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boat strengthened by hog chains, and the Cram steam hammer and leads erected on it.

The steamer Doris was raised, after being sunk in September, and her hull repaired. After being sunk a second time, she was raised, her boilers and engine removed, and her machinery put in order to be used in a new hull.

The new plant purchased during the year consisted of a-Cram steam hammer, with engine, boiler, and leads; also mess utensils, carpenters' and machinists' tools, and rope for the tackle in hauling out the boats on the ways.

A telephone line was erected to connect the boat yard with Jefferson City, Mo. The following statement shows the expenditures made on account of care and repair of plant, moving plant, and new plant purchased.

Statement of expenditures on account of plant.

Moving plant to First Reach from Kansas City, St. Joseph,

and Bushberg:

Steamboat service.

Labor, handling plant material


$15, 311.55

Care of plant:

Watching, cutting ice and clearing out drift from boats,

and other labor..

Towboat service..

Supplies, oils, paints, etc

Constructing ways and tracks..

Erecting temporary buildings, fences, etc
Laying up fleet on ways....
Launching fleet..

Administration and miscellaneous expenses.

[blocks in formation]

New plant:

Cram steam hammer, boiler, engine, leads, and labor of erecting

Telephone line...

Tools, rope, oars, mess utensils, etc



7, 894. 13

6, 377.27

1,001. 67

1,219. 19

1, 332.81
1,663. 80

21, 564.87

21, 190.83

6, 616. 44

2, 324.91

30, 132. 18


2, 843.72

5, 628. 04

72, 636.64


In addition to the duties already described as having been performed by the survey party, the elevations and measurements required for dike construction were made by it; also special surveys of the lands situated on Dodds Island and between the mouth of the Osage River and Fergusons Landing.

The total cost of survey work, observations for discharge, cross-section work, and borings, including the computing of field notes, making maps and tracings, amounts to $9,199.

The gauges between Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and St. Charles, Mo., were inspected and tested by members of the survey party in July, August, September, October, December, and March.

In conducting the operations above described, I have been assisted in constructing improvement works by Assistants R. H. Bacot and A. H. Weber; on shore-line and hydrographic surveys by Assistant R. A. Crawford; and in making out pay rolls and accounts by Mr. Morris Rosenbach.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Lieut. Col. CHAS. R. SUTER,

Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.,

Division Engineer.

President Missouri River Commission.



1. Report of Board of Engineers on proposed bridge of city of Duluth, Minnesota, across canal at entrance of Duluth Harbor.

2. Report of Board of Engineers on proposed bridges of city of Portland, Oregon, across Willamette River at Burnside and Knight-Quimby streets.

Y Y 1.


[Printed in Senate Ex. Doc. No. 80, Fifty-second Congress, first session.]

Detroit, Mich., April 6, 1892.

GENERAL: By Special Orders No. 6, Headquarters, Corps of Engineers, February 1, 1892, a Board of Engineers was constituted to assemble at Detroit, Mich., upon the call of the senior member, "to examine and report upon the plans of a bridge over the entrance to Duluth Harbor, on Lake street, submitted by the board of public works of the city of Duluth, Minn."

Under date of February 1, 1892, the Board were instructed to give careful consideration to the subject, and to advertise for twenty days in two daily papers (six insertions in each paper) published in each of the cities of Buffalo, N. Y.; Cleveland, Ohio; Detroit, Mich.; Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis., the fact that a hearing will be had upon a proposed bridge over the canal at Duluth; the day of meeting of the Board to be announced in the advertisement.

Under date of February 29, 1892, the Board were further instructedThat it was not intended that the duties of the Board should be limited to the consideration of the plans submitted by the board of public works of the city of Duluth, Minn., alone, but that the Board should consider and report upon the advisability of permitting the construction of any bridge over the harbor entrance.

In obedience to the instructions first cited, the following advertisement was published as directed:


Duluth, Minn. Application has been made to the Secretary of War by the municipal authorities of the city of Duluth, Minn., for permission to bridge the canal at the entrance of the harbor at that place, and a public meeting to consider such arguments as may ⚫ be advanced for and against granting the permission sought will be held at the United States Engineer office, 34 West Congress street, Detroit, Mich., beginning at 10 a. m., March 21, 1892. All persons interested are invited to be present, and an opportunity will be given to all who desire to be heard. It is requested that arguments be reduced to writing and presented in duplicate, either in person or by mail. W. L. FISK. Captain, Corps of Engineers.

The Board assembled accordingly at the United States Engineer office, 34 West Congress street, Detroit, Mich., at 10 a. m., March 21, 1892, and devoted the remainder of that day and the whole of the two days next succeeding to a public hearing of all parties desiring to present their views upon the subject, at the same time encouraging such opposition to each speaker as would tend to elicit all the facts and theories relating to the case. Every endeavor was made, both by the advertisement and during the course of the public sessions of the Board, to secure a proper presentation of the arguments for and against the proposition to bridge the canal in question, and it is believed that this was accomplished to the satisfaction of all concerned, and that all desiring to do so had the fullest opportunity to be heard and to controvert opposing views.

The substance of the oral discussions, especially those presented by the persons favoring the bridge, was reduced to writing, and this, with all written briefs in the case, is transmitted with this report. It is to be regretted that the oral arguments made in the interest of those opposing the bridge were not stenographically reported, to the end that they might be referred to at any time.

The following is a summary of arguments submitted by those who favored the construction of the proposed bridge, viz:

The people of Duluth are interested to a greater degree than anybody else in having an unobstructed harbor entrance, and therefore do not desire to do anything which would be likely to injuriously affect it. The territory of Minnesota Point is imperatively necessary to the city for business purposes. Manufacturing, wharfage, and railroad terminal facilities thereon can only be utilized through a ready means of communication; and, for these, under present conditions, none but a bridge is practicable. An enormously valuable property is rendered useless through this lack of suitable communication with the mainland.

It is asserted that railroads desire to obtain terminal facilities at Duluth which the city can not give except on Minnesota Point, the inside face of which affords the best dock frontage in the harbor.

The land occupied by the canal belongs partly to the city and partly to individuals. The State of Minnesota has power to authorize the bridge over the canal, and has granted such authority to the city of Duluth. The city waives its rights, and submits to the authority of the United States in the premises.

A denial of the privilege would deprive the city of Duluth of 20 miles of the dock frontage.

Vessels, in getting to existing docks, are required to take a tortuous course up bay and river through two bridges, with others in prospect.

Shipping business is now scattered over too much territory.

The area of ground on the immediate city front now available for docks and railroad terminals is extremely small.

It is denied that politics or real estate speculation influences Duluth in this matter. It is denied that the bridge proposed would obstruct navigation.

The allegations of fact in the statement of Capt. McDougall are denied or explained. The shipments of wheat have amounted to $35,000,000 in one year.

Iron mines of fabulous extent and value are tributary to this port. The aggre

gate of moneyed interests requiring better docking and shipping facilities is over $700,000,000.

It is claimed that vessels entering the canal could be notified in ample time, in case anything prevented the operation of the proposed bridge.

In clear weather vessels could be sighted from the bridge when 20 miles distant, and fogs are not accompanied by wind.

Even in violent storms, they have never known vessels to have any considerable difficulty in passing through the canal.

The anchorage outside the canal is good, and would be available in case of trouble with the bridge; or vessels could make the harbor through the channel at the southern end of Minnesota Point.

Denied that there is plenty of room for docks, centrally located, elsewhere than on Minnesota Point.

Claimed that the combination of circumstances required to prevent a vessel passing through the canal after the construction of the bridge would be extraordinary, and thus far unheard of.

The city of Duluth will agree to erect this bridge after navigation closes, thoroughly test its operation before navigation again opens, and to remove it in case the slightest hindrance to its operation should appear.

Directly in front of Duluth, but cut off by the canal from all commercial intercourse, lies a suitable territory of sufficient area to accommodate a population of 100,000 people, having ideal conditions for establishing 20 miles or more of dock frontage. Duluth needs and must have a greater area of level territory, more dock room centrally located, more railroad terminal grounds. She can get it on Minnesota Point and nowhere else.

A tunnel under the canal would cost not less than $500,000, and would probably cost twice that sum or more. The proposed bridge could be built for $150,000; Duluth could raise the latter sum, but not the former.

A street railway is now established on Minnesota Point. It accommodates the regular residents, as well as campers and tourists. It has no connection with Duluth, and a connection should be established by the construction of a bridge.

It is cited that Chicago, with a population of 1,100,000, had 22,000 arrivals and clearances last year, as against 3,600 at Duluth with a population of 50,000; and yet Chicago was able to transact its business, notwithstanding the fact that its river is spanned by more than 20 bridges.

Owing to increase in size of vessels, the number of arrivals and departures will not increase in ratio with the tonnage.

It was admitted during the oral discussion that in a few years, say five, the traffic across the bridge might become so great as to make it impossible to accomodate it without unreasonably obstructing the canal. In that event, it was stated, Duluth would make a tunnel, but can not raise the money to do so now.

It was claimed that if Duluth were required to build a bridge so perfect as to be absolutely free from liability to derangement through human defects in design, construction, or operation, the city would be subjected to a rule which would stop all human progress. Further, that everything done by man is attended by more or less risk, and it would therefore be unfair to insist upon absolute perfection in a device for passing traffic across the canal.

It is submitted that in designing this bridge Duluth, regardless of cost, has invoked the resources of the ablest engineers to provide all the safeguards which human foresight can devise, and that it is neither just nor fair to demand more. She protests that her progress should not be stopped for lack of a surety that would be superhuman.

Duluth would be the last to place a serious obstruction across the entrance to her harbor. She only seeks a way, within her financial ability, to utilize her rightful territory.

Duluth imperatively needs Minnesota Point as terminal grounds for new railroads. Several are now seeking such facilities. They do not exist except upon the land in question. If they can not get them at Duluth they must go elsewhere.

It is denied that any serious difficulty exists in entering Duluth Harbor in any sort of weather. It is claimed that vessels can always haul up outside and either lay to, cast anchor, or enter south of Minnesota Point.

It is claimed that serious danger to shipping could be threatened only in case the machinery of the bridge should fail to operate at a time when one or more vessels were approaching during a severe northeasterly gale, and that the chance of such a conjunction occurring, according to the theory of probabilities, would be only 1 to 2,800,000.

Duluth will agree to keep the bridge open at night during stormy weather; also in the daytime during unusual northeast storms. And in case the increase of shipping should be so considerable as to render the bridge an unreasonable obstruction, they would keep it open altogether during the season of navigation, and only use it as a

bridge during the winter season, when there is no navigation. It was stated that the city would enter into bonds to guarantee these propositions. The city will also agree to adopt every practicable safeguard against accidents, including the best methods of signaling, and to remove the bridge immediately should it actually prove to be an unreasonable obstruction.

It is claimed that Duluth is the easiest port to enter in the world, no matter what the weather may be; and the record is cited to show that heretofore but trivial mishaps have occurred to vessels entering the harbor.

Opinions of well-known experts in bridge and elevator practice are submitted to the effect that beyond a reasonable doubt the proposed bridge could be operated without interruption.

The foregoing cover the principal points made by the advocates of the bridge project. In like manner the arguments of the opponents of the bridge may be briefed as follows:

It was asserted that, at present, there are only about 200 people on Minnesota Point, and that the land is not needed for dock frontage, there being a great abundance of room still unoccupied in Duluth and vicinity; that the scheme is advanced in the interest of speculators; that northeast storms, which usually occur late in the fall and are generally accompanied by snow, have a clear water sweep of 350 miles; that the lake shores converge so as to form a great funnel, the apex of which is the canal, up which the storms sweep with unobstructed force, creating very heavy seas at and through the canal, even to such extent as to sometimes prevent vessels from lying at the docks inside the harbor near the prolongation of the canal.

Several great storms and their severe effects are cited in detail, during which a breakwater and some vessels were wrecked. Actual experience of navigators is cited to prove the danger of this entrance in northeast gales. It is stated that during one storm the waves rolling through the canal made it impracticable to load vessels at the wharves of Duluth. It is further stated that waves in the canal were observed running as high as 12 feet above the canal piers and spreading out as far as 50 feet on each side, and the opinion is expressed that if they had encountered any obstruction on the banks of the canal the resulting spray would have been thrown to the height of 50 feet or more. In case of snow or freezing weather such obstructions would soon have been covered with ice.

It is asserted that currents of 6 or 7 miles per hour have been observed in the canal and their direction changed in half an hour.

A case is supposed of the east and west bound shipping being both caught in a severe gale and driven into Duluth Entrance coincident with a failure of the bridge machinery, and the disaster which would probably occur under these conditions is described.

Capt. McDougall asserts that in severe storms all vessels in the immediate vicinity must enter through the canal; that they can not enter south of Minnesota Point; that during the season of 1891 nearly 4,000,000 tons of freight passed through the canal, carried by more than 200 vessels, having an aggregate value exceeding $30,000,000.

It is claimed that under stress of weather vessels might get so close that they could not haul off in case of unlooked-for hindrance to the operation of a bridge; that Duluth is a difficult harbor to enter, and under certain conditions a very dangerous one.

It is stated that if the bridge traffic should be inconsiderable it would not be just to create an obstruction to accommodate it; while if it should prove to be considerable it could not be accommodated without blocking the canal traffic.

It is stated that Duluth can have easy and sufficient access to Minnesota Point (1) by a tunnel; (2) by a trestle bridge with a draw in it across the bay; (3) by means of a ferryboat. With these available, it is claimed to be unreasonable to insist upon reaching that territory by means of a dangerous obstruction at the very entrance to the harbor.

It is claimed that Duluth Harbor is difficult of entrance because, although narrow, a good speed must be maintained while passing through the canal. The difficulties increase with the size of the vessels, and these are rapidly increasing in size. That very large vessels can not be brought to a stop while passing the canal in strong easterly weather, and consequently the existence of any bridge over it would invite disaster.

It is predicted that this little canal is destined to become one of the world's great concentrating points of shipping; that this will result in a necessity for widening it considerably, and that the existence of a bridge over it would greatly retard, if not prevent, this work.

It is asserted that at the bottom of this great funnel at Duluth the storm effects are worse than at any other place on the lakes.

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