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Die Struktur des französischen Geistes.—There are always certain tendencies common to the people of a given nation in their activities in the most different fields of culture. The reactions of the French people have been determined by arbitrary, uniform, and stereotyped norms, which lack adaptation to local conditions. This national characteristic is evident in the symmetrical division of the territory, uniform governmental organization, uniform work-day for all industries, centralized executive power, analytical and ideological type of thinking, development of utopian socialism, and of the Esperanto language, straight lines and symmetry in gardens, etc.—Ernst Bernhard, Logos, Heft 1, 1912.

E. H. S. Modern Social Changes and Legislation as They Affect the Medical Profession.-In the past the relationship between the doctor and his patient was always direct, with the object of restoration of the patient to health and of guidance for the future. Modern social and legislative changes have interfered with this personal and direct relationship and introduced other purposes to the harm of both patient and doctor. The most important of these changes are the friendly societies, workmen's compensation, midwives act, and the national insurance act.-E. N. Nason, British Medical Journal, July 13, 1912.

E. H. S. Sanity and Insanity.—The great increase of insanity in London is more apparent than real and is due to (a) raising the standards of sanity, (b) the declining death-rate of registered lunatics, (c) the fact that asylums are being substituted for infirmaries for aged persons because of the better care given in asylums. The first step in prevention is the study of causes of insanity; this study has so far revealed neuropathic heredity as the most important result. Statistics from the London County Asylum show that there is a diminishing risk of the child of an insane parent becoming insane after he has reached the age of twenty-five. When the first attack of insanity occurs in the parent, the children for the most part have all been born; sterilization would therefore be applicable to relatively few parents admitted to hospitals; those offspring of insane parents who are afflicted with adolescent insanity would be disqualified for propagation by marriage by their incurable mental affection in a large number of instances; for them also sterilization would not be generally applicable. From a eugenic point of view the higher-grade imbeciles and moral defectives are the dangerous cases.-F. W. Mott, Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute, July, 1912.

Changes in the Conception and Treatment of Insanity during the Past Twenty-eight Years.-The early confusion in regard to the nature of insanity was first resolved by the pathologists who aimed to establish a pathological basis for the different forms of insanity; this was supplemented later by the work of the clinical school, which attempted to differentiate the forms of insanity by careful study of symptoms. In the latest period, associated with the names of Freud and Jung, pathology is no longer tolerated; insanity is explained psychologically, as the dissociation of the ego. Though there has been progress in our knowledge of insanity, there has been little progress in our treatment of it; state regulation of marriage, sterilization of the unfit, and psychotherapy are proposed as prophylaxis, but they are of doubtful value because they fail to recognize that we cannot make progress without that condition of the brain which makes for insanity.-John Turner, British Medical Journal, July 13, 1912.

E. H. S. The Regulation of Midwifery.-In regulating midwifery the following problems must be met: the inadequate obstetrical education in medical schools, the dirty and untrained midwives, and the ignorance and prejudice of the immigrant population. There should be a uniform standard of medical education for all persons who take the responsibility of obstetrical cases. There should not be one standard of obstetrics for the poor and ignorant and another for the intelligent and well to do.J. L. Huntington, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, July 18, 1912. E. H. S.

Competition, Natural and Industrial.—The doctrine of the survival of the fittest has no bearing upon the permanence of competition in industrial society or the desirability of its maintenance as a method of human progress. While competition might long remain in socialized industry, it is not a necessary factor. Its necessity will decline with the increase of intelligence and public spirit. Full and voluntary cooperation is the ideal.-Ira Woods Howerth, The International Journal of Ethics, July, 1912.

J. E. E.



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