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mittee and the views of other members of the university faculty and adminis
It has been a great privilege for me to serve as statewide head of university extension during the administration of President Clark Kerr. When he wrote, in the first sentence of the regents-approved interim statement of policy for university extension, "*** the University of California intends to continue and to improve its extension services," it was emphatic proof of the kind of strong leadership and bulwarking needed to counterbalance the effect of reduced State financing. Such success as we have achieved, in extending the boundaries of our various campuses to make them coterminous with the boundaries of the State of California, is in large part due to the sympathetic understanding and support which he has given to the officers of university extension. Respectfully submitted.
May 15, 1963.
PAUL H. SHEATS.
The term "extension," as applied to adult education at the university level, though once descriptive, has become a misnomer within the past decade. The statewide extension program is not merely an extension or copy of what the university offers the full-time resident student during daytime hours. Since 1953 when the late Baldwin M. Woods presented the last 10-year report to the faculties of the university, the University of California extension has evolved into an academic entity of unprecedented scope and at the professional as well as postgraduate level.
Extension did not set out arbitrarily to accomplish this shift: it is the direct result of a radically changed clientele whose demands and needs are frequently totally different from those of the past. Our challenge-truly a challenge to the whole university—was to meet these new, more advanced requirements while at the same time operating without endowment, with diminishing support from the legislature, in a period when the rush of new students was taxing severely the resources of the university.
A brief look at the quantity and quality of extension's new clientele may indicate the dimensions of the challenge:
1. Twenty-six percent of all adults registered in extension classes in public universities in the United States are enrolled at the University of California. 2. In the decade covered by this report, enrollments have increased from 93.882 to 184,233.
3. More than 40 percent of all university extension enrollments by 1962 were in postgraduate courses.
4. Currently enrolled in extension professional programs are 1 out of every 3 lawyers in the State, 1 out of every 5 dentists in the State, 1 out of every 6 doctors in the State, 1 out of every 8 engineers in the State, 1 out of every 12 teachers in the State.1
5. In the continuing education of the bar, where extension reaches almost every law office in the State, our registration has advanced in a 10-year period as follows: 1952–53, 914; 1961-62, 21,931.
6. In the engineering programs of extension, 75 percent of all enrollees hold at least one degree in engineering, mathematics, or science.
7. Comparison of the extension students of today with registrants of 10 years ago reveals the percent of college degree holders has risen from 45 percent to 60 percent, and 84 percent now report 1 or more years of college.
During this decade, as a result of a recommendation by a faculty advisory committee, the so-called admissions program was abolished. It permitted students who could not meet the university's high admission requirements to make up their deficiencies through extension courses. The removal of this remedial function, of course, has affected the composition of extension's student body. At the same time, the State colleges and junior colleges have assumed much of the responsibility for degree-credit work. Together with the adult education departments of the public school systems, they have freed university extension for its more demanding and innovative role in postgraduate and professional programing.
The changed character of extension is a most appropriate one. As John C. Merriam, former dean of the faculties at Berkeley, once said: "The university must leave no room for any similar institution above it."
There are, of course, many professionals enrolled in other types of programs, particularly in liberal arts and public affairs courses or seminars.
The Coordinating Council for Higher Education, in its report on "Differentiation of Functions in Continuing Education," underscores the changing responsibilities of the university: "Until the late 1940's, continuing education for adults was provided primarily by the University of California extension and by the adult education divisions of the local high schools. With the growth of the junior college extended day offerings, and with the rapid increase in the number of higher educational institutions, continuing education programs have sometimes grown without proper planning, coordination, or equitable financial assistance."
However, the council report also states that there is a minimum amount of competition considering the "vast and diverse programs offered by California's four different segments" of continuing education. It points out that all the resources and talents of these various segments will be required to meet the needs of adults "in the years immediately ahead."
Nor should it be inferred that extension's responsibility is merely administering an operation that has more than doubled during the last 10-year period. This year's 185,000 registrations in the more than 5,000 programs that constitute our curriculum today make ours the largest general extension division in the world. But the significant fact-both for the university and for the community is that we have been faced with a new challenge, if not a mandate: namely, to design the kind of offerings which will provide the educationally privileged segment of our population with opportunities for continuing education of such high quality that potentialities for individual growth and the social need for upgrading our manpower resources will both be served. Simply, lifelong learning has become a social imperative.
DATELINES AND HEADLINES IN THE DECADE OF TRANSITION
In 1958 the San Francisco Center of Extension expanded taking over the former downtown campus of San Francisco State College.
In 1960 the university extension office was established at Davis.
At Berkeley, where university extension has stressed the 800 courses for students who have their degrees and wish to study for the educational experience alone, the language program reflects the new liberal arts concentration. It has been expanded to include Mandarin, Japanese, Greek (both modern and classic), Latin, Danish, Norwegian, Portuguese, and Spanish.
The number of courses at UCLA, despite the limitations on parking and the rapid growth in extension's outlying offices and centers, has increased 156 percent in the past 10 years.
A tricounties office of university extension, responsible for Santa Barbara, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo Counties is headquarters on the new UCSB campus with a full-time professional in charge-course offerings increased from 33 to 83 during the decade.
The Riverside office of extension, established on the UCR campus in 1954 to service Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, today offers 94 courses (as contrasted with 18 a decade earlier) operates with a full-time professional head and supporting personnel.
Extension in Orange County advanced from 4 courses in fall 1952 to 116 courses in fall 1962.
At Irvine, even before construction on campus buildings began, a "Chancellor's Lecture Series" was attended by more than 1,000 persons and a special performance of "Antigone" by the UCLA Extension Theater Group drew 1,200.
In San Diego, degree-credit courses constitute only 37 percent of total offerings today as compared with 60 percent in 1952 * ** reflecting the trend toward professional and noncredit programing by statewide university extension. On June 1, 1957, the residential conference center at Lake Arrowhead was acquired as a gift from the Los Angeles Turf Club * is operated on a self-supporting basis *** provides, in a beautiful and secluded mountain setting, a wide variety of residential programs in the liberal arts and other subjects *** a kind of California equivalent to the residential folk school of the Scandinavian countries.
ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCES
Overall, the number of courses in southern area communities and campuses (exclusive of UCLA and Hillstreet) increased 190 percent. The growth can be
seen most clearly, perhaps, in the Hillstreet program in downtown Los Angeles which, in the fall of 1952, represented 34 percent of the total offerings in the area. Ten years later, although total program offerings has increased by 18 percent, the Hillstreet program accounted for a mere 17.8 percent of total university extension events in the southern half of the State.
The unique role of extension as the bridge between the university and the community is demonstrated vividly in what has happened in Orange County as a result of the siting of a new university campus at Irvine. Orange County course offerings rose from 0.6 percent in 1952 to 8.8 percent of the southern area total a decade later. Beginning in 1962, extension began to work closely with the chancellor of the new Irvine campus to cosponsor and administer special events calculated to provide public service programs prior to the existence of either buildings or faculty.
The statewide extension organization, as a result of the revolutionary changes of the past decade, has assumed increasingly developmental and long-range planning responsibilities. Its charge from the university is threefold: (1) to assure unity within the statewide university organization on policy and procedural matters, (2) to encourage diversity among the campuses in program offerings, and (3) to help each campus build two-way channels to its surrounding area. In addition, extension must apply carefully defined educational policies to its new highly schooled constituency on a fiscal base which is often extremely precarious or inconsistent with sound educational policy.
Economically speaking, extension is an anomalous member of the university family, and the real implications of its financial position (or, more properly, the lack of any stable position) has not been described adequately. Only a small part of the extension budget (by legislative determination, 9 percent of the estimated expenditures) comes from State funds. The State legislature, by paring taxpayer support from 24 percent in 1952-53 to its present low, has made university extension one of the most undersupported major extension divisions in the country. In 1959 when the slash in the total operating budget left university extension with only 8.7 percent covered by State funds, other comparable divisions fared much better: University of Wisconsin, 39 percent; Michigan State University, 38 percent; University of Texas, 35 percent; University of Illinois, 30 percent to name only a few. The dangers inherent in inadequate fiscal support were pointed out in the 1960 report of the combined senate committee on university extension:
"If extension is to continue to exist as a serious educational understaking, it must not be allowed to become a mere business concern marketing university wares for profit. No reputable instiution operates without endowment or appropriation. University extension should not be expected, indeed not be permitted 'to pay its way' via tuition fees, to become a mere hired tutor, the nature and term of whose services are specified by his employer. Quality is costly in extension as elsewhere."
The University of California extension is in the position of carrying out academic policies decided upon by faculty committees and other bodies; however, it is forced to earn fees by "marketing university wares for profit" (89.3 percent of its $7,500,000 operating budget in 1961-62 came from fees).
The crucial necessity to maintain professional standards and high quality in relationship to the academic community despite the attrition of State support, has forced university extension to modify program design. The responsibility of operating as an educational arm of the university-while, at the same time, having to "pay its own way"-has compelled extension to manipulate variables on fiscal position rather than policy grounds. This explains why the statewide extension organization has been forced to: (1) hike fees as an inevitable countermeasure to reduction of State support; (2) restrict or eliminate programs, irrespective of need, whenever the financial risk is too great; (3) seek Federal Government contracts and grants for carrying out specific projects (oneeighth of the budget or $1,500,000 currently is received from this source); and (4) become more selective about its functions and clientele by encouraging State and junior colleges to schedule many of the offerings which the university initially has developed. The impact of this increased selectivity is evidenced in the chart on page 2198 which shows a leveling off of registration in all categories except short classes. Total enrollment has declined slightly despite California's rapid population growth.
This overview of university extension's efforts to provide opportunities for continuing education underscores the changing nature of extension's clientele,
the manifold variety of the demands upon the statewide university, and the growing social urgency for more rapid dissemination of new knowledge. We turn now to some of the new directions in extension programing over the past decade which have resulted from these pressing needs.
THE FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE IN EXTENSION 1
Full statistical data are available on extension's growth, measured by the traditional methodological classifications developed by the National University Extension Association. The charts on page 2198 show the 10-year expansion in the university's continuing education division, according to classes, short classes, conferences, discussion groups, special programs, and correspondence
But these methodological classifications and statistical tabulations ignore the fundamental change of the past decade that has permeated every phase of university extension's program planning-namely, the rise of the professional extension administrator who combines substantive knowledge with proficiency in identifying and meeting the educational needs of the mature adult. Shortly before his death in 1956, Baldwin M. Woods, former head of University Extension, told the university's centennial historian about the difficulty of obtaining administrators of caliber. He described the intense national competition for the type of professionals who "are thinking in large terms" *** because extension administration "is a very specialized thing."
The record of university extension in the past decade is due in large part to the university's ability to attract this new kind of specialist in continuing education whose knowledge of the particular subject matter with which he works is comparable to that of his departmental colleagues. In addition, however, his professional training or experience in adult education enables him to: (1) assess the changing educational needs of adults; (2) develop the format and arrangement of subject matter most appropriate to the clientele and the learning situation; and (3) evaluate the actual program to determine whether the particular subject may be communicated best through a combination of methods: a conference, a short class, a parallel campus course, a residential seminar, or a correspondence course. To the specialist in continuing education, the various ways in which subject matter may be organized and presented pose not only a challenge but an opportunity for creative and imaginative use of communication tools in disseminating new knowledge and research. This represents a marked change from previous decades, as exemplified in Baldwin Woods' 1953 report which stated that "the departments must supply most of the suggestions for the programs to be offered ***." Today university extension has relieved academic departments of the inceptive responsibilities of continuing education and is, instead, using their scholarly contributions with greater efficacy.
Equally important to programing of high quality is the collaboration of university faculty and extension's professional program planners. The participation of university departments and professional schools has been-and will continue to be vital to the success of this new formula. In evaluating the performance of the preceding decade, it is obvious that the new opportunities for teamwork of university faculties and extension specialists have created a model for the future and a partial answer to the "learn or perish" dilemma with which the explosion of knowledge has confronted us.
SOME RESULTS OF INNOVATION: CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS
The past 10 years have seen the development of a sizable number of academic Senate-approved certificate programs. Each is an integrated sequence of courses designed to meet the needs of professionals or postgraduate adult students who wish to keep abreast of a rapidly changing field. This significant trend first emerged in the years immediately following World War II when it became evident that a modern society could no longer cling to the outmoded philosophy that defines either a college or postgraduate degree as a finish line for education. Such stereotyped thinking which reserved the organized learning experience for young people has been recognized as anachronistic. Now the urgent need among
1 Excerpted from a report of the University of California Extension, "A Decade of Transition" covering the years 1952-62.
educators is to prepare the individual continually for effective participation in a rapidly changing world.1
The certificate programs offered by Extension required the combined talents of university faculties and professionals in the field to speed up the dissemination of new knowledge. Involved here is a new conceptualization of the educational function in a free society. The old vertical approach to life through elementary, secondary, and collegiate instruction is no longer adequate. High school and college graduation should be preparation for lifelong learning and in Margaret Mead's phrase we must now visualize a horizontal system of education to which the individual must and will return throughout his entire life. Certificate programs approved by the Academic Senate, as of January 1, 1963, include the following integrated course sequences, presented by Extension: Bank management, business, business management program for technical personnel, city planning, executive program in business management, industrial relations, medical care administration, nuclear technology, numerical analysis, production management, propulsion and power conversion systems, real estate, and social services.
THE PUBLISHING ACTIVITIES OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
As the demand increased for conference and institute proceedings in the past decade, extension found itself in the publishing field. In the department of the continuing education of the bar, a total of 30 volumes have been published by extension since 1952. These special texts are in heavy demand thorughout the State. In the same period, Engineering Extension in the southern area also published 30 volumes based on its classes and short courses. Twelve more volumes are in progress in this department of extension whose clientele, composed largely of graduate engineers, find their existing level of education in an almost perpetual state of obsolescence.
THE FILM PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
The nature and level of the subject matter with which university extension motion pictures are concerned have changed almost totally in the past decade. In 1953 this department produced three films, none of which were designed for university classroom instruction. Curriculum-oriented film series now have replaced the single-subject motion picture. Among the recent releases is 1 series of 17 single-concept films designed for classroom use on University of California campuses and other campuses throughout the Nation. All were produced in collaboration with and under the academic supervision of the university faculty.
The film production unit of extension during the last decade has worked closely with the National Science Foundation and other granting agencies. Among its contributions to university education in the United States is the American Indian series, nine films which document the fast disappearing Indian cultures in the Western States and the baboon social organization series, produced under a Ford Foundation grant. The latter films communicate important research findings on the origins of human behavior.
It is typical of the new emphasis of university extension in the past 10 years, that the production of educational films has been designed increasingly to serve instructional objectives: (1) the improvement of teaching and (2) the scholarly communication of research findings and their application to specific aspects of our culture. This trend is congruent with the scientifically established fact that certain types of research and new knowledge can better be recorded on film than in scholarly articles and books.
1 "What is needed now is a new conception of the place of formal education in our lives, with an expectation of returning periodically to the classroom and seminar, for periods of half a year or a year or more, in an effort to keep current with the flows of new knowledge and new application of knowledge. It is not technical or vocational training of which I am thinking, but broadly based and exacting education in both the physical and social sciences, extending one's analytical powers and systematic knowledge.
"Devices such as special degrees may need to be created to encourage the resumption of a person's education before the passage of too long an interval. A return to the classroom every fourth or fifth year is certainly not excessive if we really propose to keep ourselves alert to the new developments in scientific thinking, as well as refreshing our knowledge and reasserting our command over the knowledge we already have."-Neil Chamberlain, professor of economics, Yale University, "Job Obsolescence: Challenge and Opportunity," the Educational Record, January 1963.