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Three pioneer programs in postgraduate medical education were initiated in recent years by medical extension, south. These were the oversea programs held in Japan and Hong Kong, in Israel, and in Mexico City, in cooperation with medical schools in the areas visited. Teaching was the joint responsibility of the host medical faculty and UCLA faculty members. Almost 400 doctors, from every part of California and most of the other States, have been participants in these unique postgraduate programs.
Apart from the medical education presented, this programing provides two significant learning experiences for physicians: (1) It establishes personal contacts between professional colleagues in the United States and other countries and leads to greater international understanding; (2) it extends the cultural and intellectual knowledge of professionals whose intensive training and dayto-day practice often preclude courses in liberal higher education.
Another example of programing in the international field is the community development project initiated on the Berkeley campus in 1960 with AID support. This program led to creation of a core curriculum designed to prepare Americans and those from other countries for working in community development in traditional as well as newly emerging societies. These graduate-level, multinational courses, held during the past 3 years, represent the first effort in the history of the U.S. foreign-aid program to prepare Agency for International Development personnel for community development assignments-prior to their posting.
More than 50 faculty members from 17 departments on the Berkeley and Davis campuses have participated in this instructional program, and several of them have channeled their research interests into the area of community development as a result of work with the project. This year the program will prepare newly recruited AID advisors to function in southeast Asia.
Two Peace Corps training programs for schoolteachers who are serving as corpsmen in Ghana have been held by university extension on the Berkeley campus, and one for public health workers destined for Panama is currently in progress.
Also, university extension in the South has trained three secondary school teacher groups for Nigeria and is currently training university instructors for Peru.
University extension provides still another type of international programing which frequently brings the university into direct contact with large enrollments of foreign specialists. This dissemination of the university's current findings in theoretical and technical research to academicians and technicians from abroad has an important peripheral value: it leads to international interaction at the highest professional levels. In 1957 the "World Conference on Prestressed Concrete," presented by Engineering Extension, North, drew educators, scientists, and engineers from 32 nations. Among the 1,176 registrants were delegations from the U.S.S.R. and other Soviet bloc countries.
The depth and scope of university extension's international activities is increasing as well. In addition to the programs carried out for the Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps, and the offerings involving the faculties, sites, and scholars of foreign countries, a valuable interchange of knowledge has been realized in indigenous settings by various academic departments. The northern area offered a residential program on "The Coastal Jungle" in San Blas. Mexico, in 1962, and is planning a residential program on the "Arts and Architecture of Mexico" in the city of Morelia, Mexico, in December of this year. Music, drama and the arts in the South presented an interdisciplinary offering, a study tour of Europe, in 1961.
COMMUNICATING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FINDINGS
One of the key developments in university extension has been the dissemination of university research findings to top echelon national groups. A typical example was the creative person conference presented by the liberal arts department, north, in October 1961, at the Tahoe alumni center. It was designed to communicate the results of investigations of creativity, the creative person, and the creative process which had been carried out during the preceding 5%1⁄2 years by the institute of personality assessment and research on the Berkeley campus. Fifty-five persons attending the 5-day conference, including the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, The White House: the director of the laboratory division of engineering and applied physics, Harvard
University; the directors of research, IBM Corp. and General Electric; the presidents, the Ford Foundation, Stanford Research Institute, Corning Glass Works, Kennecott Copper, Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co., and Radio Corp. of America.
A new type of symposia, in which major aspects of modern society are examined and evaluated, is the outstanding contribution of extension's continuing education in medicine and the health sciences on the San Francisco campus. For these imaginative programs, many leading worldwide authorities from the health professions and the humanities have been brought together. "Man and Civilization: Control of the Mind" drew an initial enrollment of 2,700 and was microwaved to Memorial Hall on the Stanford campus. "Alcohol and Civilization" has been shown on television throughout this country and was broadcast to all parts of the world by the Voice of America. Books on these major symposia are now appearing, and demands for the most recent symposium, "The Potential of Women" have been numerous.
In the 7 years since the department was established, registrations in continuing education in medicine and health sciences on the San Francisco campus have accelerated from 594 (in 1954-55) to almost 7,000 (in 1961-62). Multidisciplinary courses in biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical areas of medicine are organized in postgraduate and professional curriculums.
CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION-THE CHANGING EMPHASES
The correspondence study department of university extension developed the largest program of this type in the world during the decade just ended. More important than its size, however, is the altered nature of its instruction which includes: expansion of offerings on the upper division and professional levels, participation of new faculty instructors, and concentration on improvement in course construction. The number of upper division courses has increased 62
In the 19th century correspondence study was used mainly by those geographically isolated from educational facilities. Since then it has been remodeled and it functions today, at the University of California, as a highly structured system of learning whose enrollees are principally from urban areas. Television programs, both local and national, have been developed specifically or adapted for extension correspondence instruction.
EVOLUTION IN MUSIC EXTENSION
As rapport between the music departments and university extension strengthened during the last decade, a significant change occurred in extension offerings in music. From large classes which formerly had employed a semirecreational approach, the programing was restructured for a narrower, more advanced clientele. A master class in cello offered by Pablo Casals and a master class in violin given by Jascha Heifetz were among the music extension innovations of recent years. Instead of the earlier clientele composed of persons from widely scatered backgrounds, ages, education, and objectives, the music offerings now are for accomplished musicians in search of further advanced study.
"ADJUSTMENT TO CIVILIZATION"
As the junior colleges and State colleges entered the adult education field in California, assuming largely the task of undergraduate instruction, university extension was able to develop its offerings in the liberal arts, the fine arts, the performing arts, the humanities, and the social sciences-toward those disciplines that offer intellectual enrichment and stimulation. The marked impetus toward a vigorously interdisciplinary treatment of subject matter also aided extension to realize a new potential, that is, fulfillment of those gaps in the individual adult experience which Baldwin Woods defined as "adjustment to civilization and adjustment to life."
This breakthrough came in 1953 with initiation of the new, experimental discussion group series. The University of California extension was one of several universities selected by the Fund for Adult Education and the American Foundation for Political Education to organize the first discussion groups in world politics 10 years ago. The evidence, as gathered by the fund's own experimental discussion project, proved that study-discussion groups provide an effective framework for adult education about important concepts and issues.
University extension, in the intervening years, has presented discussion programs in an increasingly wider variety of liberal arts subjects, including world affairs, economics, American foreign policy, and great men and great issues. These groups, comprised of no more than 25 people, meet in private homes under the aegis of qualified lecturers or discussion leaders. The program of study has been developed to include meaningful areas of the liberal arts, social sciences, and the fine arts until today extension has the largest and perhaps the most varied discussion program in the country.
More formal programs combining various academic disciplines followed. In 1954, for example, the Riverside campus of university extension offered "Significant Aspects of Contemporary Civilization" and an intensive course on the contribution of the Renaissance to modern culture, "The Golden Renaissance." The arts and humanities department in the South burgeoned in the past decade to an enrollment of 18,756 in 1961-62 when it offered more programs than any other department in university extension, South.
Increased faculty cooperation in arts and humanities extension led to development of the only extension program in studio arts in the country which is approved by a university art department. The recent acquisition of the new university extension art studio near the UCLA campus has given increased scope to this program while, at the same time, freeing the campus facilities for graduate school use.
Such programs as "The Impact of Scientific Change," "Peacetime Uses of Space," and "Communism in Theory and Practice" were developed to help meet the acute need for perspective felt by many adults today. The series on communism (six lectures in the South, eight in the North), for which leading scholars were brought to California, was held in response to the alarm, especialy evident in this State, about the meaning and goals of world communism. It earned an expression of gratitude from Gov. Edmund G. Brown, president of the university's board of regents, to President Clark Kerr.
In the northern area, advanced "language weekends" took place on several occasions, with lectures and discussions on the history, society, and culture of a given country or area in the relevent foreign language. "San Francisco Renaissance," a series of four weekend conferences held in San Francisco in 1959. brought together distinguished lecturers and performers in the arts; it featured the premiere performance of a work composed by Darius Milhaud for the oc casion-the first time an extension division commissioned a musical composition.
Outstanding examples of interdisciplinary programing have been courses on physics and chemistry for engineers, nuclear energy for businessmen, and a blending of business management for technologists and technology for business managers. University extension continues to pioneer in these new methods of communicating research findings to highly trained professionals.
THE THEATRE GROUP: FIRST IN THE UNITED STATES
Extension's highest achievement in the performing arts in this decade un doubtedly was its establishment in 1959 of the Theatre Group, a joint project with the theatrical community of Los Angeles. This marked the first time that any university in the United States had elected to sponsor a professional theatrical unit, and the unorthodox move has resulted in far-reaching benefits-for the university, for extension, and for the community. The Theatre Group is rec ognized as an unprecedently successful venture and one that fills a gap in high caliber, dramatic productions. Last year it presented 6 plays for a total of 134 performances to an audience of almost 60,000 persons.
In acknowledgment of its work, the Theatre Group received a $500,000, 5-year Ford Foundation grant in late 1962 which will enable it to establish a permanent repertory company, to increase its productions from 5 or 6 annually to 9 or 10. and to operate year round. The grant also will make it possible to experiment with tours to other major cities in California and, ultimately throughout the West.
The importance of having extension machinery geared to perform intricate and immediate functions is illustrated in the university's experience with the Theatre Group. Throughout the State, extension offices have diligently compiled mailing lists of all postgraduate and postprofessional lists which are employed regularly in the programing of university-sponsored activities for the community. In the southern area these extension registration records make it possible to reach.
at will, the leading lawyers, educators, doctors, art and literary figures, architects, and other professionals. Because of this involvement with the civic and cultural decisionmakers of the community, extension was able to assure a "readymade" audience for these quality performances. The permanent boxoffice, the smoothly functioning promotion and publicity departments, and the experienced personnel of university extension's business and financial staff made it possible for this ambitious pilot program to be initiated. For the first 3 years of Theatre Group operation, 1959-60 to 1961-62 inclusive, there were 16 productions with a total attendance of over 110,000. The Theatre Group did not have to employ a single person to service the elaborate, new university-community project in the performing arts.
On some campuses extension also conducts a wide range of concerts, film series, and theatrical events together with the university committees on fine arts. All of these performances are open to the public, and they serve to give communities an increasingly intimate appreciation of the university as a cultural and educational center.
THE TREND TO BROAD-GAGE CONFERENCES
A review of conference activity year by year since 1952 presents a clear picture of the upward shift in terms of subject matter, level of material, and sophistication in presentation. At the beginning of the decade many programs still emphasized predominantly vocationally oriented subjects. Today the range of topics is typified by "Origins of Emotional Conflict,” “Education and American Society," and "Advanced Seminar in Foreign Policy."
When "Law Enforcement and Racial and Cultural Tensions" was presented in Berkeley in 1962 as the first large scale comprehensive examination of this problem the attorney general of California termed its faculty "the most outstanding collection of experts in this field ever assembled." It included seven prominent social scientists, the Staff Commissioner of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, an Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice, and nationally known law enforcement officials. Broad coverage of the conference by print and broadcasting media subsequently led to initiation of similar programs in other
THE RISE IN LEVEL OF EXTENSION SERVICES TO UNIONS
The decade has affected university extension consistently in every facet of the statewide organization. It is not unexpected, therefore, that in the Institute of Industrial Relations, South, the educational services provided to unions in cooperation with university extension are reaching persons at a higher educational and economic level. In 1953, institute conferences were attended largely by manual workers; in 1962, 75 percent were members of white collar or professional groups. Advanced courses in pensions, fringe benefits, and other aspects of collective bargaining for architects and engineers, city and county employees' associations, and the American Federation of Teachers are now routine. Summer residential programs are held, whenever possible, in campus facilities in order to provide adult enrollees with an opportunity to learn more about the university and to place greater emphasis on research and study in extension labor education.
NEW EMPHASIS IN EXECUTIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMS
In both the northern and southern areas, business adimnistration extension has shown significant shifts. Rather than deepening managerial skills, the executive education program focuses on providing businessmen with a meaningful liberal arts orientation. The new emphasis is upon broadening subject matterlegal, institutional, and ethical. Integrated into these business subject areas are the most recent findings in psychology, operations research, organization theory, and computer science.
In 1962, the Berkeley campus, through business administration extension, produced the first summer institute in regional science with the support of the National Science Foundation. This subject area is marked for continuing importance and expansion on all of the university campuses-the problems of metropolitan and regional areas and analytical methods for their solution. Aimed specifically at persons holding academic appointments, the institute provided a distinguished faculty drawn from all over the country. Enrollees represented all areas in the Nation as well as Japan, Germany, and Poland.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES EXTENSION IN THE TRANSITIONAL DECADE
The trend toward extremely advanced professional courses has been partic ularly noticeable in the fields of mathematics, electronics, engineering, and other space-related sciences. Programing in engineering and sciences extension, north, produced rapid increases in enrollments with more than 8.000 registrations in 1961-62. Class enrollment in this department is now leveling off. This trend is consistent with the mounting selectivity exercised by extension and its new stress on structuring programs for the more highly qualified.
Engineering extension, south, however, reflects a growth pattern indigenous to the professional expansion of that particular area. Although 75 percent of its clientele have at least one degree in engineering, mathematics, or science, the number of adult students had almost tripled within the past decade to reach a total of 13,180 by 1960. The trend toward classes and short courses is indicative of the constantly higher postprofessional demands placed upon graduate engineers. The statewide lecture series on "Space Technology" was attended by 4,200 students in five locations, and the resultant film has been viewed by 100,000 persons who were not able to attend the series.
Another marked trend in statewide extension shows up clearly in engineering and sciences. Increased awareness by Federal agencies of extension's usefulness in mounting national educational programs has stimulated a variety of contracts with such agencies as the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geodetic Survey, the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Office of Naval Research.
These federally aided programs have added a new dimension, as well as new responsibilities, to the original land-grant college concept of service to the State and Nation.
To conclude this report of the changes and new directions that have emerged in a decade of marked transition, it is obvious that the growth and expansion of University of California extension have been both intensive and swift, if we measure 10 years against the entire chronicle of adult education. No comparable period exists, in terms of intellectual ferment or advancement. The changes have been in kind and in degree, although the growth of university extension does not directly parallel California's population explosion. Rather than accepting the gross demographic increment, extension has set new open-end goals. It has evolved new teaching methods, and it already is serving a totally new clientele. It has pioneered new paths to bring the university to the communities of the State; and this, in turn, has engendered a new respect for education for education's sake. Although the American fixation in favor or credit courses still oper ates as a pragmatic seal of approval which regards anything not bearing credit as somehow second rate, the percentage of noncredit offerings rose most significantly over the decade.
In this incomplete recital of program highlights over the past decade we have selected from many pages of departmental reports only a few examples. There is pride of achievement reflected in these notes and professional satisfaction with and many of the outcomes. But, embedded among all those who work for and with University of California extension is the acute awareness that its programing should not only be of a standard equal to that provided for the resident student but, in some cases, better. Lifelong learning, in this age when we are all awash in a pool of expanding knowledge that deepens constantly, demands the utmost of each of us. It must strive to be increasingly more advanced, more sophisticated, more original. We have tried to bend our thought to ways of breaking free from traditional concepts and curricula-and this decade of transition has seen only the beginning of the changes which must be anticipated. To these we now turn.
PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE SET
In a field as fluid and dynamic as adult education is today, it is somewhat hazardous to follow the precedent established in the last 10-year report and project growth patterns of university extension for the decade ahead. Certain economic and social imperatives intrinsic to our national health make it easier to predict the trends of continuing education throughout the country. The adjustments already foreseen will demand indefatigable efforts to provide lifelong learningin more quantity and quality and without delay. The next 10 years of extension. however, do not permit as clear a view into the crystal ball.