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of Kent, be and is hereby appointed Legislative Postmaster, and E. A. Stimson, of Saginaw, be and is hereby appointed Assistant Postmaster for the present session. In the adoption of which the Senate has concurred.

Very respectfully,


Secretary of the Senate. The message was laid on the table. The Speaker also announced the following:


Lansing, January 2, 1895. Í To the Speaker of the House of Representatives: SIR-I am instructed by the Senate to inform the House

Relative to the matter of the election of Postmaster and Assistant Postmaster, that Senators Barnard, Thompson, Earle, French and Clapp have been appointed a committee on the part of the Senate to act with a like committee on the part of the House.

Very respectfully,


Secretary of the Senate. The Speaker also announced the following:


Lansing. January 3, 1895. S To the Speaker of the House of Representatives:

SIR-I am instructed by the Senate to transmit to the House the following concurrent resolution:

Resolred by the Senate (the House concurring), That when the Legislature adjourn today, it stand adjourned until Tuesday next, at 2 p. m.;

Which bas been adopted by the Senate, and in which the concurrence of the House is respectfully asked.

Very respectfully,


Secretary of the Senate.

The question being on concurring in the adoption of the resolution,
The resolution was adopted.


The joint convention was called to order by Hon. A. Milnes, Lieutenant Governor and President of the Senate.

The roll of the Senate was called by the Secretary thereof, and a majority of the Senators were present.

The roll of the House was called by the Clerk thereof, and a majority of the members were present.

The President announced that the two Houses had met in joint convention to receive any comriunication that the Governor may be pleased to make.

Senator Smalley moved that a committee of five be appointed to notify the Governor that the two Houses have met in joint convention and are ready to receive any communication he may be pleased to make;

Which motion prevailed.

The President announced as such committee, Senators Smalley and Jones, and Representatives H. F. Campbell, Waite and Donovan.

Senator Kilpatrick moved that a committee of three be appointed to wait on the Judges of the Supreme Court, and the State officers, and invite their attendance at the joint convention, to listen to the message from the Governor;

Which motion prevailed.

The President announced as such committee, Senator Kilpatrick, and Representatives, Norman and Ware.

The committee appointed to wait on the Governor and notify him that the two Houses are in session and ready to receive any communication he may desire to make, returned and reported His Excellency in attendance.

The committee were discharged.
His Excellency the Governor was conducted to a seat on the platform.

The committee appointed to wait on the Justices of the Supreme Court and the State officers and invite their attendance at the joint convention, returned and reported the several gentlemen in attendance.

The committee was discharged.

The Justices of the Supreme Court and State officers were conducted to seats.

His Excellency Governor Rich then read his message as follows:

Senators and Representatives :

In accordance with the provisions of Section 8, of Article V, of the constitution of this State, I submit the following information in relation to the condition of the State, and recommendations in relation to measures deemed expedient:


On November 1, 1893, after the apportionment of the primary school fund was made, for the first time in many years, Michigan confronted an empty treasury. This was not caused so much by increased expenditures, as it was by the failure of the legislature of 1891 to levy taxes sufficient to meet what might reasonably bave been contemplated would be the needs of the State, and while there was no direct authority for hiring money, the railroads were offered an inducement of six per cent discount from November 1 to January 1 following, to advance their taxes due in January. This was done by the Michigan Central and Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroads to the amount of nearly $200,000. Through the First National bank of Detroit an additional $150,000 was obtained. Owing to this, on November 1, 1894, a similar condition of affairs presented itself, except that only $250,000 was then needed to bridge over. Section 3, of Article XIV, of the constitution, provides that the State shall not contract debts to meet deficits in revenue to aggregate more than $50,000 at any one time. Under this provision of the constitution, perhaps the obligation entered into may not have been strictly legal, but it was a necessity, in order to carry on the State institutions and general branches of the State government, and was paid out of the first money received. This provision of the

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constitution was adopted more than forty years ago, when $50,000 represented more than five times that amount does today. It would seem to me advisable to provide for so amending the constitution, as with proper restrictions, to put it within the power of the State to borrow money in cases of necessity, rather than carry so large a balance. It may reasonably be presumed that the people have to pay at least six per cent interest. Banks usually pay three per cent on State deposits. While it, is desirable to have enough in the State treasury to meet all legitimate demands upon it, it is very undesirable to carry large balances, to be loaned at a low rate of interest when not needed to meet the expenses of government.

Another reason why this power should be given is that none of our State institutions are insured, nor should they be, but in cases of fire, similar to the one that occurred at the Pontiac asylum a little more than two years ago, there ought to be provision made for some authority, under proper restrictions, to meet similar emergencies in the future. It does not seem wise to provide for a fund to be carried in the State treasury to anticipate such an event, but authority might be given the boards of control of the several institutions, with the approval of the Board of Auditors and the Governor, to borrow money on the credit of the State and repair or rebuild their respective institutions. This would not only save calling the legislature together, but would guarantee a prompt restoration of property destroyed. In other respects the financial affairs of the State are in good condition. There have been no calls for a change in the tax laws of the State, the one passed in 1893 proving very generally satisfactory to all interested. It is thought hardly probable that our people desire to change the manner of disposing of specific taxes arising from railroads, insurance companies, and other corporations. The present apportionment proves of inestimable benefit to the poorer sections of our State, and provides for the mainteDance of schools of better quality than would otherwise be the case, and it goes to support the only school which all the children of the State can have

the benefit of.


Act No. 133, Public Acts of 1891, required all railroad companies, organized or existing under any special acts of incorporation, or special acts of consolidation, or which had heretofore been taxed under any special

, act or acts of the legislature, from and after December 31, 1891, for all purposes of taxation, to be subject in all respects to the provisions of chapter 75, of the compiled laws of 1871, and all acts amendatory thereof. This was designed more especially to reach the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad, which at that time was paying considerablo less taxes than they would have been paying under the general law. The taxes at that time under the general law were computed on the percentage of the mileage in Michigan to the total mileage of the road, but the courts decided that the State could only tax the actual earnings in Michigan. Under this construction the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern paid under its charter provisions considerably more than it would under the general law. They have declined to pay their taxes under the general law, and in view of the fact that the State is not suffering any loss, no action has been commenced

By Act No. 179, Public Acts of 1893, the Michigan Central railroad

against them.

charter was amended so as to place that road under the general law for the purposes of taxation. By the provisions of the charter this act could not become operative until accepted by the company, which it did on the 20 day of February, 1894. I desire to renew my recommendation of two years ago that if possible some means be devised for the abrogation of these old special charters, so that all our railroads may be placed upon the same basis so far as taxation and supervision and other legislation is concerned.


Our State University stands not only at the head of our own educational institutions, but well up in the front rank of universities in this and foreign countries. The action of the legislature two years ago, in providing for the one-sixth mill tax, places the institution upon a proper and substantial foundation. It is known in advance what the University has, and saves the time of our legislature in considering that matter. antees the University itself a permanent income, and with the increased amount now charged for tuition, and a gradual increase of the fund as the valuation of taxable property in the State increases, it will place this insti. tution beyond the need of asking further aid from the legislature for years to come.

It also guar


The Agricultural College and State Normal School will require the usual appropriations. These institutions are worthy of the generous support they have enjoyed in the past.


The Michigan Mining School, when age and all things are considered, stands at the head of this class of institutions. It is very properly located in the midst of a mining region, and the practical part of mining is taught as well as the theore ical, but in the nature of things it is a very expensive school. The appropriations made two years ago were $75,000 for current expenses, and $35,000 for buildings and equipments. The largest class graduated was in 1894, when sixteen finished the course, ten of these being Michigan students, and the remainder from other parts of the world. In addition to the graduates many students have more or less advantage from education obtained there. It is an institution that should be maintained and built up, but it is understood that tuition is free there, the law providing that for Michigan students no tuition shall be charged beyond $30 to provide for contingent expenses. The law does not compel the institution to purchase books. I am not informed as to whether this is done or not. Now while the additional students from outside do not increase the expenses of the institution in proportion to their number, it does add to the total expense, and it seems to me that while the State is contributing so much, students from Michigan should contribute something for their own education, and that students from other states and countries should be charged tuition, which will remunerate the State for the increased expense incurred by reason of their attendance. This is more particularly the case in view of the number of educational, reformatory and charitable institutions which the State is supporting, and the difficulty which our citizens find in meeting the demands made upon them for State, county and municipal taxes. I would recommend that you take some measures, if possible, without in any way injuring the school

, to provide that those having the benefit of it shall bear some portion of the large expense necessary to maintain it.


The substance of the following facts and recommendations are taken from a paper read by Dr. W. M. Edwards, medical superintendent of the Michigan Asylum, before the joint asylum boards at Traverse City, November 15, 1894. The recommendations seem so practical and reasonable that I endorse them.

"At present the Michigan Asylum for the Insane has 1,176 beds and 1,174 inmates. The Eastern Michigan Asylum has 1,050 beds and 1,008 inmates. The Northern Michigan Asylum has 1,000 beds and 982 inmates. The Michigan Asylum for Dangerous and Criminal Insane has 193 beds and 207 inmates.' The Wayne County Asylum has 300 beds and 293 inmates. According to these figures there are in our public asylums 3,719 beds and 3.681 inmates

. In the principal State asylums there are 3,226 beds and 3.161 inmates, leaving 62 unoccupied beds. For ten years past the average annual increase in the number admitted to the State asylums has been about 165, so that there is today provision for less than the average number of inmates who would normally be admitted to the asylums within the next six months. At the new upper peninsula asylum cottages are being constructed to accommodate 100 inmates. These cannot be opened until the legislature makes an appropriation for furnishing, so that at the best, all the available room for patients will be theoretically occupied before this institution is opened, though there may be, on account of geographical conditions, some vacancies at the Eastern Michigan Asylum. Even with the

upper peninsula asylum opened for use next summer, previous conditions would warrant the statement that all the beds for the insane will be filled.

"The new asylum at Newberry is well along towards completion, and will accommodate 100 patients. An appropriation for furniture will be required before the institution can receive any patients. Additions to this institution will need to be considered in connection with the accommodations at the asylums and the new home for feeble minded at Lapeer. While accommodations for this unfortunate class must be provided, it should only be done as fast as absolutely demanded.

**The increased accommodations afforded by the new aslyum might be augiented, at a minimum expenditure, by enlarging the Home for Feeble Minded and Epileptic at Lapeer

, so that the epileptics at present in our State asylums may be transferred to that institution. There is a growing tendency in the United States to make separate provision for the colonization of epileptics. The benefits to be derived from the separation of the epileptics from the insane are two fold, as each class is improved by it. Epileptics can be better treated alone, and treatment can be more regular and systematic

. Proper restrictions in diet can be made when it affects the entire class, without exciting jealousies. With the better classification, there can be given that special kind of care required at all times, and especially at night, to prevent suffocation."

Aside from providing for the increase in the number of the insane, there


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