« PreviousContinue »
(f) Normal operation. The performance by each part of the locomotive of those functions for which each part was designed.
(g) Permissible. Formally approved by the Bureau of Mines. This term shall apply only to completely assembled locomotives identified by an approval plate.
(h) Toxic and objectionable gases. Toxic and objectionable gases present in the exhaust of Diesel engines are carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and aldehydes. The exhaust also will contain oxides of sulfur if the fuel contains sulfur.
(i) Fuel: air ratio. The ratio of fuel to air present in the combustion space of the engine, expressed in terms of weight, as pound of fuel per pound of air. Fuel: air ratio at any operating condition may be calculated from the composition of the exhaust gas and of the fuel.
(j) Gas-air mixtures, explosive mixtures, inflammable mixtures, or inflammable atmospheres. These terms refer to such mixtures created by mixing natural gas with normal air. Natural gas that will be used by the Bureau of Mines in testing Diesel mine locomotives consists chiefly of methane, with smaller proportions of higher hydrocarbons and approximately 1 percent of nitrogen.
§ 31.3 Conditions under which approvals may be granted; preliminary steps-(a) Consultation. Upon appointment, manufacturers, engineers, or their representatives may visit the Central Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines at 4800 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pa., to discuss the requirements of this Part 31 or to obtain criticisms of proposed designs of equipment to be submitted for test. There is no charge for such consultation.
(b) Application. Before the Bureau of Mines will undertake the active investigation of any equipment, manufacturers shall have filed a written application requesting that the necessary official inspections, tests, and examination of drawings be made. This application shall be addressed to the Director, Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C., and shall be accompanied by a certified check or bank draft payable to Treasurer of the United States to cover all required fees. A copy of the application shall be sent to the Engineer in Charge of Diesel Testing,
Bureau of Mines, 4800 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. There are no application blanks to be filled out.
(c) Fees charged for testing.
ings and specifications and re-
$25.00 2. For tests to determine the com
position of exhaust gases from
300.00 3. For tests to determine the effec
tiveness of engine flame arrester 1 00.00 4. For detailed inspection of engine flame arrester..
25.00 5. For detailed inspection of mani
folds, scrubbers, etc., making
25.00 6. For detailed inspection of each
explosion-proof enclosure of
25.00 7. For explosion test of each explo
sion-proof enclosure of electri-
25.00 8. For each inspection of a com
pletely assembled locomotive... 50.00 9. For the final examination and re
cording of all the necessary
50.00 10. For each half day or fraction
thereof, spent in the examina-
7.50 EXAMPLE OF FEES (For locomotives having six electrical com
partments and two types of flame arres
ters) Item in
X 1 $25.00 Item 2..
300.00 Item 3.
X 2= 200.00 Item 4.
X 2 50.00 Item 5.
X 1 25.00 Item 6
X 6 150.00 Item 7
X 6 150.00 Item 8
Xi 50.00 Item 9
X 1 50.00
.-1,000.00 If the applicant is uncertain as to the amount of fee he should send with his application, the information will be given him upon inquiry addressed to the Engineer in Charge of Diesel Testing, Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, Penn sylvania.
(d) Drawings and specifications required. (1) The Bureau of Mines will not undertake the inspection and test of locomotive equipment until a set of legible drawings, bill of material, and specifications sufficient in number and
detail to identify the parts fully have been delivered to the Engineer in Charge of Diesel Testing. No drawings or specifications should be sent to the Washington office of the Bureau. Drawings should be numbered and dated to facilitate identification and reference in the records.
(2) The drawings and specifications for locomotives that are to be submitted for approval shall include the following:
(i) An assembly drawing or drawings clearly showing the over-all dimensions of the locomotive, the character, size and relative arrangement of the electrical parts and the wiring between them, also the size and position of the fuel tank, engine flame arresters, the exhaust-gas cooling and dilution systems, and other protective features of the engine.
(ii) A drawing or drawings that shall specify the material and detailed dimensions of all parts that make up explosionproof enclosures, also of those parts that form any portion of the joints through which possible flames might escape.
(iii) Any other drawings necessary to identify or explain any feature that is to be considered in the approval of the locomotive.
(iv) A wiring diagram for all electrical equipment and circuits on the locomotive shall be submitted.
(v) The complete rating of each starting motor and charging generator, also the capacity of all fuses, and the setting of overload protective devices shall be given. The size of conductors used in all the various circuits shall be specified.
(3) All drawings are to be handled as strictly confidential by the Bureau of Mines.
(e) Factory inspection form. Each locomotive shall be carefully inspected by the manufacturer before it leaves the factory. The manufacturer will be required to furnish the Bureau of Mines with a copy of the form to be used by him in this inspection. The form shall draw special attention to the points that must be checked in making certain that the safety features of the locomotive are in proper condition, are complete in all respects, and agree in every detail with the drawings and specifications filed with the Bureau.
(f) Instruction manual. The manufacturer shall furnish an instruction manual with each locomotive. This manual shall give complete instructions
covering the operation and servicing of the locomotive, particularly with reference to proper adjustment and maintenance of the engine and its auxiliaries in minimizing the production of smoke and toxic gases in the exhaust, in reducing fire hazards, and maintaining flame arresters and flame-proof equipment in proper condition.
A copy of this manual shall be submitted to the Bureau for review.
(g) Material required for investigation. Unless requested to do so, the manufacturer need not send a complete locomotive for the purposes of inspection and test. Usually one engine with protective equipment, one fuel tank, one motor, starting switch or other electrical unit of a given design need be shipped to the Bureau for the investigation. Any special tools necessary to disassemble any parts for inspection or test shall be furnished with the equipment submitted.
(h) Shipment of material. All shipments must be prepaid and should be plainly marked for the attention of the Engineer in charge of Diesel Testing. Before making any shipments the manufacturer shall obtain shipping instructions from the Bureau. He shall arrange and pay for any trucking that may be necessary between the freight depot and the testing station. He shall also take care of crating and removal of parts upon completion of the investigation.
Inspection and tests usually are undertaken in the order of receipt of parts, provided that application, fees, and drawings have been received.
(i) Assistance required during investigation. When requested to do so, the manufacturer shall provide one or more men to assist in disassembling parts for inspection and in preparing them for test. These persons may serve as witnesses of the tests.
(j) Witnesses. No one is to be present during the tests of any equipment except the necessary Bureau of Mines engineers, their assistants, the manufacturer's representatives, and such other persons as may be mutually agreed upon by the manufacturer and the Bureau.
$ 31.4 General requirements-(a) Quality of material, workmanship, and design. The Bureau of Mines reserves the right to refuse to test any equipment that, in the opinion of qualified representatives of that Bureau, is not constructed of suitable materials, or that
gives evidence of faulty workmanship, or The component parts of any flame that is not designed upon sound engi- arrester must be positively positioned. neering principles. This right shall apply If a flame arrester of the spaced-plate to all parts of the equipment, and to the type is used, the thickness of the plates design thereof, whether or not the points must be at least 0.125 inch; the space in question are covered specifically by between plates must be no greater than the requirements of this part 31.
0.02 inch; and the width of plates must (b) Type of engine considered for ap
be at least 1 inch. The unsupported proval. Only locomotives equipped with
length of the plates shall be such that engines of the compression-ignition type
deformation in the intended application will be considered for approval. Such en
shall not exceed 0.002 inch. Plates shall gines shall be designed to operate only on
be of material not subject to corrosion liquid fuel of flash point not less than
in the intended application. 150° F. The starting mechanism shall (3) Air shut-off valve in engine inconsist of an explosion-proof electric, take. A valve shall be provided in the motor or other device considered safe; engine intake system so that the supply engines using gasoline or other volatile of air to the engine may be shut off. fuel for starting will not be considered. This valve shall be operable from the
(c) Fuel injection. The fuel-injection driver's compartment and shall be so system of the engine shall be so con
arranged that it may be actuated only structed that the mechanism controlling
when the fuel supply to the engine is maximum fuel injection may be fixed
shut off. definitely, permitting adjustment only by (4) Air cleaner on engine intake. An breaking a seal on a locked compart- air cleaner of automotive type shall be ment, or by altering design. Provision included in the engine intake system. shall be made in the fuel-injection sys- The air cleaner shall be situated in the tem to permit suitable adjustment in intake system so that the intake air maximum fuel injection for engine oper- shall pass through the cleaner before ation at different barometric pressures. entering the intake flame arrester. The (d) Engine intake system-(1) Con
size and design of the air cleaner shall struction of engine intake system. The
be such that resistance to air flow will not intake system of the engine (exclusive increase rapidly in dusty atmospheres. of the air cleaner) shall be of such con
(5) Attachment of gage to engine instruction that it will withstand internal take system. A vacuum gage shall be pressures of 125 pounds per square inch, attached to the engine intake system at or such internal pressures as may be point suitable for indicating total presdeveloped within it in explosion tests sure drop through that system. The with gas-air mixtures, whichever is the gage shall be graduated in inches of water greater. All joints in the intake system and shall be situated in the driver's shall be formed by flanged metal-to- compartment. metal contacts designed in accordance (e) Engine exhaust system-(1) Conwith requirements for other types of struction of engine exhaust system. The explosion-proof equipment as outlined exhaust system of the engine shall be of in paragraph (i) (6) (ii) of this section.
such construction that it will withstand (2) Intake flame arrester. The intake
internal pressures of 125 pounds per
square inch or such internal pressures as system of the engine shall be equipped
may be developed within it in explosion with a flame arrester to prevent propa
tests with gas-air mixtures, whichever gation of flame from the system to a
pressure is the greater. All joints in the surrounding inflammable atmosphere. exhaust system shall be formed by The flame arrester shall be so designed flanged metal-to-metal contacts designed and attached to the intake system that in accordance with requirements for it may be removed readily for inspection, other types of explosion-proof equiprepair, replacement, or cleaning. The ment as outlined in paragraph (i) (6) (ii) flame arrester shall be so constructed of this section, that it may be cleaned readily. The (2) Exhaust flame arrester. The exflame arrester shall be of sufficiently haust system of the engine shall be prorugged construction to withstand use vided with a flame arrester to prevent in its intended application and shall be propagation or egress of flame or heated so situated in the locomotive assembly particles from the exhaust system to a that it is protected from damage.
surrounding inflammable atmosphere.
The flame arrester shall be so designed that it is readily accessible for inspection, repair, replacement, or cleaning. The flame arrester shall be of sufficiently rugged construction to withstand use in its intended application and shall be so situated in the locomotive assembly that it is protected from damage.
The component parts of any flame arrester must be positively positioned. If a flame arrester of the spaced-plate type is used the thickness of the plates must be at least 0.125 inch; the space between plates must be no greater than 0.02 inch; and the width of plates must be at least 1 inch. The unsupported length of the plates shall be such that deformation in the intended application shall not exceed 0.002 inch. Plates shall be of material not subject to corrosion in the intended application.
(3) Exhaust cooling system. A cooling system shall be provided for the exhaust gas of the engine. The heat-dissipation capacity of this cooling system shall be such that the temperature of the undiluted exhaust gas shall not exceed 160° F. at the point of discharge from the cooling system under any condition of operation. A device shall be provided which shall stop the engine automatically and immedaitely if the temperature of the exhaust gas reaches 180° F. at the point of discharge from the cooling system.
Cooling preferably shall be obtained by a water spray entering the exhaust system at a point close to the outlet of the exhaust manifold or by passing the exhaust gas through water in suitable containers, or by a combination of the two. If a water spray is used, the water shall be delivered to the spray nozzle by a pump, and the water shall pass through a filtering device to protect the spray nozzle from clogging by extraneous material. Provision shall be made for draining and cleaning all exhaust cooling boxes included in the locomotive assembly.
If cooling equivalent to that obtained by the use of water can be provided by other means, such means will be considered acceptable.
(4) Control of surface temperature of exhaust systems. Provisions shall be made for limiting the temperature attained by the external surfaces of the exhaust system. The temperature of such surfaces shall not exceed 400° F. under any condition of engine operation.
If water-jacketed parts are used the jackets shall be integral with the parts in question. Insulating coverings that would absorb oil will not be considered acceptable.
If a water spray is employed to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas, as mentioned in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph (e), the spray shall be situated as closely as possible to the outlet of the exhaust mainfold to aid in reducing surface temperature of this portion of the exhaust system.
Exterior surfaces of the exhaust system shall be designed to minimize accumulation and lodgment of combustible dusts and to permit ready access to these surfaces for cleaning.
(5) Dilution of exhaust gas. Provision shall be made to dilute the exhaust gas with air before it is discharged from the locomotive into the surrounding atmosphere. The quantity of diluting air shall be such that the discharged mixture of exhaust gas and air shall not contain more than 100 parts per million, by volume, of carbon monoxide; 25 parts per million, by volume, of oxides of nitrogen (as equivalent nitrogen peroxide); or 10 parts per million, by volume, of aldehydes (as equivalent formaldehyde) under any condition of operation.
The final (diluted) exhaust of the locomotive shall be discharged in such manner that it is not directed toward the locomotive operator's compartment and shall be deflected downward so that persons alongside the locomotive do not encounter the exhaust at breathing level.
(6) Temperature indicator in exhaust system. A temperature-indicating device shall be provided in the exhaust system to indicate the temperature of the undiluted exhaust gas after its final contact with cooling water. The indicating portion of this device shall be situated in the operator's compartment of the locomotive.
(7) Provision for attachment of gage or gas-sampling equipment to exhaust system. A connection shall be provided in the engine exhaust system for temporary attachment of a gage at a point suitable for measuring the total back pressure in that system. This connection shall be suitable also for temporary attachment of gas-sampling equipment to the exhaust system. This opening into the exhaust system shall be provided with a locking closure.
(f) Composition of exhaust gas. Under normal operating conditions, and within the rated power output range, the undiluted exhaust gas of the engine shall not contain more than 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon monoxide.
(g) Locomotive fuel-supply system(1) Fuel tank. The fuel tank shall be fuel-tight and shall be of metal at least 416 inch thick welded at all seams. The fuel tank shall be provided with a drain plug (not a valve or pet cock) that shall be locked in position when inserted. The fuel tank shall be provided with a vent opening of such design that atmospheric pressure is maintained inside the tank and that discharge of liquid fuel from the vent opening is prevented. Construction of the fuel tank shall be such that fuel may be added to the tank only through a self-closing valve situated at least 1 foot from the exhaust manifold of the engine and preferably below it. The self-closing valve shall constitute a fuel-tight closure when fuel is not being added. Any part of the self-closing valve that would be detached during the addition of fuel shall be secured to the locomotive to prevent loss.
The fuel tank shall be a built-in unit comprising part of the locomotive assembly, and no provision shall be made for attachment of separate or auxiliary fuel tanks to the locomotive.
(2) Fuel lines. All fuel lines to the engine and its accessory parts shall be installed so that they are not subject to damage in ordinary use and shall be designed to resist breakage from vibration.
(3) Valve in fuel line. A shut-off mechanism, operable from the driver's compartment, shall be provided in the fuel system so that the engine may be stopped immediately in an emergency.
(h) Signal or warning devices. All locomotives shall be equipped with a bell, horn, or other suitable warning device. This device shall not be electrically operated.
(i) Electrical equipment-(1) Classification of electrical parts. The electrical parts of a locomotive that may cause ignition of mine gas and coal dust are classified as follows:
(i) Class 1. Class 1 shall include motors, starting switches, fuses and all their parts that may produce sparks or flashes as the result of normal operation. Headlights, motors, rheostats, electromagnets, and similar parts which may become dan. gerous because of failure of electrical
circuits in them are also included in this class. Parts in this classification shall be enclosed in explosion-proof casings.
(ii) Class 2. Class 2 shall include all parts, such as batteries and external connections and wiring between enclosures, that do not produce sparks or flashes as the result of normal operation but may do so as the result of accident. Parts in this classification shall have adequate shields or guards of a strength and character proportionate to the risk of injury, or else they shall be enclosed in explosion-proof casings.
(iii) Class 3. Class 3 shall include all parts such as plugs and receptacles that may produce sparks or flashes in normal operation, but are not of necessity operated while the locomotive is in a gassy place. Parts in this classification shall be enclosed in explosion-proof or adequately locked casings. If locked casings are used, they shall have adequate mechanical strength.
(2) Type of electrical system. The electrical system on the locomotives shall be completely insulated from the chassis, the engine, and all other metal parts.
(3) Automatic protection of electrical circuits and equipment. On locomotives using storage batteries for starting of engines, each electrical conductor from the battery to the starting motor shall be protected against short circuit by fuses or other suitable automatic circuitinterrupting devices placed at the battery unless conductors of adequate size are provided.
Fuses or other automatic circuit-interrupting devices shall be inserted at the point where branch circuits are connected to the main circuit between the charging generator and battery. Headlight circuits and circuits for instruments and instrument-panel lights are construed as being branch circuits.
Fuses shall be enclosed in explosionproof casings with locked or sealed covers.
(4) Conductors, conduits. and wiring. Every conductor shall have adequate insulation from “ground" and from conductors of opposite polarity. Insulation shall be selected with special reference to its ability to resist deterioration from engine heat and oil.
It is recommended that all conductors have a carrying capacity of not less than 110 percent of the total current rating of the motor or other load connected to