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(3) may, upon request, provide advice, counsel, technical assistance, and demonstrations to State or local educational agencies and institutions of higher education undertaking to utilize such media of communication to increase the quality or depth or broaden the scope of their educational programs;

(4) shall prepare and publish an annual report setting forth (A) projects carried out under this title and the cost of each such project, and (B) developments in the utilization and adaptation of media of communication for educational purposes; and

(5) may enter into contracts with public or private agencies, organizations, groups, or individuals to carry out the provisions of this part.


Sec. 732. (a) From the sums appropriated for this section and sections 733 and 734 pursuant to section 763 for any fiscal year the Commissioner shall reserve such amount, but not in excess of 1.6 per centum thereof, as he may determine for allotment as provided in section 1108. From the remainder of such sums the Commissioner shall allot to each State an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount of such remainder as the school-age population of sch State bears to the school-age population of all the States. The amount allotted to any State under the preceding sentence for any fiscal year which is less than $20,000 shall be increased to $20,000, the total of increases thereby required being derived by proportionately reducing the amount allotted to each of the remaining States under the preceding sentence, but with such adjustments as may be necessary to prevent the allotment of any such remaining State from being thereby reduced to less than $20,000.

(b) The amount of any State's allotment under this section for any fiscal year which the Commissioner determines will not be required for such fiscal year for carrying out the State plan (if any), approved under section 734(b) or the State's proposal (if any) approved under section 734(c), shall be available for reallotment from time to time, on such dates during such year as the Commissioner may fix, to other States in proportion to the original allotments to such States under this section, but with such adjustments as may be necessary to prevent reallotment to any State of any sum in excess of the amount which the Commissioner estimates it needs and will be able to use for such year for carrying out the State plan. Any amount reallotted to a State under this subsection from funds appropriated pursuant to section 763 for any fiscal year shall be deemed part of its allotment for such year.


Sec. 735. (a) The Commissioner is authorized to arrange through contracts with institutions of higher education for the establishment and operation by them of short-term or regular session institutes for the training of persons now employed, or preparing for employment, as new educational media specialists, school administrators, principals, supervisory personnel, librarians, or 48 faculty members in institutions of higher education, in the use of new educational media for the improvement of instruction. Each individual who attends an institute operated under the provisions of this subsection shall be eligible (after application therefor) to receive a stipend at the rate of $75 per week for the period of his attendance at such institute, and each such individual with one or more dependents shall receive an additional stipend at the rate of $15 per week for each such dependent for the period of such attendance.

(b) The Commissioner may arrange through contracts with institutions of higher education for the conducting of inservice training courses, on an evening or part-time basis, for teachers, new educational media specialists, school administrators, principals, supervisory personnel, librarians, or faculty members in institutions of higher education, in the use of new educational media, to be conducted in or near the locality in which such personnel are employed.



SEC. 761. (a) There is hereby established in the Office of Education an Advisory Committee on New Educational Media (hereafter in this title referred

to as the "Advisory Committee"). The Advisory Committee shall consist of the the Commissioner, who shall be chairman, a representative of the National Science Foundation and twelve persons appointed, without regard to the civilservice laws, by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary. Three of such appointed members shall be individuals identified with the sciences, liberal arts, or modern foreign languages in institutions of higher education; three shall be individuals actually engaged in teaching or in the supervision of teaching in elementary or secondary schools; three shall be individuals of demonstrated ability in the utilization or adaptation of television, radio, motion pictures, printed and published materials, and related media of communication for educational purposes; and three shall be individuals representative of the lay public who have demonstrated an interest in the problems of communication media. (b) The Advisory Committee shall

(1) advise, consult with, and make recommendations to the Commissioner on matters relating to the utilization or adaptation of television, radio, motion pictures, printed and published materials, or related media of com munication for educational purposes, and on matters of basic policy arising in the administration of this title;

(2) review all applications for grants-in-aid under part A of this title for projects of research or experimentation and certify approval to the Commissioner of any such projects which it


(Extract from Senate Report No. 652 of July 31, 1961, adding printed and published materials to title VII of the National Defense Education Act of 1958)

The committee bill, accordingly, would continue the title VII authorization for 3 additional years.

Appropriations. To finance the programs added under this title in sections 732 to 735 the committee amendment provides authorization for the appropriations as follows: Sections 732, 733, and 734, $2,500,000 for fiscal 1962 and for each of the 3 succeeding years, and section 735, $4 million for fiscal 1962 and for each of the 3 succeeding years. Committee amendments for parts A and B through section 731 of title VII would provide authorizations as follows: fiscal 1962, $5 million; fiscal 1963, $8 million; fiscal 1964 and 1965, $10 million each.

Printed and published materials.—In approving the modification of title VII to permit inclusion of new research and dissemination activities associated with printed and published materials, it was the committee's view that newer media should not and in the long run cannot profitably be studied in isolation from books and other printed materials. The use of books in self-instructional activities, the development of new publication formats to facilitate reading and learning, the contributions of books and other printed materials to systems of instructional materials which include the newer media, all require further creative investigation.

In short, all communications media are significant to education and may be used in varying combinations, depending upon the subject, size of class. grade level of students, and particular instructional situations. The original intent of title VII was and remains that of providing a special thrust leading to the improvement of education through the harnessing of modern communications technology. This objective is being achieved. But the truly well-equipped school must in the future have available for selection and immediate use the full range of instructional materials without reference to physical form. Indeed, the articulation of all communications media for more effective learning and better teaching is a major task confronting American education.

The committee believes that amendment of title VII to permit new research. experimental and demonstration approaches to the use of communications media. including printed and published materials, will appropriately and materially benefit research efforts currently being supported. By the same token, dissemination activities will be enriched by affording a full cross-media approach which highlights all available resources and vital interrelationships which will exist across the full spectrum of recorded communications materials.

Utilization of new media.-It is the committee's view that the testimony presented establishes the desirability of amending part B of title VII for the purposes of (1) authorizing Federal grants to State educational agencies, allotted according to school-age population and matched on a 50–50 basis, for the improve

ment of instruction through increased and improved utilization of a wide range of new educational media under approved State plans; and (2) conducting training institutes and inservice training courses in new educational media. There is an evident, urgent, and growing need to pass on to teachers throughout the Nation improvements in instructional techniques which have resulted from title VII research and from other experimentation in educational uses of modern communications technology. Information received from individuals, State departments of education, associations, and institutions have further documented the


(Proposed amendment to title III of the National Defense Education Act of 1958 relating to equipment and materials eligible for purchase by the States) Amend title IV B of S. 580 by adding at the end an additional section (424) as follows: [New language in italic and deletions struck through]

"SEC. 424. Subsection 303(a)(1) of the National Defense Education Act of 1958 (20 U.S.C. 443) is amended to read as follows:

"(1) sets forth a program under which funds paid to the State from its allotment under section 302(a) will be expended solely for projects approved by the State educational agency for (A) acquisition of laboratory and other special equipment, including audiovisual and programed learning materials and equipment and printed materials (other than textbooks), suitable for use in providing education in science, mathematics, or modern foreign language, in public elementary or secondary schools, or both, and (b) minor remodeling of laboratory or other space used for such materials or equipment;' ".

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Mr. MITCHELL. Yes, it is; and it is posing many problems for our people. There are many people who do not read the newspaper any more with any real understanding of the events described. They can't find the countries on the map that seem to be in all the trouble. They do not understand outer space. They have a kind of restlessness and insecurity that grows, as it always does, out of ignorance. I think you will find that this knowledge explosion is one of the reasons, one of the major reasons, for the tenseness that seems to be part of our society today.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Last year, I was in Peru and talked with Americans teaching down there. Some of the problems there are illustrated by the fact that there were schoolrooms where the only book in the room was the book that the teacher owned. No single child owned a book, no person in the family owned a book, no person in that family had ever owned a book.

Mr. MITCHELL. I was in Addis Ababa 2 years ago as a consultant to the 45 African nations as they were building their education program and their need in almost every line is almost desperate.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Weren't you surprised to find that almost all instruction in Ethiopia beyond the sixth grade is in the English language?

Mr. MITCHELL. I was surprised and pleased. I made a recommendation to Chairman Brademas of the House subcommittee on this subject that he could make English the new international language of a world that is going to need an international language in the next decade. Senator YARBOROUGH. I was in Ethiopia the year before last and noted some of those things you mentioned.

Thank you very much.

Mr. MITCHELL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Senator YARBOROUGH. The next witness is Mr. Frank Karelsen, national board member of the Americans for Democratic Action. Come around, Mr. Karelsen.


Mr. KARELSEN. Mr. Chairman, having heard your observation, I feel to some extent that I am carrying coals to Newcastle, because you, yourself, have such a wide knowledge on the subject of education.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Well, such knowledge as I have has been received mainly from sitting on this committee for 6 years, Mr. Karelsen, and listening to the great educators of America as they have come to plead for congressional action to help in this explosion of knowledge that is going on.

Mr. KARELSEN. Mr. Chairman, my name is Frank Karelsen, and on behalf of the members and officers of Americans for Democratic Action, I very much appreciate the subcommittee allowing ADA time to give some views in support of Federal aid to elementary and secondary education.

In the interest of succinctness, I will refer to the notes that I have. I have had, as you will see, in the first part of my statement, some 30 or 40 years' acquaintance with education in the United States.

I have been vice president of the Public Education Association in New York City and of the Child Study Association of America for over 30 years, and I am chairman of the executive committee of the Public Education Association.

I was one of those who organized and was a director of and counsel for META-that was the Metropolitan Educational Television Association in New York.

I was New York representative of the White House Conference on Education; I was chairman of the Advisory Committee of Human Relations of the Board of Education of the city of New York.

I am now one of the commissioners of the Community Mental Health Board of the City of New York. I am also a governor of one of the important private schools in New York, and also honorary president of the All-Day Neighborhood Association.

I shall not go through the rest of my qualifications, excepting that I do want to mention that I am also on the National-a member of the National Committee for the Support of Public Schools, that association which has just recently been started by Agnes Meyer.

You will note that in my statement of my qualifications, I said that I was a member of the White House Conference in 1955.

That Conference came out almost unanimously for Federal aid to the building of public schools throughout the United States, and also with a great majority toward Federal aid to teachers and school support in general.

came to the conclusion after that, unfortunately, since there was no action taken by the administration that there were two kinds of people in the Eisenhower administration-those who did not believe in Federal aid to education and those who did not believe in education. Because nothing was done.

Sometimes it is very hard to distinguish one from the other. And I am afraid that through the country, our Nation, there are too many people in these two classes. There is much too little understanding by the citizens of this country of the depth of the need for improvement in education. The lawmakers therefore have a burden, and that particularly applies to the Senate, of showing leadership which would e necessary to bring home to the voters what education means.


I first would like to outline briefly under various headings. and I know much of this will not be new to you, sir, what education can mean to a nation in time of peace. Denmark, for instance, and I have visited the schools in Denmark as I have most of the European and South American countries; Denmark, for instance, has today and for ver a century spent more on education per capita than any nation of the world. Denmark has few, if any, national resources and still is a very prosperous country and the standard of living of all the people is perhaps higher than any nation in the world, while countries with fabulous national resources, such as Mexico or Argentina, where they spend very little money on education, have a very low standard of living. In other words, in times of peace, education is the most mportant resource that a country has.

Now, let me examine what education means to a nation in time of war, if war, for instance, is forced upon us.

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