Page images
[ocr errors]

"True detente, says Admiral Moorer, "requires a reduction in the underlying political and economic sources of conflict, and an atmosphere free of force and the threat of force. Until these fundamental changes have taken place, we must continue to maintain sufficient military power to ensure that we can negotiate by choice, and not from coercion. The notable developments of the last year could not have occurred without the credible military power of the United States. . .

[ocr errors]

The President of the United States sums up his outlook on our developing relations with the Soviet Union in his report to the Congress on Foreign Policy for the 1970's in these words.

"We are now in a new period, but we have only witnessed its initial phase. It is only realistic to recognize that there have been periods of relaxed tensions before, and earlier hopes for a permanent end to the hostilities of the Cold War. Present trends of course can be reversed; new factors will appear; attitudes can shift. This may be particularly true in a period of transition.

"In the past, changes in our relations with the Soviet Union proved episodic, in part because they reflected tactical motives or were limited to changes in climate rather than substance. What we created at the summit last year is more durable. It rests on solid, specific achievements that engage the interests of both sides. But it will take patience, hard work, and perseverance to translate our broad understandings into concrete results. If we can do this, the United States and the Soviet Union can move from coexistence to broad cooperation and make an unparalleled contribution to world peace.

Reading List

1. Dallin, Alexander. Soviet Politics Since Khrushchev. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

2. Jukes, Goeffrey. Indian Ocean in Soviet Naval Policy. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1972.

3. Koutaissos, Elizabeth. The Soviet Union: The Land and Its People. 3d ed. New York: Wiley, 1967.

4. Medvedev, Roy Aleksandrovich. Let History Judge. New York: Knopf, 1971.

5. Polmar, Norman. Soviet Naval Power.

New York: National

National Strategy Information Center, 1972.

6. Reddaway, Peter. Uncensored Russia. New York: American Heritage Press, 1972.

7. The Sino-Soviet Dispute. New York: Scribners Sons, 1969.

8. Sokolovsky, V. D. Marshall. Military Strategy. Moscow, 1968.

9. Steibel, Gerald Lee. How Can We Negotiate With the Communists! New York: National Strategy Information Center, 1972.

10. Talbot, Strobe, ed. Khrushchev Remembers. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1970.


The United States space program benefits man in many ways: through new knowledge, improved weather forecasting, better global communications and new products, processes, and techniques applicable to industry, medicine and education; among others.

NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, supervises the efforts that have, so far, placed America's astronauts "out of this world. Its principal facilities are described


[ocr errors]

NASA Headquarters, Washington, D. C. formulates policy and coordinates the activities of the space flight centers, research centers, and other installations which comprise the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California is concerned with laboratory and flight research in space missions and in aeronautics. The fields of space interest include atmosphere entry research, fundamental physics, materials, guidance and control, chemistry and life sciences. Ames aeronautical research includes the areas of supersonic flight, V/STOL aircraft and operational problems. The space flight projects involve management of scientific probes and satellites, and payloads for flight experiments.

Flight Research Center, Edwards, California is concerned with manned flight within and outside the atmosphere, including low-speed, supersonic, hypersonic and reentry flight, and aircraft operations and safety problems. Space vehicle programs are typified by studies such as flight behavior of lifting bodies. In biotechnology, man-machine integration problems are studied.

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, named for the rocket pioneer, Dr. Robert H. Goddard, is responsible for the development and management of a broad variety of unmanned Earth-orbiting satellite and sounding rockets projects. Among its major projects are Orbiting Observatories, Explorers, Nimbus,

and Earth Resources Technology Satellites. Goddard is also the nerve center for the worldwide tracking and communications network for both manned and unmanned satellites.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California is a research, development, and flight center operated for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration by the California Institute of Technology. The Laboratory's primary role is the investigation of the planets using automated scientific spacecraft. Jet Propulsion Laboratory is also responsible to NASA for supporting research and advanced development related to flight projects and the design and operation of the Deep Space Network, which tracks, communicates with, and commands spacecraft on lunar, interplanetary, and planetary missions.

John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, the Nation's first spaceport, makes preflight tests, prepares, and launches manned and unmanned space vehicles for NASA. Manned Apollo missions, unmanned planetary, and interplanetary missions, and scientific meteorological, and communications satellites are launched by Kennedy Space Center. Some launches are from the Pacific Coast; these are conducted by the KSC Western Test Range Operations Division at Lompoc, California.

Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia is the oldest of the NASA Centers. Langley has the task of providing technology for manned and unmanned exploration of space and for improvement and extension of performance, utility and safety of aircraft. The major technical areas of Langley are theoretical and experimental dynamics of flight through the entire speed range, flight mechanics, materials and structures, space mechanics, instrumentation, solid rocket technology, and advanced hypersonic engine research. The Center conceives, develops and operates simulators for aircraft and for lunar landing projects, and conducts V/STOL flight research. The Center is charged with overall project management for Viking, the proposed flight to Mars.

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, has as its major missions aircraft and rocket propulsion and space power generation. Other fields of investigation are materials and metallurgy, problems concerned with the use of extremely high and low temperature

materials. The Center is active in combustion and direct energy conversion; chemical, nuclear and electric rocket propulsion systems; advanced turbojet power plants; fuels and lubricants; and plasmas and magnetohydrodynamics.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas has the responsibility for the design, development, and testing of manned spacecraft and associated systems; the selection and training of astronauts; and operation of manned space flights. Mission control for manned space flights is at this space center.

George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. Launch vehicles essential to Apollo and other major missions are designed and developed by the scientists and engineers of the Center, and it is concerned with launch vehicles of the Saturn class, as well as payloads, related research and studies of advanced space transportation systems. It manages the Skylab project.

Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Jackass Flats, Nevada, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, is managed by the Space Nuclear Systems Office, a joint operation of NASA and the Atomic Energy Commission. It contains the test stands and equipment for develop ment of reactor technology and the nuclear rocket. The Station is the scene of many tests of reactors and experimental rocket engines.

Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Virginia, located on

Virginia's eastern shore, is one of the oldest and busiest ranges in the world. Some 300 experiments are sent aloft each year on vehicles which vary in size from small meteorological rockets to the four-stage Scout with orbital capability. The launches increase knowledge of the upper atmosphere and the space environment. A sizeable portion of Wallops' effort is devoted to aeronautical research and development and in exporting this Nation's space technology to the international community. Wallops' geographical location makes it a valuable center for aircraft sensing of the Earth's environment.

« PreviousContinue »