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We are concerned with the education of women, particularly, and one figure which I think you may be interested in is that at the University of Pennsylvania, 285 women are receiving aid under National Defense Education Act-that is, out of a total of over 1,500 women, and we believe that these women probably would not be in college-at least many of them would not be there if it was not for the National Defense Education Act funds that are available.

We also have a concern about what happens to the "C" student in college in the light of limited facilities and the greater demand for college. The student that is getting into college is the "A" student, the "B" student in some cases, and the colleges' attitude is increasingly toward the "A" and "B" student. This leaves the average student out, and raises the level of the average across our country, making it a highly selective process rather than increasing the educational level of our population, which we believe, as an association, is important.

We also have a concern because the women who do go to college, who do receive an education, are married and later join the ranks of working women find there is the necessity for return to the classroom. We are working on continuing education and anything which updates the education of women who have been out of the industrial or the scholastic world for childbearing and childrearing.

As a final word, we feel that it is of utmost importance that this bill and other similar bills be passed order to raise the general level of education to help public institutions, to help private institutions, on general improvement.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Doctor Brownlee, we will order printed in the record this projection which you have attached to your statement, projections to 1980 of school and college enrollment in the United States.

I didn't hear you specifically ask it, but that will be included and printed.

(The chart referred to follows:)



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Eleven series of enrollment projections, involving different combination of assumptions concerning trends in population size and enrollment rates, are shown in this report (Series P-25 No. 232). Population Series II and III differ with regard to the projected level of fertility. Series II implies a continuation to the end of the projection period of the fertility levels experienced in the 195557 period. Series III implies a decline from the 1955-57 fertility level to the 1949-51 level by the middle of the projection period, with fertility then remaining constant to 1980.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I believe you were invited last year to be the guest of the German Government as the outstanding American woman, in Germany.

Miss BROWNLEE. Yes, sir.

Senator YARBOROUGH. We are very pleased to have you here. We regret very much that Mr. Miller's and your time, for the two statements which we think have a great deal to contribute to the subcommittee, was limited. I regret also that the other members of the subcommittee could not be here.

I think all Americans should have heard you, Mr. Miller, and Mr. Mitchell.


Do you not think that Mr. Mitchell's testimony about the explosion of knowledge which spoke of the necessity of changing 1012 million words out of 38 million in the Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1 year's time, shows the absolute importance of this continuing study of English?

Miss BROWNLEE. We in higher education are observing this continually. It is difficult to keep up with the vocabulary of our own particular field. I am a political scientist and I find that in this field, the vocabulary is changing, the techniques are changing remarkably. Senator YARBOROUGH. Miss Brownlee, I am interested in what you have to say about the loans to women students. One reason I have been pushing the GI bill as much as I have is that I am told that veterans come in and borrow money under NDEA, thus reducing the fund. If we had a GI bill, it would take the pressure off those funds and additionally, since more women are serving in the Armed Forces now, more women would have an opportunity for greater participation in the NDEA loans if we passed that legislation.

Miss BROWNLEE. Yes, sir. The funds that would be provided by S. 580 are of very great importance at both the undergraduate level in providing the opportunity for a girl to go to college, but they are even of possibly greater importance at the graduate level, where there is just a certain amount of funds, and if the girl can compete in this, then she has a chance of going into college teaching and here is another area of great shortage.

So that in any field, it is needed.

Senator YARBOROUGH. When we introduced the National Defense Education Act of 1958, it provided for scholarships. We lost that fight by about two or three votes on the floor of the Senate.

It was changed to a loan program at the undergraduate level. Miss BROWNLEE. That is right and I am talking about the loans at the undergraduate level and the fellowships.

Senator YARBOROUGH. We do have a fellowship program, but the scholarship program was stricken out and a loan program was substituted.


Senator YARBOROUGH. Mr. Miller, on the point that we were discussing earlier, about this as a defense matter, if they were limiting NDEA solely to defense, I think it was a great mistake to strike out English as a means of communication for another reason.

In World War II, I served on the staff of an infantry division. We were redeployed to Japan, went into Japan in the early occupation, and made some studies there of the Japanese and their methods of waging warfare. We found it was the opinion of both the Japanese officers and the American officers, the intelligence officers who interrogated Japanese prisoners during the war, that the Japanese language was a great impediment to the Japanese. It was very difficult for them to write field orders. It was not a language that lent itself to exact statement. Very often, the field orders as they came from Japanese

headquarters to commanders in the field were difficult of interpretation. They caused debates among officers as to what they meant.

There was a great deal of debate in Japan right after World War II about adopting the Latin alphabet. As you know, they took the old Chinese alphabet that they had after Perry visited there. They have modified that into a modified westernized type of alphabet, but still do not have the true Latin alphabet.

The largest newspaper in Japan offered to change at that time. 1946, immediately to the Latin alphabet. This was strongly objected to, because it was the only paper in Japan that had type in the Latin alphabet and other newspapers feared they were after instant monop oly but it was recognized by our intelligence officers and Japanese intelligence officers that they had difficulty in communication with the language, not so much through lack of education, but through their difficulty in understanding what these marks themselves meant. Thank you all for your contributions here.

Dr. Carlson_submitted the Sixth Annual Religious Liberty Conference Study Papers on Church-State Relations in Higher Education. It will be printed as an appendix to the record.

(The document referred to will be found in the appendix to the record on p. 3487.)

Senator YARBOROUGH. The hearing is recessed until 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.

(Whereupon, at 12:30, the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene Wednesday, May 29, 1963, at 9 a.m.)






Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 9 a.m., in room 4232, New Senate Office Building, Senator Wayne Morse (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Morse (presiding), and Javits.

Committee staff members present: Stewart E. McClure, chief clerk; John S. Forsythe, general counsel; Charles Lee, professional staff member of the subcommittee; Michael J. Bernstein, minority counsel; and Ray Hurley, associate minority counsel.

Senator MORSE. The hearing will come to order.

We are privileged to have this morning as our first witness, Mr. Graham Sullivan, chief, Bureau of National Defense Education Act Administration, California State Department of Education, accompanied by Dr. George McMullen, special assistant to the superintendent of schools, Los Angeles city schools.

Gentlemen, we are delighted to have you with us. Please take the stand and proceed in your own way.


Mr. SULLIVAN. Thank you, Senator. We appreciate having you reschedule us.

Senator MORSE. I am sorry to have inconvenienced you yesterday. Mr. SULLIVAN. We are of the opinion, Senator, it is to our benefit to have it delayed until this morning, and have you here first, and then have sufficient time to make our presentation as we had planned it. Senator MORSE. Very kind of you. I am delighted to hear you. Take your time.

Mr. SULLIVAN. First, I want to express to you and members of the subcommittee our appreciation for the invitation to appear before you and submit testimony relating to certain provisions of S. 580. Also, I bring you greetings from the State superintendent of public instruction of California, Dr. Max Rafferty, and his expressions of thanks to the members of this body for the outstanding manner in

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