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own interest, that of his country, that of the country where his speculation is laid, and finally, what may well give a spur to his philanthropy, that of the world in general. It is needless to particularise the effects which a well-authenticated knowledge of

Chilian enthusiasm in the cause of Independence, and of the firm establishment of Constitutional liberty amongst that people, will necessarily produce in the minds of our statesmen, and eventually in their conduct.

Peru, it seems, was the strong hold of Spanish despotism; yet even here the principles of civil liberty had taken such deep and wide root, that the natives only wanted the countenance of San Martin's army to raise the flag of Independence in 1821. Our author visited this kingdom about the time of the Chilian expedition under the abovenamed general; and gives a lively description of the state of the country at that time. The following passages, if any thing were wanting to decide the question between Spanish colonial slavery, and emancipation, would be found, we think, conclusive ;

The contrast between the two countries, Chili and Peru, as it met our eyes, was most striking; and if due justice could be done to the description of each, a pleasing inference would be drawn by every Englishman in favour of the popular side of the question.

The contrast between a country in a state of war, and one in a state of peace, was, perhaps, never more strikingly displayed than upon this occasion: but, besides the interest arising out of such contrast, as applicable to the states of peace and war; the view was curious and instructive, as displaying the rapid effect produced by a change in the government of one of the two countries. As long as both were similarly administered, Peru had an infinite advantage over Chili in wealth and importance; but as soon as Chili became independent, she at once assumed the superiority.

We left Valparaiso harbour filled with shipping; its custom-house wharfs piled high with goods, too numerous and bulky for the old warehouses; the road between the port and the capital was always crowded with convoys of mules, loaded with every kind of foreign manufacture; while numerous ships were busy taking in cargoes of the wines, corn, and other articles, the growth of the country; and large sums of treasure were daily embarked for Eu

rope, in return for goods already distributed over the interior. A spirit of intel ligence and inquiry animated the whole society; schools were multiplied in every town; libraries established, and every encouragement given to literature and the arts: and as travelling was free, passports were unnecessary. In the manners, and even in the step of every man, might be traced the air of conscious freedom and independence. In dress also a total change had very recently taken place, and from the same causes. The former uncouth, and almost savage costume of the ladies, and the slovenly cloaks invariably worn by the men, had given way to the fashions of Europe: and, although these may be mention, they are not unimportant when deemed circumstances almost too minute to connected with feelings of national pride, heretofore unknown. It is by these, and a multitude of other small changes, that the people are constantly reminded of their past compared with their present situation; and it is of essential use to their cause, that they should take delight in assimilating themselves, even in trifles, with other independent nations of the world.

No such changes, and no such sentiments, were to be found as yet in Peru. In the harbour of Callao, the shipping were crowded into a corner, encircled by gun-boats, close under the fort, and with a strong boom drawn round them. The locked; no bales of goods rose in pyracustom-house was empty, and the door vered the road from Callao to Lima; nor mids on the quays; no loaded mules coduring the whole ascent was an individual to be seen, except, perhaps, a solitary express galloping towards the fortress.

(Vol. i. p. 86-89.) the 17th of December 1821. We arrived on the 9th, and sailed on In the interval of four months, which had elapsed since we left Peru, the most remarkable affairs. The flag of Spain had been struck change had taken place in the aspect of on the Castle of Callao; and in its place was displayed the standard of Independ ence; the harbour, which we had left blockaded by an enemy, was now open and free to all the world; and, instead of con

taining merely a few dismantled ships of war, and half a dozen empty merchant vessels, was crowded with ships unloading rich cargoes; while the bay, to the disvered with others waiting for room to land tance of a mile from the harbour, was cotheir merchandise. On shore all was bustle and activity. (Vol. ii. p. 63, 64,)

The change above described as produced in the space of a few months, from no trade to a flourishing one, annihilates, we conceive, at once, all claims of Old Spain to her

former right of mis-government; and indicates pretty plainly, moreover, that such claims will always be successfully resisted, now that the inhabitants are made practically aware of the loss in comfort and happiness they should sustain, if they ever again submitted to the ancient despotism.

In Mexico, the Revolution was perhaps more bloodless than in any other department of the colonies; to the unanimity and sincerity of the inhabitants on the subject of their Independence, our author bears decided testimony,-decided, but not dogmatic, in as much as he quotes the arguments on which his testimony is founded:

It has sometimes been thought in other countries, that many of the South Americans were indifferent to the independence of their country, and that a great European force, by encouraging and protecting the expression of contrary opinions, might, ere long, succeed in re-establishing the ancient authority. This, I am thoroughly convinced, a mistake, and he who should reason by analogy from the fate of Spain to that of South America, if exposed to the same trial, would confound two things essentially dissimilar: if he were to suppose that the cry of "Viva la Independencia" in the one, and "Viva la Constitucion" in the other, were indicative of an equal degree of sincerity and of right apprehension of the subject, he would be essentially in error; for there is this important distinction: the greater number of those who called out for the constitution knew

very imperfectly what they were asking for; whereas, every individual in the new states, however ignorant of the true nature and extent of civil liberty, or however indifferent about other political matters, is strongly possessed of the same clear, consistent, and steady conception of what independence means; and well knows its important practical consequences. It is because these sentiments are universal, and receive every hour more and more strength and confirmation, that I venture to speak so decided ly of the utter impossibility of again reducing to political and moral thraldom so vast a population; every member of which is at length fully awakened to a sense of his own

interest and honour.

In all companies, the conversation turned on political topics; and it was very curious to observe, amidst much prejudice and error in reasoning, and much exagge ration and misstatement of facts, how justly every one felt on the occasion, and with what delight they exercised the new privilege of speaking out; a privilege, it may

be remarked, which is at once cause and effect: since we know, that in former times, when no freedom of speech was permitted, the faculty of thinking to any purpose was equally repressed; a truth which, though a mere common-place, it is not, on that account, the less interesting to see confirmed in practice. At this time every one not only took a pride in saying what his opinions were, but seized every opportu nity that occurred, or could be devised, to manifest his political sincerity. The borders of the ladies' shawls were wrought into patriotic mottos; the tops of the newspapers and play-bills bore similar inscriptions; patriotic words were set to all the old national airs; and I saw a child one day munching a piece of gilt gingerbread, stamped with the word Independencia! Í am well aware that all this fuss and talk proves not much; and that nothing is more prostituted than this sort of verbal enthusiasm, which evaporates at the first show of opposition; and certainly, taken singly, it would be of little moment in a political point of view, however amusing it might be to witness on a great scale: but it is no bad accompaniment to successful action, and helps to keep alive that newborn spirit of independence, when other, and more important causes are ready to give practical effect to the sentiment.

Patriotic exertions are always thought more highly of when viewed from a distance, than when examined closely. But, even in the eyes of those who are present, the interest which a show of patriotism excites is often at first of a very lively character. This dazzling effect, however, speedily goes off: the real characters and motives of the actors become so well known to us, that the fictitious representation of pure disinterested public spirit no longer pleases; and at last we see nothing in this revolutionary drama that is acted to the life, but the cruelty and the sorrow.

(Vol. ii. p. 245-248.)

There is an anecdote related at page 188 of this volume, which, with those matter-of-fact men of sense, who consider one practical proof of more weight than a whole system of theory, will appear at once determinative of the doubt whether the Americans are really aware of the benefits arising from their late emancipation, and whether they would resolutely maintain their liberties inviolate against all the attempts of their late oppressors:

While we were admiring the scenery, our people had established themselves in a hut, and were preparing supper, under the direction of a peasant, a tall copper-coloured semi-barbarous native of the forest; but


who, notwithstanding his uncivilized appearance, turned out to be a very shrewd fellow, and gave us sufficiently pertinent answers to most of our queries. young Spaniard of our party, a royalist by birth, and half a patriot in sentiment, asked him what harm the King had done,

that the Mexicans should have thrown him


off? "Why," answered he, "as for the King, his only fault, at least that I know about, was his living too far off: if a king really be good for a country, it appears to me that he ought to live in that country, not two thousand leagues away from it." On asking him what his opinion was of the free trade people were talking so much about? My opinion of the free trade," said the mountaineer, "rests on this, formerly I paid nine dollars for the piece of cloth of which this shirt is made, I now pay two-that forms my opinion of the free trade." The Spaniard was fairly (Vol. ii. p. 188, 189.) At page 47 also there is a Table given, which shews the relative prices of Copper, the staple commodity of Chili, and of several articles used in the mines, during the years preceding and following the era of liberty in that kingdom. We beg leave to quote a few items:


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From this Table it appears, that three important commercial advantages have been obtained by the Revolution: 1, the enlargement of the market caused by opening a trade with the whole world, this is evinced by the price of copper being doubled in the second column which represents the new prices;-2, the increased value of that staple commodity;-3, the diminished cost of its production, owing to the fall in the price of every article used in the mines. If with such a document before him, any one can be found bare-faced enough to uphold the cause of Spain and her ancient despotism, her brutal ignorance, her infatuated policy, and her cruel administration, which deprived a whole people of such advantages, if any one can be found who professes himself unable to see the absolute necessity of a revolution

under such circumstances, we give him up as we should a man who denied the sun shone, whilst its brightness and heat struck him blind and foolish.

We have now done with the political part of our review, which, as it was of major importance, deserved primary notice. We are anxious to disseminate as widely as possible amongst the different classes of our countrymen, (all of whom are mediately or immediately interested in the matter,) information as to the state of the Independent South American States upon which they can rely, and by which they can regulate their future conduct, mercantile, mechanical, or otherwise. trust we have done; and for the power of doing this as satisfactorily as the limits of our work permits, we have to acknowledge ourselves greatly indebted to Captain Hall. It is not a little gratifying to us, that we are able to communicate information so favourable to the hopes of every enlightened and benevolent


This we

on the subject of American liberty; and that this information should be drawn, not only from a man of impartiality, sense, and intelligence, but from one whom we may look upon as an accredited agent of our government. This seems to evince pretty manifestly what the feeling of government must be upon the question which now agitates so many cabinets, as (with all respect for our author's candour and honesty) Captain Hall would scarcely, we suppose, have given publicity to such generous sentiments, and such convincing documents, were he not certain they would meet with approbation in the influential quarters above him. In taking leave of this part of the subject, we cannot but express our regret that Captain Hall did not extend his voyage and remarks to Buenos Ayres, Brazil, and Colombia. We are much in want of such honest information as he could afford us on the state of these three kingdoms, especially the latter.

In another less important respect, that is, as a Book of Wonders, our author's Journal will be considered perhaps more than moderately deficient. He travelled by sea alongside and half the whole length of the Andes, those standing miracles of

Nature, yet was so unfortunate as to see nothing worth bringing home to fill up the mouths of his gaping readers, but a few bits of quartz and feldspar. Yes; he does describe one remarkable phenomenon concerning them, a phenomenon pregnant with physical results, of a nature, however, apparently unconnected with our sublunary sphere, being indeed wholly relative to the matter of the Moon.

On the 26th of May we sailed from Valparaiso, and proceeded along the coast to Lima. During the greater part of this voyage the land was in sight, and we had many opportunities of seeing not only the Andes, but other interesting features of the country. The sky was sometimes covered by a low dark unbroken cloud, overshadowing the sea, and resting on the top of the high cliffs which guard the coast; so that the Andes, and, indeed, the whole country, except the immediate shore, were then screened from our view. But at some places this lofty range of cliffs was intersected by deep gullies, called quebradas, connected with extensive vallies stretching far into the interior. At these openings we were admitted to a view of regions, which, being beyond the limits of the cloud, and therefore exposed to the full blaze of the sun, formed a brilliant contrast to the darkness and gloom in which we were involved. As we sailed past, and looked through these mysterious breaks, it seemed as if the eye penetrated into another world; and had the darkness around us been more complete, the light beyond would have been equally resplendent with that of the full moon, to which every one was disposed to compare this most curious and surprising appear


As the sun's rays were not, in this case, reflected from a bright snowy surface, but from a dark coloured sand, we are furnished, by analogy, with an answer to the difficulties sometimes started, with respect to the probable dark nature of the soil composing the moon's surface.

(Vol. i. p. 186, 187.)

There were two or three other scientific observations of some importance made by Captain Hall, who appears laudably anxious to promote the interests of knowledge on every occasion. From data furnished by him, the orbit of a comet which was visible at Valparaiso, in 1821, has been computed by Dr. Brinkley, of Dublin University, and the results, together with the original observations, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1822. Experiments were also made with Kater's pendu

lum, an instrument for determining the figure of the earth. At the Galapagos Islands, under the line, the observations gave for the ellipticity, and at San Blas in California

Our author's account of the climate of Peru is directly at variance with that of Ulloa and Anson, which have hitherto regulated the belief of foreigners; the heat, instead of being temperate, is, if we adjust our faith by Captain Hall's Journal, intolerable, and instead of the "fierce beams of the sun being intercepted by a canopy of gray clouds" (as Robertson directs us to imagine), the glare of that luminary our author asserts to be unmitigated by any such celestial machinery, and to be, in fact, oppressive to the very last degree. The country itself, it would appear, is a desert-sandy, sterile, and unwatered by any considerable rivers.

Earthquakes have been often described, and with such necessary similarity, that we will not fatigue our readers with that which destroyed the town of Copiapó in Chili, 1819. Some local customs which our author describes in a pleasant and familiar vein, will perhaps be more generally interesting. Jealousy it seems is not altogether a male monopoly amongst the Spanish colonists:


A Chilian gentleman of my acquaintance lived close to the bull-ring, and parties used frequently to be made up at his house to go to the Chinganas, the name given to the scenes described above. After chatting together for some time one evening, the gentlemen of the party went off to the bull-ring, while the ladies excused themselves for not accompanying us. within a quarter of an hour afterwards, while we were lounging about in one of the most noisy of the Ramadas, it was intimated to me privately, by a gentleman in the secret, that three of the ladies we had left were actually in our company; but so completely metamorphosed, that, even when pointed out, they were with difficulty recognised. Thus made party to the joke, found they came as spies upon the proceedings of the master of the house, the husband of one

of these tapadas, as they called themselves. There had been a feud, it seemed, be

tween these ladies and some others of their

acquaintance, and the object of this escapo, or frolic, was to watch how the gentleman would deport himself towards their foes. They had, accordingly, the satisfaction, or the mortification, to detect him in treacher

ous flirtation with the enemy; and then
allowing themselves to be discovered, to
the confusion of the unsuspecting parties,
they immediately disappeared. The next
day we learnt that the ladies had returned
in about ten minutes, differently disguised,
and had amused themselves in watching
the motions of such of us as had been
formerly admitted to their confidence, and
who were still chuckling over the success
of the first exploit. I attempted, next
evening, to pass a similar jest upon them,
and disguised myself with great care; but
their practised eyes were not to be deceived,
and they saw through it all at the first
(Vol. i. p. 16—18.)
The celebrated Paraguay tea, called
Mattee, is prepared and drunk in the
following primitive manner:

Before infusion, the Yerba, as it is called, has a yellow colour, and appears partly ground, and partly chopped; the flavour resembles that of fine tea, to which, indeed, many people prefer it. The mattee is made in an oval-shaped metal pot, about twice as large as an egg, placed nearly full of water, on the hot embers of the brazier, which stands in the middle of the parlour; when the water begins to boil, a lump of sugar burnt on the outside is added. The pot is next removed to a filagree silver stand, on which it is handed to the guest, who draws the mattee into his mouth through a silver pipe seven or eight inches in length; furnished, at the lower extremity, with a bulb pierced with small holes. The natives drink it almost boiling hot, and it costs a stranger many a tear before he can imitate them in this practice. There is one custom in these mattee drinkings, to which, though not easily reconcileable to our habits, a stranger must not venture to object. However numerous the company be, or however often the mattee pot be replenished, the tube is never changed; and to decline taking mattee, because the tube had been previously used, would be thought the height of rudeness. A gentleman of my acquaintance, becoming very fond of this beverage, bought a tube for himself, and carried it constantly in his pocket; but this gave so much offence that he was eventually obliged to relinquish its use.

(Vol. i. p. 21, 22.) We question much whether the American herb will ever supplant the Chinese, with our tea-drinkers, but the mode of serving it, as above described, will in all probability never be generally adopted in our fashionable circles; to "kiss the tube and pass it to the rest," would be tolerable, and then indeed delightful, when the person osculating happened to be one of

the sweet-mouthed sex after a careful toilette.

A pretty custom prevalent in all Spanish countries is that of presenting a rose to every stranger who enters the family-door. As our author says, the favor itself is nothing, and it is essential to the civility that it should be nothing; the merit lies in the simple expression of good-will, which, while it really obliges, is of a nature to impose no obligation,


According to an old saying, the capital of Peru is "the heaven of women, the purgatory of men, and we take it the hell of jackasses: that this particular heaven, enjoyed by the female sex, is no very distant resemblance of Mahomet's paradise, and that the ladies perform the part of clandestine Houries,-at least if we may judge from a few such suspicious relations as follow, with respect to the dress and manners of the fair Limenians:

In the cool part of the day, for about an hour and a half before sunset, the ladies walk abroad, dressed in a manner probably unique, and certainly highly characteristic of the spot.

This dress consists of two parts, one called the saya, the other the manto. The first is a petticoat, made to fit so tightly, that, being at the same time quite elastic, the form of the limbs is renThe manto, or dered distinctly visible. cloak, is also a petticoat, but, instead of hanging about the heels, as all honest petticoats ought to do, it is drawn over the head, breast, and face; and is kept so close by the hands, which it also conceals, that no part of the body, except one eye, and sometimes only a small portion of one eye, is perceptible. A rich coloured handkerchief, or a silk band and tassel, are frequently tied round the waist, and hang nearly to the ground in front. A rosary, also, made of beads of ebony, with a small gold cross, is often fastened to the girdle, a little on one side; though in general it is suspended from the neck.

The effect of the whole is exceedingly striking; but whether its gracefulness-for, with the fine figure of the Lima women, and their very beautiful style of walking, this dress is eminently graceful-be sufficient to compensate for its undeniable indelicacy to an European eye, will depend much upon the stranger's taste, and his habits of judg ing of what he sees in foreign countries. Some travellers insist upon forcing every thing into comparison with what they have left at home, and condemn or approve, according as this unreasonable standard is receded from or adhered to. To us, who took all things as we found them, the saya

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