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continuing to do those tasks ourselves. That's unorthodox approach number one... admit that somebody else may get the job done better. Number two, I advocated and have agreed to reassign about a third of our agency's personnel. As a task force, they will work for a year under the direction of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. And I am dedicated to making that work out so well that in the joint evaluation targeted for next May, those assignments may become permanent. You KNOW that bureaucrats aren't supposed to offer a third of their staff to another agency!
These staffing alterations and the negotiations that brought them about have helped provide solutions, or potential solutions, to certain functional problems. Chiefly, to the improvement of program development, youth group leadership, instructor certification or other competence assessment, and inservice teacher education. It would be a mistake, however, to view these alterations as having "solved"-and I put that word in quotes-all of our real or imagined problems in state level administration. Insofar as our administrative remedies can take us. these and other functional alterations that are still to be worked out move in positive directions. Where there are problems within the statutes, however, administrative agreemens obviously cannot provide the necessary remediation. What can and I sincerely hope may yet emerge administratively, is an agreed-upon package of legislative remediation designed to correct some of these otherwise insoluble problems.
Now, let me move rapidly to some final remarks about pluses and minuses in legislation at the Federal level.
If our scenario contains victims and villains, certainly the states have become the victims of the appropriations process villains. Our State Advisory Council chairman already told you here today that it's tough to run the railroad on a funding base on continuing resolutions. When the additional uncertainty of a potential impoundment is added, much in the way of useful planning just grinds to a halt. I don't know what the reasons for this are. Each member of our Congressional delegation seems determined to improve it. And perhaps this year will prove to be the turn-around point, with HR-69 having passed and been signed. I hope so... and I won't belabor THAT point further.
On balance, I am disappointed with the outcome thus far of the promised new Vocational leadership from the U.S. Office of Education. The potentials of the 1972 amendments have not been very expeditiously developed. If there is some new impact by vocational education in the Federal heirarchy, it hasn't yet reached the Northwest territory. I hasten to add, however, that within the constraints under which they must operate, the Region X Office of USOE has built and maintained an excellent working relationship to our state offices. That is, however, in my judgment, the result of their doing a good job in spite of the system, not because of it.
Related to those 1972 amendments, our governing board adopted a carefully constructed definition for "Industrial Arts-Vocational" into the State Plan just a week ago tomorrow. Together with some start-up regulations, we expect to translate that change in the Federal act into improved programs by the time of our next budget cycle.
As one final event relating to the 1972 Amendments, Mr. Chairman, I appeared earlier today for the first time as a member of our State's Council for Higher Education; more particularly, a representative on that Council in fulfilling its role as the state's 1202 Commission. Despite the inexplicable abdication of the U.S. Office from its initial and rightful insistence to review the "broad and equitable representation" of these commissions demanded by the Act, Governor Evans has moved ahead to bring that kind of balance about. I am really optimistic that the little planning funds were received may hatch out some usable new directions in this year ahead.
In reviewing recent Federal developments, I must express my keen disappointment at the House action to reduce Part I research funding by 75%. In any business enterprise, research investments protect the integrity of the product. Education is little different. It is particularly disappointing when not only single states' research was affected but the national curriculum network was jeopardized by this $3 million loss. I believe that the six-state curriculum laboratory being operated by our agency at this time is one of the most resultful projects recently undertaken. It has been an excellent investment from a cost-benefit standpoint and a most useful tool for the vocational educators. At the time of passage, as you know Mr. Chairman, I voiced real concern for whatever priority decisions
brought about that reduction and was joined in that by numbers of my colleagues from the National Association of State Directors.
In conclusion, I want to express my gratitude to the subcommittee for the concern that your being here to conduct this hearing represents. There are times in which those of us in the field are isolated, or we think we are, from the decision-making processes at the Federal level. It is reassuring to have this kind of opportunity to communicate our concerns and to express our appreciation for the support you have provided us. I believe the record of our stewardship in Washington State is a good one. We have carefully invested Federal dollars in strict accordance with the purposes for which they were appropriated. Those dollars have produced measurable improvements. I assure you that our agency proposes to continue that careful stewardship.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COORDINATING COUNCIL FOR
Hon. CARL D. PERKINS,
Chairman, General Subcommittee on Education, House of Representatives, Rayburn Building, Washington, D.C.
DEAR CONGRESSMAN PERKINS: In response to your request we are pleased to provide data relating to vocational education program activities in the State of Washington. The interest and concern displayed by your office in the cause of improved vocational education opportunities has been widely noted and deeply appreciated by those of us on the firing line. Enlightened cooperation between the Congress and the States is a key constituent of successful progress. I ap plaud your leadership in bringing that about.
Your letter requested a variety of comparative data. As you noted, there can be some difficulties in responding when data collected in past years may have assumed a format in collection and storage that is incompatible with the manner in which your questions are asked. However, to the best extent possible. the eclosed data responds to those questions. Please feel free to ask for additional clarification in any event where we have not provided sufficiently responsive information.
Again with thanks for this opportunity to be of service, I am,
ARTHUR A. BINNIE,
A number of very significant steps contributing to improvements in the delivery of vocational education services to the people of the State of Washington have occurred within the past ten years. A cardinal underlying rationale under lying many or most of these has been the refocus of emphasis from "program centered" planning and activities to "people centered" planning and activities Encouraged by Federal leadership in the Vocational Education Act of 1963 and the Amendments of 1968, our State's legislative and administrative response to meeting new and reshaped occupational training needs has been positive and resultful.
Chief among these has been the very creation of this agency; a unique freestanding statutory body whose entire responsibility it is to administer the programs of vocational education, or supervise the administration thereof, under the State Plan for Vocational Education. Serving both the statewide common schools system and the statewide community college system from an independent. objective, statutory base, this Council has provided leadership and direction that compliments legislative priorities at the Federal and State levels that urge rapid expansion and improvement of the delivery of vocational education services The concurrent (1967) action by the Washington State Legislature in creating the statewide system of community colleges has provided additional vehicles over which to deliver these services. From a 1967 base wherein approximately 24% of the programs in community colleges were vocational in nature, that ratio has grown to approximately 44% today. In real numbers terms for FY-1972 secondary vocational programs served 132,801 persons while postsecondary programs served 125,194 persons in the combination of 89,624 community colleges enrollees plus 35,570 enrolled in the five Vocational-Technical Institutes operated under common school jurisdiction.
It cannot go unnoticed that the U.S. Office of Education's 1971-72 survey of the 50 states indicated the per-capita support at the state level for vocational education ranked the State of Washington first in the nation. Legislative appropriations and locally generated funds have, together, provided first class support for the vocational education enterprise in our State. This, we believe, says more about where our citizens put their priorities than all the rhetoric which could be written about the philosophic acceptance of occupational education's goals of providing alternatives to baccalaureate-level job objectives.
We believe also that implicit in this acceptance of alternatives to college-level studies is the implementation and acceptance of long held beliefs within our State in what has now been conceptualized as "career education" nationally. A philosophy that visualizes an educational process as a continuum, providing the competencies suited to the needs of the individual as they are needed by the individual. A process which does not preclude later opportunity. A process which succeeds in breaking the lock-step progression terminating at whatever level its initial continuity is interrupted. A process that demands flexibility of itself instead of its user.
Vocational education is only one component of that process. But the lessons learned regarding student-centered service delivery over the years by the vocational education community have well prepared that community to provide leadership in applying those learned lessons across the whole spectrum of education... whether that be the extension of career awareness into the lower grades, or the applications of career orientation into high schools and beyond, related to programs of career preparation.
Nothing about this process says "you shouldn't go to college". Instead, it says to some that there are satisfying, needed, rewarding occupations that don't require college degrees to enter. Further, it says, many exist which will never make the requirement for degree holding. But the real promise of the process is contained, in our judgment, in the absence of the "either/or" implication that unless one embarks upon and uninterruptedly completes professional preparation, only severely diminished later opportunities to do so would exist. It was this ultimatum, perpetuated in large part by higher education itself, that had to be dispelled. We believe great progress toward that goal has been made in Washington State.
Perhaps your question about our views of the "growth of vocational education within (your) state" was not designed to elicit these perceptions of philosophic concepts. However, it has been a long held personal belief of the undersigned that continuing to explore "vocational education" in isolation from the whole of the educational process has resulted in some distortions in public perceptions of our efforts and progress. Certainly one of these, at least, has been to perpetuate the separation of "vocational" from "general" education and contribute to the implication that somehow something less than total success results from a vocational education. Therefore, I left that "growth", as evaluated in the detailed data that follows, merited also being viewed in the total perspective of growth that has occurred in the educational process within our State. In my judgment, only part of "growth" is measured in numbers. An equally important part is not easily measured since it relates to philosophies and perceptions. But in long term effect, the latter may be more important than the former . . . growth in numbers follows growth in perceptions.
Proceeding then to the specifics of your questions, the following data has been assembled to match, as nearly as possible, the schema your questionnaire established.
Table 1 responds to question #1, total enrollments for FY-63, 68, 72, projected FY-77.
Question #2 and its subsections relate to data based upon programs conducted under Part B of PL 90-576.
Table 2 responds to question 2(a); job training enrollments in high school programs.
Question 2(b) asks for some perceptions of the growth and development in Federal job training programs for youth and adults, highlighting the initiation or expansion of newer jobs: emerging occupations. Although unrelated to Part B funding as stipulated to be the parameters of this section of the response. Federal job training does imply the activities of MDTA programs, covered in some additional detail under question 2(f). These MDTA sponsored programs
have consistently produced useful, innovative approaches to training with many applications to parallel vocational needs throughout the system. We believe additional values have been developed by our employing a system of competi tive bidding for these programs wherein a variety of local educational agencies are obliged to rethink their approaches to training problems in the face of competition from other local educational agencies. In both terms of time and costs. this has proven productive. In term of cost/benefit results, our insistence o successful placement as a key component of the contract selection process has steadily raised the success ratios. These same institutions frequently apply lessons learned under these specially funded programs to their regular curric ulua. Directly relating to Part B programs, I believe a useful correlation can be shown in Table #1, indicating growth and projected growth in certain key areas. Health occupations are rapidly expanding. You will note the growth pattern from a little less than 2000 in 1963, more than tripled by 19.2 and almost tripled again in the 1977 projection. Part B funds have supported critically needed new programs of training for Emergency Medical Technicians, medical and dental paraprofessionals and community health aides. In the field of public service, we have also employed Part B funds for essential fire serv ice training and contributed to police science development and coordination. These aids to public health and welfare are of great value to our State's cit:zens while simultaneously providing employment opportunities with rapid expanding futures for the trainees. The opportunities are equally applicable t new entrants to the labor market and retraining and upgrading needs. You 21 note also the cyclical nature of Technical (16) training, following the patters of Washington's general economy. The 1963 to 1968 reduction, a 1972 platest and the more than doubled 1977 projection tracks the decline and resurgence of engineering-related jobs in our labor market. Many specific technical skills have been developed to compliment the State's industrial developments in aerospace forestry, sea resources, agricultural engineering and ship building and repair, addition to others. You will note also the steady growth of the category "D tribution", as service trades and marketing needs expand with the economy. A special emphasis has been placed on the development of training programs with " the scope of the hospitality industries as the business of tourism becomes (2 of Washington State's growing economic resources.
Table 3 relates to questions 2 a+c the Posthighschool enrollments, further refined to reflect the division of postsecondary training in our State betwee the statewide community college system and the five Vocational-Technical Irstitutes that remain under the jurisdiction of the Superintendent of Pub!" Instruction as part of the common schools system. A further factor in postsecondary enrollments is represented by a sector of the educational enterpri about which this agency's records contain only estimates; proprietary vocational schools. We estimate that an additional 20.000 persons per year are enro in these schools. That additional numbers do not appear in either Table #1 #3 since factual information and breakdowns are not available.
Table 4 completes the response to question 2(a) relating to “adult” enr[ ments.
Table 5 responds to questions 2(d), Disadvantaged, and 2(e) Handicapped enrollments.
Table 6 responds to question 2(f) regarding those unemployed (which w equate with enrollments in Preparatory programs) and those employed needing retraining (which are shown as Supplemental program enrollees). The third section of Table 6 responds to MDTA enrollment data and completes question 2(f).
Question 2(g) (i) asks for a detailed description of the methodology employed by this agency in distributing funds from Part B among local educational agen cies. The following extracts from the State Plan for Vocational Education designed and administered by the agency, portray those details. Extract: State Plan. Part I, Administrative Provisions.
SECTION 3.26: CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING RELATIVE PRIORITY OF LOCAL APPLICATION 3.26-1 Manpower Needs and Job Opportunities.-The manpower needs and job opportunities are determined through: the endorsement of programs by ar propriate local vocational education advisory committee(s) (See Section 3.42-1 a statewide employment/enrollment forecasting system which compares actre enrollment with work force trends and then measures the impact the act
enrollment has on demand, data from the Washington State Department of Employment Security, data from the U.S. Department of Labor, recommendations from the State Advisory Council, and data and surveys and other studies. 3.26-2 Vocational Education Needs.-The Coordinating Council for Occupational Education will annually identify vocational education needs of the groups of persons described in Section 102.51 (a) as to not only reflect the delineations made in Section 102.51(d) of the regulations, but to also assure that there is a proper and equitable balance maintained among the various services and activities as covered in Section 102.51(b). Vocational education needs, showing continuing, changing, and/or emerging needs, will be measured by the incidence of dropouts, handicapped students, disadvantaged students and youth unemployment and other information.
The results of the evaluation records will be used as a basis for reviewing existing programs to determine the need for reoffering, improving or cancelling out programs.
326-3 Relative Ability to Pay.-The relative ability of a local education agency to pay for its educational programs, services and activities is not applicable because of an equalization formula for the common schools and because of state appropriations for community colleges.
326-4 Relative Costs of Programs, Services and Activities.-Relative excess program costs are factored into the state appropriated fund allocations to each local education agency, and therefore the basic excess costs are generally covered through state appropriations.
Examples of application
The encumbrance formula is based upon four factors specified by P.L. 90–576 (factors are underscored below):
Manpower Needs. 175 possible points.
Each new approved vocational program in an identified occupational area25 points (Endorsement of vocational programs by an appropriate vocational education advisory committee constitutes identification of a need for training of manpower for specific occupations.)
Vocational Education Needs: 100 possible points.
Districts with a high incidence of high school dropouts-25 points.
Vocational Supervision and Vocational Counseling-150 point maximum. Dollars Spent by District for Vocational Education-225 point maximum. (Data is based upon expenditure per full-time-equivalent vocational student using $900 as the minimum FTE expenditure. Nine-hundred dollars represents average basic and weighted revenue to district per vocational FTE.) Ability to Pay: Covered by State Equalization Formula. Following is the explanation of assignment of points per district.
POINTS EARNED BY "x" SCHOOL
I. Manpower Needs-175 Possible Points
New programs-Data was extracted from applications for approval of new programs in vocational education. These programs were those approved for firsttime operation within a district during 1972-73. Each approved new offering (not class or section) has a value of 25 points and those processed after August 21 were not included at the time of the allocations.
II. Vocational Education Needs-100 Possible Points
Dropouts-Data for these entries was taken from annual consolidated A-1 reports (submitted annually to Administration & Finance) which contain dropout statistics for the 1970-71 school year. A scale consisting of reported percentages of dropout is developed and points assigned accordingly The greater the need for dropout prevention through improved vocational programming, the greater the number of points generated. Maximum of 25 points per district available. (Scale of .1% to 8.0%.)