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I suspect there is a kind of Parkinson's law that is operating in this situation from the late body of reports in an inverse way to the amount of funding.

This first happened in Illinois. During the past 5 years the total funds available for vocational education programs has been virtually constant while the volume of occupational programs, courses and enrollments has more than doubled. In 1969, the first year after the 1968 amendments, the funds that we got in the community colleges on a credit-hour basis were enough to compensate for the increased costs of offering the occupational courses as over against the academic ones, and this kind of carrot encouraged many local boards to move quite smartly into the occupational programs.

Today our return averages on a credit-hour is less than half of what it did in 1969 and less than half of the extra costs of fielding the occupational programs. Of course, there have been some additional payments for the disadvantaged and the handicapped. However, these payments in themselves have nowhere near been adequate to provide the extra services for these two categories, which increasingly are community college responsibilities.

As you know, in order to qualify for the extra return for the disadvantaged and the handicapped under the Vocational Education Act, we have to offer identifiable special services for these individuals yet along with the pattern of declining funds, the responsibilities of the community colleges have expanded.

We see this part in the increasing shifts to occupational programs. The mere figures are pointing out that within the last few years community colleges have moved from 13 percent to 44 percent in occupational education program enrollments, but this does not illustrate the entire picture.

I would like to call the committee's attention to tab F within your display, which illustrates graphically the expansion of programs within my home State of Illinois. I think there are many reasons for this tremendous increase in enrollment in the occupational programs. I suspect we are reaching more and more of the mass of American population. We have identified each group, socioeconomic groups that are perhaps beyond the range of the high schools. Perhaps we have more success in the occupational programs because they have a practical rather than theoretical orientation.

We get many more part-time students who seek upgrading and updating. We offer more of a program choice. There are a thousand substantive alternatives to liberal arts and strictly college transfer programs which characterize the older junior colleges. I think an additional important factor is that increasingly the new and emerging jobs require less than 4 years of college, but more than high school. Again, I refer the committee to tab F, which illustrates the extensive range of programs of an occupational nature which are currently being developed. These are the programs to prepare the technicians, paraprofessionals, middle management, and these three terms are used almost synonymously. The programs for this middle level of personnel are offered currently across the full spectrum of human knowledge.

I think, increasingly, in community colleges we identify 5 major groups quite in distinction to the kinds of identifications there have been through the secondary schools where we have had anywhere from 7 to 15 different clusters of categories established. We see the business areas, the health areas, the engineering programs, the public and human services and even in the performing arts, the area of humanities increasingly offers job opportunities which the community colleges are responding to.

I call your attention to such terms as electronic technicians, junior accountants, dental hygienists, renal dialysis technicians, the new breed to operate the kidney machines, child care, corrections personnel in the areas of law enforcement, prison work and in probation work, radio and TV broadcasting technicians, environmental control personnel and the new and very exciting one which threatens to revolutionalize the professional field of law, legal assistants. And these are all programs within the purview and current offering of the community colleges.

I think it is no accident that this list is very heavy in the area of public and human services where the long-range employment opportunities are most prominent and where the kinds of services needed by our citizens, particularly in large cities, are most outstanding. These, of course, are the areas with the cutting edge in which the community colleges are moving.

Along with this broad range of occupational programs, which are geared basically to the recent high school graduates, I must point out that community colleges have increased responsibility for adult education. There is a substantive and documented shift from the postsecondary area for the responsibility for adult education and it is a kind of education that is heavily loaded on the occupational side. I think a dramatic instance that might be pointed out in my generalization, just about this time the Chicago Board of Education, under strong financial stringency, gave up its responsibility and operation of the entire adult evening program, including some 26,000 citizens.

The city colleges in Chicago, which are the 2-year institutions, as the sole remaining public institution in the city, took on the responsibilty and currently operate the programs whch previously were the entire adult education offering of the secondary school system.

There are perhaps a number of kinds of adult education that community colleges are particularly conversant with. This is the traditional type. Most community college enrollment is heavily enrolled toward the evening programing, toward the adult, part-time students. Somewhere between 50 and 60 percent of the enrollment at typical community colleges would be geared to the part-time evening student, the adult. who seeks to a great extent job improvement.

There are some newer types, however, and I perhaps had best identify these as being geared to particular groups of individuals, and one of the areas I think that is emerging is that of in-service training for public service employees. In Chicago we have identified a super department at a city college called the Public Service Institute, which has entered into close relationships with the Civil Service Commission. with the county government and with the State and Federal Govern ments in a full-range of programs.

One striking example is that the guards at the county jail in Chicago, which is a county establishment under contract with city colleges, which receive in-service education by the college staff on their own home site in the county jail.

A second program which I would just like to point out to you is that community colleges are increasingly involved in the nationwide program for upgrading and updating of Federal employees. The Federal regional colleges, which operate in all 10 Federal regional districts, have a strong heavy loading of community college input. There are in addition to these some short-term programs that have been developed for adults and these programs are geared to meet new Government standards for industrial transportation safety. They are geared to environmental control and geared to consumer protection.

Let me mention three. I have had the good fortune to visit one of the new community colleges in the San Francisco area which received a grant from the Department of Transportation to prepare instructors for commercial driving schools. Part of the concern of the Department of Transportation, of course, was not only to promote better instruction for our young people, for the drivers of tomorrow, but also to inculcate safety standards, safety habits in the teaching so it could be communicated to the students.

City colleges in Chicago currently are offering updating short-term courses for automobile mechanics throughout the whole city to make them acquainted with the new requirements for emission control equipment, as required by the Environmental Control Protection Agency. The third and final example, the city council in Chicago is preparing an ordinance to go into effect in September which will require all restaurant owners and all beverage dispensers to have exposure to the knowledge of sanitation practices, food and beverage sanitation prac


The city colleges in Chicago in cooperation with the others are offering courses on a 2-credit-hour basis for restaurants and for beverage dispensers, to bring them into line with pending legislation.

The last category of adult education I would like to comment on, which the community colleges are taking in their stride, is related to the comment I made earlier about the Chicago Board of Education giving the entire area of adult education to the community colleges. What we have acquired is some 26,000 individuals, many unemployed, many underemployed, almost exclusively low income, almost entirely minorities, blacks, Latinos, American Indians, Appalachian whites and recent immigrants to the United States, the whole category of individuals who desperately need communications, occupational skills plus job training skills, and this is the mission.

This is the mission of a new agency that has been created called Chicago Urban Skills Institute, which takes individuals, adults, in need of these two essential ingredients, communication skills and job skills, and provides it for them.

I think the implication of this perhaps goes beyond the specific program. What it suggests is that we are entering a new definition of postsecondary education, a definition which indicates that anyone beyond the post-high school age can better be serviced under the umbrella of

the community college and this is true regardless of the formal level of academic preparation even though the individual may read at the third-grade level.

Along with this area of adult education I would point out that the entire group, the entire target area, and this may be more true in the big cities community colleges than elsewhere, the community college increasingly has responsibility for the economically disadvantaged of

all areas.

We have in city colleges in Chicago an enrollment wherein 55 percent of our total enrollment comes from families with incomes under $9,000. The most affluent of our community colleges has 32 percent of this type of student in that kind of damaged income category, the last affluent, Malcolm X has 91 percent. For this group the occupational education programs, particularly if they are coupled with work experience and more realistic approach to occupational education, seem to be the most promising area.

Now, in summary, let me say that in the last 6 years since the 1968 amendments, the community colleges have moved sharply toward occupational education, toward adult education, toward the disadvantaged and more recently toward the handicapped as the legal responsibility for this category has been extended beyond the high schools.

Let me move from this generalization to a few specifics on some of the provisions of the legislation. Now, in the area of work experience we believe in it very strongly. It gives a realistic flavor to education. It is a motivational kind of thing. It permits students to realize they can make it in the real world and for many of our disadvantaged this is critical. They can read about this and get their theory at a

later date.

Along with their education they can get the income which for many of them is necessary to keep them going. You see a large trend in this direction, perhaps even to making cooperative education a kind of general education available not only to students who have identified majors, but perhaps even as a general orientation for all of our community college students.

We recommend that parts G and H of the education amendments be combined into a single part identified as "Work Experience" and that the two of them be fused together to permit greater flexibility. I have just three other comments I would like to make. The provision of the 1968 act which provides for cooperative arrangements is an encouraging development which needs to be expanded. There are cooperative arrangements of all kinds with public institutions. Perhaps a word might be said about cooperative relationships with proprietary institutions.

We have within the detailed testimony an example of Blackhawk College in Illinois, which does contract with the proprietary schools to the mutual advantage of both institutions and to the advantage of the students.

Finally, there are a number of occupational education services which we believe need a good deal of emphasis and support. One is guidance and counseling. As we see career education expanding over the whole human spectrum of all ages, we need counselors and need counseling

approaches which identifies for students of all ages the full range of occupational opportunities, and they are tremendous, which relate these opportunities to particular programs, which monitor students in those programs and which provide for shifts in student choice, if this

be necessary.

We have need for a better approach to data acquisition. We desperately need better labor market data. We need better identification of our students, what happens to them and whether their jobs relate to the kind of training they have actually had.

I submit this is an important prerequisite before we make judgments about programs not being geared to areas of manpower needs. Last of all, there are some special projects which we would support strongly within the 1968 amendments and ask they be continued and expanded, and those are provided in parts C, D and I. We think they are exemplary programs: Research and training, and curriculum development. We believe that practice is it is hard to separate these and we would recommend that all three be combined, that in the distribution of the funds that 50 percent of the allocated amount go to the States and that the remaining 50 percent be split and administered through the Deputy Commissioner of the Bureau of Occupational Adult Education and the director of the community college students. In this way we feel it can provide for more flexibility plus the recognition of both secondary and postsecondary.

[Supplemental statement follows:]


Mr. Chairman, now that we have reviewed the present legislation, I will center my remarks around certain programs and services which we in the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges believe are particularly essential. AACJC believes that future legislation must establish and provide a broad range of programs and services for all citizens which are necessary for the creation and operation of readily available, high quality, future-oriented occupational and development opportunities.

We have spoken earlier of the need for flexibility in vocational education, so that these programs will address the challenges of the present and the future, rather than be tied to a backward view. I refer you to Tabs F, G and H to see the extensive programs in the City Colleges of Chicago, and the State of Illinois, and the state's growth in postsecondary enrollments.


We see a current need for authorization for training programs in new and emerging service occupations, such as the following:

(1) Paraprofessionals for new human services careers.

(2) Upgrading of personnel employed with agencies and private service organizations working with offender rehabilitation, handicapped persons and the elderly.

(3) Retraining of workers who are displaced from their careers due to retirement policies or technological change.

(4) Technical manpower for energy resource research and production.

(5) Provision of occupational and vocational education programs and services to persons in correctional institutions.

(6) Training to strengthen employees of local governments.

(7) Technical training to serve the manpower needs of industries undergoing rapid technological change and/or growth.

(8) Short term preparation of personnel required to implement state and federal standards pertaining to industrial and transportation safety, environmental regulation, consumer protection, and related priorities.

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