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Much, of course, will depend on the level of fiscal support for University of California extension yet to be determined by recommendation of the coordinating council for higher eduction and action of the State legislature. There is still another financial variable: change may result from one or more of the pending proposals in the National Congress for an expansion of Federal support to adult education. Certainly such assistance to university adult education would mean a rapid expansion of service, particularly to those population segments now excluded by high fees and expense-account financing. The expectation of support, moreover, is justified by experience with Federal aid to the Cooperative Extension Service through the Department of Agriculture and to vocational education through the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Once the fiscal problem is resolved in university extension, several well-defined trends and probable developments are indicated for the decade ahead.

I. The shift to postgraduate offerings with less emphasis on parallel degree credit courses is likely to accelerate. The phenomenon of advancing professionalism is now such a firmly rooted feature of university adult education that its future growth is well recognized.

II. There will be an increase in the number-and in the nature of sequential programs in the liberal arts which involve new formats and new combinations of subject matter. While the economic base for programing in the arts and humanities is less secure, the growing leisure in which to pursue intellectual activities is a motivating force. There will be mounting pressure on the individual to discharge more adequately his public responsibilities as an informed citizen. III. The curriculum of degree credit courses at either the graduate or undergraduate levels, is not likely to expand at the University of California. In this instance, California probably will leave to other institutions the development of special degree programs such as those in extension studies and the bachelor of liberal studies at Harvard and Oklahoma, respectively, or the master in liberal arts at Johns Hopkins. These programs already are well developed by universities with favorable climates for this type of pioneer venture. As of this date, it would appear that a nondegree, certificate-type, advanced program in the liberal arts might be a possibility if underwriting and faculty support can be secured. Because of the national trend and the university's leadership position in education, such a program-designed primarily for the man and woman who already have graduated from college-should be on the drawing boards soon.

IV. It is probable that the trend toward decentralization of extension administration to the campus level will continue. As a consequence of this, statewide extension coordinating machinery and policy functions must become increasingly adaptive and sensitized to varying campus requirements. In the next decade there will be great demands upon extension (1) to implement programs desired by the chief campus officers on the new and developing campuses of the university, (2) to further extend its role as a bridge to the community, and (3) to serve the entire State by making its resources available wherever and whenever needed. The unifying influence of University of California extension as an arm of the statewide university will be needed increasingly as the many campuses develop their individual strengths and characteristics. In its effort to implement campus objectives more effectively, university extension must not lose its identity and its capacity to serve statewide needs. The present area organization has worked well.

V. The phenomenal growth of university extension over the past decade has begun to abate in recent years with the proliferation of State and junior colleges whose expanded offerings for the part-time student supplant many former extension services. This has led to a strengthening of faculty-extension relationships; the change, however, stemmed largely from individual awareness on the part of faculty members of extension's unique function and its significance to various publics.

The time-tested liaison appointment probably will continue to be the most practicable device for insuring faculty participation in and academic control of extension offerings. Certainly as resident enrollments and full-time faculty multiply, there will be even greater need for assigning major liaison responsibility to a single faculty member in each department.

In the next decade, hopefully, the liaison officer arrangement which contributes so vitally to university extension and to the university, will be consolidated into departmental workloads and structured as an integral part of departmental budgets.

VI. Programing is likely to demonstrate the most radical changes in the next decade. Many of the more traditional forms and methods of instruction, it seems probable, will be replaced with learning arrangements which are more efficient and more productive. The potentialities of technology apply to programed learning as well as to the other efforts of humans to cope with their environment: this promised application can be both exciting and fruitful. The wider use of educational television in self-study programs such as correspondence is one likelihood in the next decade; another possibility is the development of telelecture and telelistening groups with two-way communication.

New teaching methods will affect-and be affected by-new learning arrangements. For example, if the experimental program just undertaken by university extension in cooperation with the city of Oakland is successful, one result will be much wider use throughout the State of consultant and conference type educational programing in contrast to the more formal classroom situation. The huge field of urban extension is likely to explode in the decade ahead and new institutions as well as new teaching methods will be called for.

VII. The increasing number of Government and institutional contracts and grants represents a trend which by all indications will accelerate in the years ahead. As in the case of the Peace Corps and AID, University of California extension has demonstrated sufficient administrative flexibility and educative know-how to become a useful instrumentality. Future contracts undoubtedly will require even greater adeptness in the design and execution of specially developed programs which often require interdisciplinary and interdepartmental staff and resources.

VIII. If the responsibilities of and demands upon university extension are fully articulated, some improvement and expansion of the physical facilities for extension staff and programing may be prospective in the next decade. The venerable-although obsolete and inefficient-Hill Street Building in downtown Los Angeles should be replaced with a new, modern continuing education center where conferences and public events could be scheduled as well as classes. Similarly, space is available on the site of the existing extension center in San Francisco for construction of a much-needed residential facility. This would be comparable to the continuing education centers at Michigan State University, the University of Georgia, the University of Nebraska, the University of Oklahoma, and the University of Chicago where the potential of residential facilities has been demonstrated. A center for the performing arts and a home for the theater group (already proposed on a site near the UCLA campus), if constructed from nonstate funds, would underscore the university's importance to the community. The Arrowhead center could be made much more useful through the addition of a conference hall. Construction of a permanent facility on the San Francisco campus for continuing education in the health sciences, a logical growth step in the next decade, would have far-reaching effects upon university relationships with the many publics served by this important segment of continuing education.

In sum, then, the decade of university extension history covered by this report is but a prelude to a future, the potentialities of which can only be viewed with excitement and anticipation. The role of the land-grant universities in the United States constitutes an important chapter in our national history, but at no time in the past has the social urgency and need for high level continuing education programs in these institutions been as great as it is today. The complexity of the choices before us, the critical necessity for more rapid dissemination of research results in both the physical and the social sciences, the continuing search for self-realization, and the betterment of the human condition are challenges which can only be met through the use of education as an instrumentality for social survival-and advance.

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