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to Barkdale Ferry, a distance of 50 miles, a channel was established through the obstructions, 20 feet wide and 2 feet deep at summer low water. For this purpose a large quantity of ledge-rock, with some bowlders and gravel, had to be removed and a considerable number of wing-dams built.

The total expenditures to June 30, 1885, were $38,122.94

July 1, 1884, amount available
July 1, 1885, amount available.

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix N 8.)

$877 06

877 06

6,000 00

9. Saint Augustine Creek (Thunderbolt River), Georgia.-No work has been done here since September, 1880, and no appropriation is asked for.

July 1, 1884, amount available..
July 1, 1885, amount available..

(See Appendix N 9.)

$3,417 66 3,417 66

10. Romerly Marsh, Georgia.-Two appropriations aggregating $20,000 have been made by Congress for improving Romerly Marsh. The act by which the first of these appropriations was provided directed that the improvement be carried on "by the route designated in the survey of engineers as route numbered four." The water route through Romerly Marsh forms part of the inland passage between the Savannah River, Georgia, and Fernandina, Florida. The marsh is situated between Wassaw Sound on the north and Ossabaw Sound on the south. The existing route is objectionable from its excessive crookedness and deficiency in depth of water. Vessels drawing 5 feet of water cannot pass through on less than half-tide.

In his report of an examination of Romerly Marsh the engineer officer in charge described four different routes that might be adopted in preference to the existing passage. Either one of the lines suggested was designed and recommended to receive a low-water depth of not less than 7 feet on a bottom width of 48 feet.

Route No. 4 named in the act is the most easterly one of those examined, and nearest to the ocean. By this route Dead Man's Hammock Creek, which flows through the marsh and empties into Wassaw Sound, is to be connected by a solid cut of about 1,160 yards length with Wassaw Creek, which flows into Odingsell River near the point where the latter discharges into Ossabaw Sound. The cost of establishing Route No. 4 was estimated at $38,720.

Operations prior to July 1, 1884, were carried on by means of the first appropriation of $10,000, and of an additional sum of $5,000 contributed by the Georgia and Florida Steamboat Company. The cut was opened to a length of 1,650 feet, about one-half the ultimate length. It had a bottom width of 40 to 50 feet, with a depth of 7 feet at mean low water. On the surface of the marsh the widths varied from 105 to 135 feet.

When work was resumed during the last fiscal year under the second appropriation of $10,000 the new partial cut was found to have much deteriorated. It had shoaled more than 2 feet through its entire length, and its low-water width had been reduced about 30 feet. The greater part of last year's work had necessarily to be done over again in restor ing to the cut its former dimensions The actual advance of the cut

toward Wassaw Creek was therefore insignificant and amounted to only 70 feet.

The material thus far removed amounted to 101,100 cubic yards. With the balance of $3,817.37 available July 1, 1885, the work will be continued during the present fiscal year according to the adopted plan. The total expenditure, including the $5,000 contributed by the steamboat company, from the beginning of operations to June 30, 1885, were $21.156.63.

The engineer officer in charge states that the final cost of the improvement will exceed the estimate, as the intermittent method of supplying funds delays the work and results in deterioration, inasmuch as no benefit can be derived from tidal scour until the cut is opened entirely through.

July 1, 1884, amount available

Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1:84.

$29 41 10,000 00

July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884

10,029 41

$3,851 90

July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities..

2,334 14

6,186 04

July 1, 1885, amount available....

3,843 37

14,000 00

14,000 00

Amount (estimated) required for completion of project.....

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix N 10.)

11. Altamaha River, Georgia.-For the improvement of Altamaha River three appropriations have thus far been made by Congress, amounting in the aggregate to $35,000.

The Altamaha is the most important river lying entirely within the State of Georgia. It is formed by the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. Its length is 155 miles. It has a southeasterly course, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean through Altamaha Sound below the town of Darien. It has been badly obstructed by rock ledges, sandbars, and snags; and the plan of improvement provides for their removal, so as to secure a navigable low-river channel 80 feet wide and 3 feet deep, at a cost roughly estimated at $60,000.

Prior to July 1, 1884, an improved channel of 100 feet width and 4 feet depth at summer low water was opened through the rock bars at Town Bluff and Piney Bluff, 18 and 19 miles, respectively, below the junction of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. From Darien up to Ohoopee White Bluff, a distance of 115 miles, the United States snag-boat Toccoa had removed 508 snags and leaning trees and some poles.

During the past fiscal year the shallow crossing at Beard's Bluff, 63 miles below the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee, was improved. A training-wall nearly 1,750 feet in length was built to reduce the excessive width of the river at this point, and two short spurs were added to it on the channel side. Opposite the lower end of the wall the caving bank was protected by a fascine revetment.

The works at Beard's Bluff were not quite finished at the close of the fiscal year. The United States snag-boat Toccoa removed from different parts of the river 32 snags and logs and 433 overhanging trees.

The work done at the several points named, where the channel was cut through rock ledges or guided by a training-wall, and in the fiftyfive mile reach from Steamboat Cut to Darien, where the channel has

been cleared by the snag-boat, has effected a material improvement, and has greatly benefited the low-river navigation. At other reaches of the river some further work is needed and provided for in the existing project before a clear channel will exist through the entire length of the Altamaha.

With the funds on hand July 1, 1885, the work at Beard's Bluff will be completed. If practicable the improvement of the river at some other point may be commenced in conformity to the existing project. The total expenditures to June 30, 1885, were $32,085.34.

July 1, 1884, amount available......

Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.

July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1-84..

July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities

$374 75 15,000 00

15,374 75

$9,265 00

3,195 09

12, 460 09

2,914 6€

July 1, 1885, amount available...

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887
Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix N 11.)

40, 000 00 40,000 0

12. Brunswick Harbor, Georgia.-Operations for improving this harbor were carried on during part of the past fiscal year in general comformity to the project submitted by the engineer officer in charge April 29, 1876, modified in his annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1880. That plan comprises the construction of a jetty starting from the northeasterly end of Buzzard's Island and located approximately parallel to and 1,000 feet distant from the established pier-head line on the opposite shore, for the purpose of contracting the water-way and concentrating the current upon a shoal about 1 mile below the town of Brunswick. The bottom being hard and tough, expensive dredging has

been necessary.

The object of these works is to establish and permanently maintain a channel not less than 15 feet deep at mean low tide over the shoal, on which heretofore the navigable low-water depth was only 9 feet. The cost of the project was estimated at $73,187. This estimate did not include works that might eventually be needed at the upper end of East River, a loop of the main stream on which Brunswick is situated.

An appropriation of $10,000 was made for this locality in 1836, and expended in dredging on the shoal referred to.

The appropriations made for carrying out the existing project, including one of $10,000 made by the act approved July 5, 1884, aggre gate $70,000.

The following is a summary of the work done to June 30, 1884. The main line of the jetty, or the jetty proper, was laid to a length of 4,199 feet, and reaches now the 18-foot low-water curve of the main stream, or Turtle River. At the upper end the jetty is connected with the shore by a spur or return face 310 feet in length. This spur and the next adjoining 780 feet length of jetty are formed of palmetto cribs. filled with brush and with material obtained by dredging, and topped off with riprap stone. The outward portion of the jetty, a length of 3,419 linear feet, is composed of double-raft mattresses, covered with brush and riprap stone. The ridge of the stone covering upon the crib-work is a few feet below the level of low water; that of the mattresses reaches up to that level for the greater part of their length, but

in approaching the outer end of the work it gradually drops lower down.

The material removed by dredging aggregated 80,502 cubic yards. The dredging operations were carried on upon a line about parallel to the jetty and 720 feet east of it. Three cuts were made through the shoal to a low-water depth of 15 feet, each cut being from 4,400 to 4,800 feet in length and from 20 to 25 feet in width. A fourth cut was made

to a length of about 1,500 feet and 12 feet depth at low water. During the past fiscal year work under the last appropriation of $10,000 was confined to strengthening and raising the upper end of the jetty and its connection with the shore, or the return face. During the enforced suspension of operations for over eighteen months the overpour of water across the unfinished return face had produced dangerous scour along the base of the work. To stop this overflow and direct a stronger flow of water to the ship-channel an apron of log mattresses was laid along the base of the return face and the adjacent portion of the jetty. The first named work was then raised by mattresses and riprap stone from a height varying from 2 or 3 feet above low water to the level of high water.

The deep cuts made by dredging done in former years have shoaled more or less, owing to the unfinished condition of the jetty. The work recently done seems to have produced good effects; the 9-foot low-water curve between the jetty and the opposite line of wharves has increased in width; the lower 12-foot curve has extended up stream, and the depths existing in the channel a year ago have been maintained. The total expenditures to June 30, 1885, were $69,612.57.

The engineer officer in charge repeats in his annual report the statement previously made by him that the original estimate for works be low the city of Brunswick needs to be increased, in consequence of the largely increased cost of dredging, small appropriations, and frequent and sometimes long stoppages of work. In his opinion the works at the upper end of Buzzard's Island, designed for permanently augment ing the flow of water from Turtle River into Brunswick River should soon be commenced. The cost of all the works proposed to be constructed both above and below the city is now estimated at $185,000. An aggregate sum of $70,000 has already been provided by Congress to the present time. A further examination of the upper end of Buzzard's Island may render a revision of the estimate for that locality necessary July 1, 1884, amount available ..................

Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884

$248 06

10,000 00

10,248 06

July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884...

9,860 63

July 1, 185, amount available.....................

387 43

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1287
Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

75,000 00 75,000 00

(See Appendix N 12.)

13. Entrance to Cumberland Sound, Georgia and Florida.-During the past fiscal year operations have been carried on in conformity to the plan described in general terms in a report of the engineer officer in charge dated June 30, 1879, contained in Appendix I 8, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1879.

The project consists essentially of two low jetties composed of riprap

stone resting on a broad foundation mattress of logs, or logs and brush, starting respectively from the opposite shores of the entrance, and extending seaward across the bar upon lines so directed that the outer ends will be approximately parallel to each other, and from 3,000 to 3,500 feet apart, or such distance as may hereafter be adopted. The estimated cost of the improvement, with two long jetties, is $2,071,023. They are calculated to maintain a low-water depth across the bar of not less than 20 to 21 feet, or a high-water depth of 26 to 27 feet. Heretofore the depth on the bar has not usually exceeded 13 to 13 feet at mean low water, and at times has been as low as 113 feet.

The following work has been done to the present time: The foundation-course of the north jetty, consisting of a log and brush mattress ballasted with riprap stone, has reached a point 7,372 feet from the shore of Cumberland Island. Its width varies from 25 to 52 feet, and its thickness, through log and brush, from 19 to 22 inches. A second course of mattresses of similar thickness, from 20 to 25 feet width, covered with riprap stone, of an aggregate length of 1,490 feet, was laid upon the foundation-course along the deeper portions of Cumberland Channel. Foundation mattresses for two spurs were also laid here on the south side of the jetty.

On June 30, 1885, the bottom course of the south jetty, to which work had been confined during the past fiscal year, had reached a point 7,667 feet from the shore end of Amelia Island. The net advance of the work seaward during the year was 3,507 feet, and mattresses of 2 feet width and about 18 inches in thickness were used for it. For previous work on this jetty their widths varied from 40 to 87 feet. The present seaward end is located in a low-water depth of about 18 feet. Operations were suspended on June 30, 1885, the appropriation having been nearly exhausted.

No special changes in the condition of the jetties or of the bar since last year's report are noted, except that the shore-lines near the land end of the south jetty are still advancing seaward. A resurvey of the bar, which has been ordered to be made, may reveal some new facts.

The engineer officer in charge calls attention to the fact that when operations were resumed last year, a period of about twenty-one months had elapsed during which no work had been done on this improvement. He says that all the appropriations thus far made for it aggregate less than one-eighth of the estimated cost, and that at such a rate of providing the requisite funds the progress of the work will be exceedingly slow and unsatisfactory, and that, besides, from this cause the ultimate cost of the project will be greatly increased.

The appropriations now aggregate $255,000. The total expenditures to June 30, 1885, were $251,301.69.

July 1, 1884, amount available....

Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884

$813 78

75,000 00

July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities..

July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.

[blocks in formation]

July 1, 1885, amount available

3,698 31

(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887

Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

(See Appendix N 13.)

1,806, 023 00

600,000 00

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