfurt a. Main, Germany. Three Series. Marks 22.50.
This recent publication consists of a collection of thirty colored plates of the different stages in the life history of some of the more common insect pests of the ganiens, fields and forests of Europe, each plate accompanied by explanatory inscriptions. The coloring is excellent (the writer has compared the plates with specimens of the insects), and the drawing good.
Perhaps the work will be of most value in North America to those engaged in the inspection of imported nursery stock, as many of the insects figured are liable to reach this country on importations, and a study of the figures of the different stages should be of great assistance to inspectors, teaching them what to watch for. The low cost of the work (about $5.75) should bring it within the reach of all, and the importance of an acquaintance with the appearance in their different stages, of pests likely to reach this country at any time would seem self-evident. The writer is informed that it is not unlikely that additional series and descriptive text may be issued later if the demand should seem to justify it. G. E. Stechert & Co. of New York are handling the work.
H. T. F.
Die Angewandte Entomologie in den Vereinigten Staaten (Applied Entomology in the United States by K. ESCHERICH, pages 196, figures 61, Paul Parey, Berlin. 1913.
This work con' uns much familiar to Americans and is of interest because it records the impressions of a gifted European q 1alified by experience to pass expert judgment.
The journey was made possible through the generosity of Mr. Carnegie. The author's itinerary included Washington and most of the Federal Field Stations as well as a number of the more important (from an entomological standpoint) Agricultural Experiment Stations, Entomological Departments of Universities and offices of State Entomologists. The first part discusses organization and agencies, and the second gives a summary of control methods as practised in this country. The critical remarks upon the biological method of controlling insects are especially valuable and a translation of these by Dr. E. A. Schwarz, transmitted through the courtesy of Dr. Howard, follows:
"We have now learned [in the preceding chapters] of a variety of biologic warfares. The success of them was very diversified; excellent in some cases; in others less satisfactory, and, again, in others entirely negative. From this fact it is to be concluded: (1) It is not an Utopia [a dream] but an established fact that insect calamities can be successfully fought and terminated by artificial multiplication or importation of parasites; (2) but on the other hand we learn therefrom that the biologic method does not constitute an universal remedy.
"It is self evident that a warfare by means of parasites can only be successful where the devastation is due to a scarcity or absence of parasites. There is a whole series of insect eruptions which are caused by other factors: for instance, the multiplication of Scolytid beetles depends much less upon the diminution of the number of parasites and enemies than on the increase of food material. In this case it would be of no use to introduce Clerus formicarius and the various Ichneumonids if at the same time care had not been taken to remove the dying trees. Or, take the case of the Phylloxera which in the vineyards of Europe does such tremendous damage. It would be a useless attempt to counteract this pest with natural enemies. For it is not the absence of such enemies which renders the Phylloxera such a dreadful pest in Europe, but the real cause is the smaller power of resistance of the grape vines. Many similar instances could be given.
"But apart from sich cases where the biologic method necessarily appears to be excluded, there are still other cases where in spite of apparent possibility the biologic warfare is not employed and the mechanical warfare is preferred, namely in cases where we have to deal with a very short outbreak and where we have immediately to use remedies; or in cases where we have on hand cheap, easily applicable and sure, mechanically acting remedies. For we must not lose sight of the fact that parasites and enemies are also subject to all sorts of influences by which their efficacy is again lowered or delayed so that the degree of the efficiency [of the biologic method] can not be foretold with the same degree of certainty as with many technical methods.
"Finally there are cases where the biologic method is to be used only to assist the mechanical method. For instance, where the caterpillars are, by the lime rings, prevented from ascending the trees, the efficacy of this mechanical remedy can be essentially increased by the protection and introduction of parasites, etc.
"That the Americans are fully and correctly aware today of all these points, is made sufficiently clear from the foregoing report [i. e. in the body of the book]. To be sure, there was a time when too optimistic views were indulged in by some, and when the biologic warfare was considered as an almost universal remedy,—namely at the time when the importation of Novius cardinalis resulted in such a wonderful success. But those times are gone. At least the leading entomologists of America, with Howard in their lead, never think of fighting all pests with parasites; they are too well aware that this method is only adapted to certain specific cases. And further, they have also learned in the meantime that the introduction and acclimatization of parasites is not always such an easy matter as in the case of Norius