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ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974
Public Law 93-438, as Amended
AN ACT To reorganize and consolidate certain functions of the Federal Government in a new Energy Research and Development Administration and in a new Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to promote more efficient management of such functions.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Energy Reorganization Act of 1974".
[42 U.S.C. 5801 note]
DECLARATION OF PURPOSE
SEC. 2. (a) The Congress hereby declares that the general welfare and the common defense and security require effective action to develop, and increase the efficiency and reliability of use of, all energy sources to meet the needs of present and future generations, to increase the productivity of the national economy and strengthen its position in regard to international trade, to make the Nation self-sufficient in energy, to advance the goals of restoring, protecting, and enhancing environmental quality, and to assure public health and safety.
(b) The Congress finds that to best achieve these objectives, improve Government operations, and assure the coordinated and effective development of all energy sources, it is necessary to establish an Energy Research and Development Administration to bring together and direct Federal activities relating to research and development on the various sources of energy, to increase the efficiency and reliability in the use of energy, and to carry out the performance of other functions, including but not limited to the Atomic Energy Commission's military and production activities and its general basic research activities. In establishing an Energy Research and Development Administration to achieve these objectives, the Congress intends that all possible sources of energy be developed consistent with warranted priorities.
(c) The Congress finds that it is in the public interest that the licensing and related regulatory functions of the Atomic Energy Commission be separated from the performance of the other functions of the Commission, and that this separation be effected in an orderly manner, pursuant to this Act, assuring adequacy of technical and other resources necessary for the performance of each.
(d) The Congress declares that it is in the public interest and the policy of Congress that small business concerns be given a reasona
ble opportunity to participate, insofar as is possible, fairly and equitably in grants, contracts, purchases, and other Federal activities relating to research, development and demonstration of sources of energy efficiency, and utilization and conservation of energy. In carrying out this policy, to the extent practicable, the Administrator shall consult with the Administrator of the Small Business Administration.
(e) Determination of priorities which are warranted should be based on such considerations as power-related values of an energy source, preservation of material resources, reduction of pollutants, export market potential (including reduction of imports), among others. On such a basis, energy sources warranting priority might include, but not be limited to, the various methods or utilizing solar energy.
[42 U.S.C. 5801]
TITLE I-ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
SEC. 101. There is hereby established an independent executive agency to be known as the Energy Research and Development Administration (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the “Administration").
[42 U.S.C. 5811]
SEC. 102. (a) There shall be at the head of the Administration an Administrator of Energy Research and Development (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the "Administrator"), who shall be appointed from civilian life by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Administrator within two years after release from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an Armed Force. The Administration shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Administrator, who shall be responsible for the efficient and coordinated management of the Administration.
(b) There shall be in the Administration a Deputy Administrator, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
(c) The President shall appoint the Administrator and Deputy Administrator from among individuals who, by reason of their general background and experience are specially qualified to manage a full range of energy research and development programs.
(d) There shall be in the Administration six Assistant Administrators, one of whom shall be responsible for fossil energy, another for nuclear energy, another for environment and safety, another for conservation, another for solar, geothermal, and advanced energy systems, and another for national security. The Assistant Administrators shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The President shall appoint each Assistant Administrator from among individuals who, by reason of general background and experience, are specially quali
fied to manage the energy technology area assigned to such Assistant Administrator.
(e) There shall be in the Administration a General Counsel who shall be appointed by the Administrator and who shall serve at the pleasure of and be removable by the Administrator.
(f) There shall be in the Administration not more than eight additional officers appointed by the Administrator. The positions of such officers shall be considered career positions and be subject to subsection 161 d. of the Atomic Energy Act.
(g) The Division of Military Application transferred to and established in the Administration by section 104(d) of this Act shall be under the direction of a Director of Military Application, who shall be appointed by the Administrator and who shall serve at the pleasure of and be removable by the Administrator and shall be an active commissioned officer of the Armed Forces serving in general or flag officer rank or grade. The functions, qualifications, and compensation of the Director of Military Application shall be the same as those provided under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for the Assistant General Manager for Military Application.
(h) Officers appointed pursuant to this section shall perform such functions as the Administrator shall specify from time to time. The Administrator shall delegate to one such officer the special responsibility for international cooperation in all energy and related environmental research and development.
(i) The Deputy Administrator (or in the absence or disability of the Deputy Administrator, or in the event of a vacancy in the office of the Deputy Administrator, an Assistant Administrator, the General Counsel of such other official, determined according to such order as the Administrator shall prescribe) shall act for and perform the functions of the Administrator during any absence or disability of the Administrator or in the event of a vacancy in the office of the Administrator.
[42 U.S.C. 5812]
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR
SEC. 103. The responsibilities of the Administrator shall include, but not be limited to
(1) exercising central responsibility for policy planning, coordination, support, and management of research and development programs respecting all energy sources, including assessing the requirements for research and development in regard to various energy sources in relation to near-term and longrange needs, policy planning in regard to meeting those requirements, undertaking programs for the optimal development of the various forms of energy sources, managing such programs, and disseminating information resulting therefrom;
(2) encouraging and conducting research and development, including demonstration of commercial feasibility and practical applications of the extraction, conversion, storage, transmission, and utilization phases related to the development and use of energy from fossil, nuclear, solar, geothermal, and other energy sources;
(3) engaging in and supporting environmental, biomedical, physical, and safety research related to the development of energy sources and utilization technologies;
(4) taking into account the existence, progress, and results of other public and private research and development activities, including those activities of the Federal Energy Administration relating to the development of energy resources using currently available technology in promoting increased utilization of energy resources, relevant to the Administration's mission in formulating its own research and development programs;
(5) participating in and supporting cooperative research and development projects which may involve contributions by public or private persons or agencies, of financial or other resources to the performance of the work;
(6) developing, collecting, distributing, and making available for distribution, scientific and technical information concerning the manufacture or development of energy and its efficient extraction, conversion, transmission, and utilization;
(7) establishing, in accordance with the National Energy Extension Service Act, an Energy Extension Service to provide technical assistance, instruction, and practical demonstrations on energy conservation measures and alternative energy systems to individuals, businesses, and State and local government officials;
(8) creating and encouraging the development of general information to the public on all energy conservation technologies and energy sources as they become available for general use, and the Administrator, in conjunction with the Administrator of the Federal Energy Administration shall, to the extent practicable, disseminate such information through the use of mass communications;
(9) encouraging and conducting research and development in energy conservation, which shall be directed toward the goals of reducing total energy consumption to the maximum extent practicable, and toward maximum possible improvement in the efficiency of energy use. Development of new and improved conservation measures shall be conducted with the goal of the most expeditious possible application of these measures;
(10) encouraging and participating in international cooperation in energy and related environmental research and development;
(11) helping to assure an adequate supply of manpower for the accomplishment of energy research and development programs, by sponsoring and assisting in education and training activities in institutions of higher education, vocational schools, and other institutions, and by assuring the collection, analysis, and dissemination of necessary manpower supply and demand data;
(12) encouraging and conducting research and development in clean and renewable energy sources.
[42 U.S.C. 5813]
ABOLITION AND TRANSFERS
SEC. 104. (a) The Atomic Energy Commission is hereby abolished. Sections 21 and 22 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2031 and 2032) are repealed.
(b) All other functions of the Commission, the Chairman and members of the Commission, and the officers and components of the Commission are hereby transferred or allowed to lapse pursuant to the provisions of this Act.
(c) There are hereby transferred to and vested in the Administrator all functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Chairman and members of the Commission, and the officers and components of the Commission, except as otherwise provided in this Act.
(d) The General Advisory Committee established pursuant to section 26 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2036), the Patent Compensation Board established pursuant to section 157 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2187), and the Divisions of Military Application and Naval Reactors established pursuant to section 25, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2035), are transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration and the functions of the Commission with respect thereto, and with respect to relations with the Military Liaison Committee established by section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2037), are transferred to the Administrator.
(e) There are hereby transferred to and vested in the Administrator such functions of the Secretary of the Interior, the Department of the Interior, and officers and components of such department(1) as relate to or are utilized by the Office of Coal Research established pursuant to the Act of July 1, 1960 (74 Stat. 336; 30 U.S.C. 661-668);
(2) as relate to or are utilized in connection with fossil fuel energy research and development programs and related activities conducted by the Bureau of Mines "energy centers" and synthane plant to provide greater efficiency in the extraction, processing, and utilization of energy resources for the purpose of conserving those resources, developing alternative energy resources, such as oil and gas secondary and tertiary recovery, oil shale and synthetic fuels, improving methods of managing energy-related wastes and pollutants, and providing technical guidance needed to establish and administer national energy policies; and
(3) as relate to or are utilized for underground electric power transmission research.
The Administrator shall conduct a study of the potential energy applications of helium and, within six months from the date of the enactment of this Act, report to the President and Congress his recommendations concerning the management of the Federal helium programs, as they relate to energy.
(f) There are hereby transferred to and vested in the Administrator such functions of the National Science Foundation as relate to or are utilized in connection with
(1) solar heating and cooling development; and