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11. First se)

*Adverse effocts of clito change" means changes in the physical environment or biota rosulting from climate change, which have significant deleterious offects on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operations of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare.

("As forestation" means forost stands established (artificially) con land which proviously did not carry forest.)]

*Clinto change" means a change of climate which is attributed directly
or indirectly to human activity that altors the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate
variability observed over comparable time periodo.

*ciwt. systa" means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphore, Including cryosphere, oceans and all seas, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.

! "Daforestation" means change of land use or depletion of crown cover to los. than 101.)

"Sissions" means the roloase of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere lover a specified aro and period of time. )

("Porost" means an ecological system with a minimum of 101 crown cover of tries and/or bamboos, generally associated with wild flora, fauna, and natural soil conditions, and not subject to agricultural practices.)

("Porust" means an ecological system in which biomass predominates, associated with wild flora, fauna and natural soil conditions, and not subject to seasonal cropping practicos).

("Porust degradation' means changes within the forest class which
negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower the
production capacity).

1/ "Orvaahouse gases" means those gaseous constituents of the
atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and co-emit
intrued radiation, (excluding gases already controlled by other

"Hot missions" means the difference between the amount of a greenhouse
ga roleused to and the amount removed from the atmosphere by all
sources and all sinks, coupectively, us croatod or modified by
anthropogenic activities, taken over • gpecified aru, and period of
time, as calculated by agreed criteria.

("Xot fuission." means incrouse in the cumulative atmospheric
concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from anthropogenic
activity, depending on the size of the increase in concentration of such
greenhouse gas, the radiative property of the gas involved, the length
of time the gas is likely to remain in the atmosphere and the
concentration of greenhouse gases already present in the atmosphoro,
calculated by determining thois sources and mechanism. for thoir
evontual removal from the atmosphere (their man made and natural sinks
on a global scalo)).
1 "Precursors“ moins guses which react chemically in the atmosphere to
produce greenhouse gases or which affect the lifetime of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.

("loforestation" means the wstablishment of forest stands (artificially! on land which curried forest within the previous 50 (100) yours (or within living memory and involving the coplacement of the previous crop by i now and essentially differont crop. 1]

"Renewabl. a.rgt" moens energy derived from the harnessing of active natural energy flows such as solar, wind, hydrological, biomass, wave and tidal action and ocean thermal energy conversion.

*Reservoir" means i storage medium for greenhouse gases.

*Slak" means any process or activity which contributes to the removal of
u greenhouse gas or the procursor of a greenhouse gas from the

('slabo voans i mechanica, natural or man-made, for the removal of
greenhorn gesos and aerosols from the atmosphere).

1/ The drafting group notes that the term "greenhouse gases" is used in some places in the convention to mean "greenhouse gasos only and at other places to moun "greenhouse gases and their precursori*. from the point of view of drifting, the group coconnonds that the terms 'groenhouse gases" and "precursors" should be defined in Article 1 u proposed above and that the convention should use the expressions "greenhouse gases" and "greenhouse gase. and their precursors" as necessary throughout the text.


* Source means any process or activity which releases (or contributes to the release of) greenhouse gas or o precursor of a greenhouse gas to the atmosphoro.


Second set) "Regional economic integration organisation" means an organization constituted by sovereign status of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this convention or its protocols and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its intornal procedures, to sign, ratify, accopt, approve or accede to the instruments concerned.)



Two additional items were introduced in Working Group 11 for inclusion in the list of definitions: "aerosols" and "cliaring house".


IPCC will be asked to connent on the list of proposed definitions before the next session.

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1. The right to development is an inalienable human right.

All peoples have an equal right in matters relating to consonable living standardı. Economic development is the prerequisito for adopting noisurus to address clloato change. The net omissions of doveloping countries must grow to meet their social and economic development needs.


All States have a duty to ala at sustainable development for the benefit of prosent and future generations. Protection of the global cllmate against human induced change should proceed in an integrated manner with economic development in the light of the specific conditions of each country. ll without prejudice to the socio-economic development of developing countries). Measurus to guard against man-made climate change should be integrated into all relevant national development programme (taking into account that (ovolving! environmental standard.) valid for developed countries may have inappropriate and unwarranted social and economic coit, in particular in developing countries (and countries with economies in transition)].

13. All Status have an obligation to protect the Igloball climate system for the benefit of prosent and futur. gonočution of humankind on the basis of (intergenerational as well as intragenerational, equity, and in accordance with (their)//developed and developing countriell common but differentiated responsibilities and capabilities (with a view to achieving convergence at a common per capita lovels and taking fully into account that the largest part of emissions of greenhouse gasos has been originating from developed countries (and those countries have the main responsibility) (and should take the lead) in combating climate change and the adverse consequences thereot.)

The Parties shall give full consideration to the specific noods and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse consequences of climate change and also those developing countries which wou'd have to beu a disproportionat, or abnormal burden under the Convention. )

5. (Rocognizing the need for) Parties to (the Convention shall) take (costeffectivel precautionary measuros to anticipate le provent, attack) or minimize the causes of, and mitigate the adverso consequences of, cllmat. change. (Where ther. uro throati of serious or irreversible damage, 1 lack of full scientific certainty should not be used u a cuison for postponing such modsur...

6. Stateo full promote an open and balanced multilateral trading system. &xcept on endasii of a decision by the Conference of the parties which should be consistent with the GATT, no country or group of countries shall introduco berriers to trade on the basis of clolai rolated to climate change.

7. Measures taken to combat climate change should not introduce trade distortions inconsistent with the GATT or hinder the promotion of an open and multilateral trading systea.

18. Those (developed) countries (identified ul lidirectly responsible for causing damage to the environment through inducing climate chango]/[which are


mainly responsible for missions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphore) should bear the responsibility for rectifying that damage 1. (By openly demonstrating their direct responsibility or negligence, those countries)/(and) shall compensate for environmental damage suffered by other countries or individuals in other countries).)

19. cllmato policies should be cost-effective to ensure global benefits at lowest possible costs. To achieve this, cllmato policies should be comprohonsive, include all relevant sources and sinko of greenhouse gases, comprise all economic sectors, (include both ilmitation and adaptation nousuros) and may be implemented in cooperation with other parties.)

10. In all fields related to the protection of the climato system, the Parties shall respect and act in accordance with the principle of sovereignty of States, which is applicable in any eru of intornational cooperation.

11. The need to improve the international economic environment for the developing countries and to promote thoir sustained economic development are prerequisites for enabling developing countries to participato effectively in the international efforts to protect the global environment including climate protection. )


The ultimate objective of the Convention and any related legal instruments that might be agreed upon is to achieve, in accordance with the Principles set out in the above Articles, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a lovel which would provent dangerous anthropogenic intortoronce with clinato. Such a lovol should be reached within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to cllmato change, to ensure that food production is not throatened and to permit economic activity to dovolop in a suitainable and environmentally sound manner.

(The anthropogenic emissions of (alll greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, from states should converge'ać o common per capita level, taking into account not (carbon]/[groonhouse gas componont) caissions during this contury as well us the development needs of developing countries. Il

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