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Three States-California, Oregon, and Washington-receive about 65.5 percent of the total funds made available to States and Territories from national forest revenues. Altogether 40 States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico receive some money for schools from this source.
In accordance with the enabling acts for Arizona and New Mexico the entire income received by the Federal Government from school lands situated within national forests in these States is returned to them for the support of schools. For the school year 1953-54 these two States received a total of $122,754.80 from this source.3
As to whether the arrangements under which a number of States receive a part of the revenue from national forests within their borders represent forms of Federal aid to education, or are merely the payment of Federal obligations or a part of these obligations to the States, is a matter of opinion.
Table 5 gives data on national-forest revenues returned to States and Territories for roads and schools for the school year 1953-54. The Forest Service in the United States Department of Agriculture, which administers these funds, has not compiled data showing the apportionment of the funds between roads and schools made by the various legislatures. It is believed that a substantial amount is used for school support.
TABLE 5.-Federal funds collected from national-forest rentals and available for distribution for roads and schools, for the 1953-54 school year 1
Besides the payments already described in this report, some Federal funds are paid and other types of Federal aid are given to States and local school districts for elementary and secondary educa.ion. Generally, however, the payments or other aids are either very small in relation to the State and local budgets for education, or else the Federal payments or other aids are of such a nature that they could scarcely be regarded as programs of "Federal aid to education" even under a loose interpretation of that term. Comments on several such payments and aids follow.
Similarly as from national-forest revenues, some of the States receive, for the maintenance of schools and roads, part of the revenue from federally owned grazing lands and mineral lands and from the sales of public lands located within their borders. These payments might be considered to be made in lieu of taxes. The school budgets of about a fifth of the States are slightly affected by these arrangements.
Veterans who receive school training under Public Law 346, 78th Congress, or Public Law 550, 82d Congress, enter schools of their own choice. Many of these veterans have chosen to train in public schools. Additionally, many disabled veterans have been placed in vocational rehabilitation training in public schools Not included in table 5, because the amount of $122,754.80 was entirely for schools. (See table heading.)
under Public Law 16, 78th Congress, or Public Law 894, 81st Congress. As of May 1954 there were about 122,000 veterans enrolled in residence training in public schools below the college level under all laws administered by the Veterans' Administration.
Financial records are not kept in such a manner as to identify amounts paid to any particular or all States and local school districts for elementary and secondary education of veterans. According to information obtained from the Veterans' Administration, payments made to States and local school districts, under laws which it administers for the education of veterans, are made for expenses and services rendered to or on behalf of veterans and are not for the purpose of providing Federal aid to education.
The Immigration and Naturalization Service, in the Department of Justice cooperates with the public schools in a program of citizenship education for candidates for naturalization studying under the supervision of the public schools. Federal aid is given in the form of preparation and distribution of citizenship textbooks to candidates for naturalization studying within or under the supervision of the public schools.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior makes payments to State departments of education and local school authorities under contracts for the education of certain Indian children living on nontaxable Indian lands. About 33,000 Indian children received education under such contracts during the school year 1952-53.
The Civil Aeronautics Administration of the Department of Commerce provides certain services in aid to aviation education in public schools. Such services include assistance in setting up demonstration classes and supplying instructional materials.
9. SERVICES RENDERED BY THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION
A discussion of Federal aid to States and local school districts for elementary and secondary education would not be complete without recognition of the services rendered by the United States Office of Education. Some of these services have already been mentioned in this report in the description of methods of administration of certain Federal-aid programs. The Office also performs a number of other services for the promotion of education in the States and localities.
The Office of Education was established "for the purpose of collecting statistics and facts showing the condition and progress of education and for diffusing information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems and methods of teaching and otherwise to promote the cause of education throughout the country."
Although the Congress at various times has vested in the Office the responsibility for the administration of certain acts or programs, some temporary and some continuing, the Office at all times has continued to discharge its original function. The collection and dissemination of information remains today a fundamental purpose of the Office of Education.
The data-gathering activities of the Office have been concerned in the main with three types of information: First, it has collected periodically certain items which, for the most part, are quantitative in nature. The second major type of information collected by the Office is that related to the character or quality of some aspect of education. The third kind of information, which has been collected by the Office in greatest volume during the last few decades, is for the purpose of rendering a service to educators and to those dealing with educators. A substantial part of the present fieldwork of the staff of the Office of Education is related to its information-collecting function.
The Office of Education has used various media for the dissemination of the information it has collected, but by far the most important is the printed word. The rendering of consultative services by members of the Office of Education staff is, however, becoming gradually more important as a means of disseminating information.
The research, publication, and consultative services of the Office of Education are now being rendered to the public elementary and secondary schools of the Nation specifically in the areas of school legislation, school housing, school finance, State school administration, local school administration, elementary instruction, secondary instruction, the education of exceptional children, guidance and pupil personnel services, services to libraries, visual education, radio and television education, and vocational education.
There is no current program of Federal aid to States and local school districts for elementary and secondary education in general. Federal participation in financing education at these levels mainly takes the form of (1) aid to special kinds of education, such as agricultural or industrial training; (2) aid to certain localities, such as districts containing large federally owned, tax-exempt properties; and (3) aid to a certain activity closely associated with education, such as the provision of school lunches. The Federal Government also makes available Federal surplus property for educational usage.
As to whether some of the principal Federal programs reviewed in this report are basically forms of "Federal aid to education" is a matter of opinion. It is fairly obvious that in at least one instance (that of the national school-lunch program) the basic purpose is not aid to education. Nevertheless, all of the programs reviewed do contribute to the advancement of education in the States and local school districts affected.
Table 6 gives data on the percent of revenue for public schools derived from Federal, State, and local and other sources for the most recent school year for which the figures have been compiled in the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The revenue from Federal sources includes allocations received for vocational education, aid to localities especially federally affected, receipts from national forests, grazing and mineral lands, payments received for the education of veterans and Indians in public schools, and so forthall Federal money received by the States and local school districts for elementary and secondary education, and for the school-lunch program.
TABLE 6.-Percent of revenue receipts of public schools (elementary and secondary) by source and by State, 1950-51
[Includes day schools, part-time and evening schools, and summer schools]
1 Inclusions explained in preceding text.
2 Includes State contribution to teacher retirement for 1949-50 when data not available for 1950-51.
No report received from this State by the U. S. Office of Education.
Actually Federal funds,
Senator COOPER. I would also like to make this statement: Senator Robertson had hoped to testify here today, but was required to attend a meeting of a committee on which he is a member in order to mark
Senator Robertson would like the record of this committee to show he is very much interested in supporting legislation which will continue without interruption adequate Federal assistance to schools in federally impacted areas, particularly those in nearby Virginia. The first witness today is Senator Burke, of Ohio. We are glad to have you here, Senator.
STATEMENT OF HON. THOMAS A. BURKE, A UNITED STATES SENATOR FROM THE STATE OF OHIO
Senator BURKE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee.
In the interest of saving time, I would like to make a brief oral statement, and if I may, submit a written statement for the record.
I am sure the members of the committee are all familiar with the problem where a Federal project goes into a certain area and thousands of people move into that district or county, that necessarily there are hundreds of children attending the schools that had not been prepared for and the local communities are just simply unable to handle that problem.
The Congress 2 or 3 years ago passed a bill which recognized the obligation of the Federal Government and authorized a program under which the Federal Government accepts its responsibility and participates to a substantial degree in financing the construction of school facilities necessary to house this, what might properly be termed Federal impact upon these local areas.
Now, I think it is immaterial which bill is approved, whether it be the bill that I introduced or any other, as long as some emergency relief is given.
In my own State a tremendous atomic energy plant is being built, and as a result of that the schools in 3 or 4 counties nearby simply can't handle the load without Federal assistance. S. 3450 doesn't seek a permanent solution to the problem, but simply seeks to extend the existing law for 2 years.
I have here this morning three witnesses which I would appreciate having the committee hear. I have Mr. John Teichert, the superintendent of schools from Waverly, Ohio, and if I may, I would like to insert my written statement in the record.
(Senator Burke's written statement is as follows:)
STATEMENT BY HON. THOMAS A. BURKE, UNITED STATES SENATOR FROM OHIO, ON NEED FOR ENACTMENT OF S. 3450 Now (AMENDING PUBLIC LAW 815, 81sT CONG.)
One of the most important laws enacted by the 81st Congress was Public Law 815, approved September 23, 1950. This law was important in several respects, but was particularly so in that it expressly set forth a policy of the Federal Government based upon fairness and justice.
Public Law 815 is based upon the recognition of a fact. The fact is that activities of the Federal Government and Federal acquisition of property have created or aggravated (and may be expected to continue to create or aggravate) the problems of providing public-school facilities in some localities. It follows that the Federal Government should assist these federally affected communities in the solution of these problems. Public Law 815 declares it to be a policy of the United States to bear the cost of constructing school buildings in the affected areas in the manner and to the extent prescribed in the act.
The basic reasons for which the Congress recognized, in this law, a Federal responsibility for assistance to these communities are (1) that Federal ownership
of property (which is tax-exempt) reduces the local tax base for financing the construction of schools; (2) that the Federal Government has a particular obligation respecting the provision of school facilities for children whose parents live and/or work on Federal property; and (3) that Federal activity in a community may cause a sudden influx of population including children for whom the community may be financially unable to provide adequate public school facilities.
This legislation has provided merely for the payment, at least in part, of a Federal obligation. It should not be regarded as "Federal aid to education"a frequently used misnomer, which improperly implies that the Federal Government is giving away something. The Federal Government has not been giving away a penny under the provisions of Public Law 815. It has only been bearing at least a part of its just share of a financial burden, the rest of which has been borne by the State and local governments.
Public Law 815 originally provided a Federal contribution toward the construction of school facilities for increased school enrollments due to Federal activities which occurred from 1939 to June 30, 1952. Public Law 248, 83d Congress, approved August 8, 1953, amended and extended this legislation. The amendment provided for continued Federal contribution of funds for school construction in local school districts in which increases in school enrollments due to Federal activity occurred between June 1952 and June 1954. The new legislation provided more stringent formula provisions for eligibility of the districts to receive Federal funds.
Public Law 815, 81st Congress, as amended by Public Law 246, 83d Congress, authorized Federal payments as follows:
(1) 95 percent of the cost of providing minimum school facilities needed because of increases in enrollment of children whose parents live and work on Federal property;
(2) 50 percent of such cost because of children whose parents either live or work on Federal property;
(3) 45 percent of such cost because of increases of enrollment of children whose parents have migrated to a locality because of Federal activity but who neither live nor work on Federal property.
In S. 3450 I propose simply to extend the time from June 30, 1954, to June 30, 1956, during which school districts may count federally caused enrollment increases and make application for Federal assistance. I also propose that Congress authorize the appropriation of such funds as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this extension.
It was not because of any objection to Public Law 815 that last year the Congress extended for only 2 years (from June 30, 1952) the time allowed for counting enrollment increases. It was mainly for two other reasons that the extension was so limited. One of the reasons was that the impact caused by defense activities could not be foreseen after June 30, 1954. The Government was then considering substantial changes in our defense structure and in our foreign commitments. Another reason was that by March 1, 1954, the Commission on Intergovernmental Relations was expected to make recommendations concerning the whole matter of Federal, State, and local fiscal relations.
The need for extension of the provisions of Public Law 815 for at least 2 years beyond June 30, 1954, is now apparent. It is now expected that the recommendations, if any, made by the Commission on Intergovernmental Relations bearing on this program will not be known before March 1, 1955. In the meantime the needs for school housing in some federally affected communities are growing worse. The Air Force is reactivating a number of its bases and constructing new ones. The return of many of our troops from certain stations abroad is increasing the school housing problem near certain military bases in the United States. Personnel expansion plus normal birth rate increases will cause additional school housing problems at some other military bases.
Many letters have arrived in the United States Office of Education from officials of various school districts saying they expect substantial increases in school enrollments due to Federal activities after June 30, 1954.
On account of activities of the Air Force alone the following communities have already advised the United States Office of Education that they will have an influx of federally connected children during the 1954-55 and 1955-56 school years. Blytheville, Ark.; Pulaski County, Ark.; Mountain Home, Idaho; Lincoln, Nebr.; Portsmouth, N. H.; Pemberton, N. J.; and Moses Lake, Wash.
The Atomic Energy Commission's project at Portsmouth, Ohio, is expected to reach a peak of impact in the fall of 1954, with a total of about 7,000 additional children in the 4 counties affected since the project started.