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ness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.

(d)(1)(A) The Secretary shall, by rule in accordance with the provisions of this subsection and subsection (e), substitute a higher amount for the amount per tenth of a mile per gallon which would be used to calculate the civil penalty under subsection (b)(1) in the absence of such rule, if the Secretary finds that—

(i) the additional amount of the civil penalty which may be imposed under such rule will result in, or substantially further, substantial energy conservation for automobiles in future model years for which such higher penalty may be imposed; and

(ii) subject to subparagraph (B), such additional amount of civil penalty will not result in substantial deleterious impacts on the economy of the United States or of any State or region of any State.

(B) Any findings under subparagraph (A)(ii) may be made only if the Secretary finds that it is likely that

(i) such additional amount of civil penalty will not cause a significant increase in unemployment in any State or region thereof;

(ii) such additional amount will not adversely affect competition; and

(iii) such additional amount will not cause a significant increase in automobile imports.

(2) Any rule under paragraph (1) may not provide that the amount per tenth of a mile per gallon used to calculate the civil penalty under subsection (b)(1) be less than $5.00 or more than $10.00.

(3) Any rule prescribed under paragraph (1) shall be effective for the later of

(A) automobile model years beginning after model year 1981,


(B) automobile model years beginning at least 18 months after such rule becomes final.

(e)(1)(A) After the Secretary of Transportation develops a proposed rule pursuant to subsection (d), he shall publish such proposed rule in the Federal Register, together with a statement of the basis for such rule, and provide copies thereof to the manufacturers. He shall then provide a period of public comment on such rule of at least 45 days for written comments thereon. A copy of any such proposed rule shall be transmitted by the Secretary to the Federal Trade Commission and the Secretary shall request such Commission to comment thereon within the period provided to the public concerning such proposed rule.

(B) After such written comment period, any interested person (including the Federal Trade Commission) shall be afforded an opportunity to present oral data, views, and arguments at a public hearing concerning such proposal. At such hearing such interested person (including the Federal Trade Commission) shall have an opportunity to question

(i) other interested persons who make oral presentations,

(ii) employees and contractors of the United States who have made written or oral presentations or who have participated in the development of the proposed rule or in the consideration thereof, and

(iii) experts and consultants who have provided information to any person who makes an oral presentation and which is contained in or referred to in such presentation;

with respect to disputed issues of material fact, except that the Secretary may restrict questioning if he determines that such questioning is duplicative or is not likely to result in a timely and effective resolution of such issues. Any oral or documentary evidence may be received, but the Secretary as a matter of policy shall provide for the exclusion of irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious evidence.

(C) A rule subject to this subsection may not be issued except on consideration of the whole record supported by, and in accordance with, the reliable, probative, and substantial evidence.

(D) A transcript shall be kept of any such public hearing made in accordance with this section and such transcripts and written comments shall be available to the public at the cost of reproduction.

(2) If any final rule is prescribed by the Secretary after such public comment period under subsection (d) it shall be published in the Federal Register, together with each of the findings required by subsection (d).

(3)(A) Any person aggrieved by any final rule under subsection (d) may at any time before the 60th day after the date such rule is published under paragraph (2) file a petition with the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides, or has his principal place of business, for judicial review thereof. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary. The Secretary thereupon shall file in the court the written submissions to, and transcript of, the written and oral proceedings on which the rule was based, as provided in section 2112 of title 28, United States Code.

(B) Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1), the court shall have jurisdiction to review the rule in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, and to grant appropriate relief as provided in such chapter. No rule may be affirmed unless supported by substantial evidence.

(C) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such rule shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28, United States Code.

(4) In the case of any information which is provided the Secretary or the court during the consideration and review of any such rule and which is determined to be confidential by the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of section 11(d) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, any disclosure of such information by an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, except in an in camera proceeding by the Secretary or the court, shall be deemed a violation of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code.

[15 U.S.C. 2008]


SEC. 509. (a) Whenever an average fuel economy standard established under this part is in effect, no State or political subdivision of a State shall have authority to adopt or enforce any law or regulation relating to fuel economy standards or average fuel economy standards applicable to automobiles covered by such Federal standard.

(b) Whenever any requirement under section 506 is in effect with respect to any automobile, no State or political subdivision of a State shall have authority to adopt or enforce any law or regulation with respect to the disclosure of fuel economy of such automobile, or of fuel cost associated with the operation of such automobile, if such law or regulation is not identical with such requirement.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent any State or political subdivision thereof from establishing requirements with respect to fuel economy of automobiles procured for its

own use.

[15 U.S.C. 2009]



SEC. 510. (a) The President shall, within 120 days after the date of enactment of this title, promulgate rules which shall require that all passenger automobiles acquired by all executive agencies in each fiscal year which begins after such date of enactment achieve a fleet average fuel economy for such year not less than

(1) 18 miles per gallon, or

(2) the average fuel economy standard applicable under section 502(a) for the model year which includes January 1 of such fiscal year,

whichever is greater.

(b) As used in this section:

(1) The term "fleet average fuel economy" means (A) the total number of passenger automobiles acquired in a fiscal year to which this section applies by all executive agencies (excluding passenger automobiles designed to perform combat related missions for the Armed Forces or designed to be used in law enforcement work or emergency rescue work), divided by (B) a sum of terms, each term of which is a fraction created by dividing

(i) the number of passenger automobiles so acquired of a given model type, by

(ii) the fuel economy of such model type.

(2) The term "executive agency" has the same meaning as such term has for purposes of section 105 of title 5, United States Code.

(3) The term "acquired" means leased for a period of 60 continuous days or more, or purchased.

[15 U.S.C. 2010]


SEC. 511. (a) The Federal Trade Commission shall establish a program for systematically examining fuel economy representations made with respect to retrofit devices. Whenever the Commission has reason to believe that any such representation may be inaccurate, it shall request the EPA Administrator to evaluate, in accordance with subsection (b), the retrofit device with respect to which such representation was made.

(b)(1) Upon application of any manufacturer of a retrofit device (or prototype thereof), upon the request of the Federal Trade Commission pursuant to subsection (a), or upon his own motion, the EPA Administrator shall evaluate, in accordance with rules prescribed under subsection (d), any retrofit device to determine whether the retrofit device increases fuel economy and to determine whether the representations (if any) made with respect to such retrofit device are accurate.

(2) If under paragraph (1) the EPA Administrator tests, or causes to be tested, any retrofit device upon the application of a manufacturer of such device, such manufacturer shall supply, at his own expense, one or more samples of such device to the Administrator and shall be liable for the costs of testing which are incurred by the Administrator. The procedures for testing retrofit devices so supplied may include a requirement for preliminary testing by a qualified independent testing laboratory, at the expense of the manufacturer of such device.

(c) The EPA Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register a summary of the results of all tests conducted under this section, together with the EPA Administrator's conclusions as to

(1) the effect of any retrofit device on fuel economy;

(2) the effect of any such device on emissions of air pollutants; and

(3) any other information which the Administrator determines to be relevant in evaluating such device.

Such summary and conclusions shall also be submitted to the Secretary and the Federal Trade Commission.

(d) Within 180 days after the date of enactment of this title, the EPA Administrator shall, by rule, establish

(1) testing and other procedures for evaluating the extent to which retrofit devices affect fuel economy and emissions of air pollutants, and

(2) criteria for evaluating the accuracy of fuel economy representations made with respect to retrofit devices.

(e) For purposes of this section the term "retrofit device" means any component, equipment, or other device

(1) which is designed to be installed in or on an automobile (as an addition to, as a replacement for, or through alteration or modification of, any original component, equipment, or other device); and

(2) which any manufacturer, dealer, or distributor of such device represents will provide higher fuel economy than would have resulted with the automobile as originally equipped, as determined under rules of the Administrator. Such term also includes a fuel additive for use in an automobile.

[15 U.S.C. 2011]

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SEC. 512. (a) Within 180 days after the date of enactment of this title, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Congress and the President a comprehensive report setting forth findings and containing conclusions and recommendations with respect to (1) a requirement that each new automobile be equipped with a fuel flow instrument reading directly in miles per gallon, and (2) the most feasible means of equipping used automobiles with such instruments. Such report shall include an examination of the effectiveness of such instruments in promoting voluntary reductions in fuel consumption, the cost of such instruments, means of encouraging automobile purchasers to voluntarily purchase automobiles equipped with such instruments, and any other factor bearing on the cost and effectiveness of such instruments and their use.

(b)(1) Within 180 days after the date of enactment of this title the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Congress and the President a comprehensive report setting forth findings and containing conclusions and recommendations with respect to whether or not electric vehicles and other vehicles not consuming fuel (as defined in the first sentence of section 501(5)) should be covered by this part. Such report shall include an examination of the extent to which any such vehicle should be included under the provisions of this part, the manner in which energy requirements of such vehicles may be compared with energy requirements of fuel-consuming vehicles, the extent to which inclusion of such vehicles would stimulate their production and introduction into commerce, and any recommendations for legislative action.

(2) As used in this subsection, the term "electric vehicle" means vehicle powered primarily by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, or other portable sources of electrical current.

(c)(1) After an exemption has been granted under section 503(b)(3), the Secretary and the Secretary of Labor shall annually conduct a joint examination of the extent to which the amendment made to section 503(b) by section 4(a)(1) of the Automobile Fuel Efficiency Act of 1980

(A) achieves the purposes of that Act and this title, including whether such amendment has promoted employment in the United States related to motor vehicle manufacturing,

(B) has not caused undue harm to the motor vehicle manufacturing sector in the United States, and

(C) has permitted any manufacturer that has assembled passenger automobiles which are considered domestically manufactured under section 503(b)(2)(E) to thereafter assemble in the United States passenger automobiles of the same model type which have less than 75 percent of their value added in the United States or Canada, together with the reasons for such action.

(2) The Secretary shall include the results of such examination in each annual report that is made to the Congress under subsection (a) more than 180 days after an exemption has been granted under

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