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program she was copying as a matter of record: "Why are you taking Russian?"
The boy, a high school junior, answered: "I don't want to take no Russian, but she told me I gotta."
The she, of course, was the counselor. It was later learned in this ase that the boy had to take a subject in which he had no interest simply to keep up the enrollment size of the class to justify continuing the class.
Another example of the rather complex roles that they may play : A teacher was coming into the House Office Building in the morning and found a group of elementary school youngsters shooting craps. there on the steps. She watched for a minute and said: "How come you are not in school?”
One of the boys took a look and said: "Cheezit, she is a hookey cop." It is the first time I had ever heard a truant officer called that, but it was probably a more descriptive term than any that could have been given.
Now, then, how are we going to get the interest of those boys, instead of wanting to be out shooting craps, to be in trying to stay and get something out of the program?
We maintain that in the training of counselors there is great need for a clear definition of what his duties may be.
PUBLIC LAW 874 AND THE DISTRICT
May I say at this point, again, going to the next point in the bill, we are grateful that the proposed legislation will give just recognition to the right of the District of Columbia to share in the benefits of Public Law 874 and Public Law 815, with certain modifications which social change has suggested.
Surely, no State in the Union has felt the impact of Federal demands more heavily than the District of Columbia. This bill, in extending the two laws for 4 more years and including the District of Columbia as a federally impacted area, gives to the District for the first time that which is our due.
The case rests on its own merits and we only hope that it will be retained as contained in this bill and as we hope the Senate will pass it. My colleague here will dwell a little more fully on that point. In title V, which deals with vocational education and education instruction to children who are mentally and physically handicapped, or those whose way of life and socio-economic problems to which they are subjected prevents profound problems. We would first urge that greater study be given to the whole question of motivation to keep children in school, to keep them wanting to be in school. A great deal of attention is given to the dropouts, but aside from speeches and expressions of sympathy and interest, we are not realistically facing what is happening to the thousands of teenagers who come to school because they are sent, who accomplish nothing in school; who just sit, or sit and make trouble. They are bored and they are frustrated; they cannot read, they cannot write, they cannot speak correct English. These are junior and senior high school students, many of them. All too many of them receive high school diplomas which are losing value as more and more unprepared youth seek to work on the basis of the
high school diploma which, in far to many cases, stands for very little.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Miss Borchardt, would it be possible to condense the remaining portion?
We have a number of out-of-town witnesses here. The Senate is in session, Senator Morse has been called to an emergency session of the Foreign Relations Committee and we are going to be forced to let the out-of-town people leave with no opportunity to testify unless we can somewhat condense our time here.
Miss BORCHARDT. I shall be very glad to help.
In this, we would call attention to the need for a change in the law regarding these and Andy has developed that at length. We would particularly call attention to the fact that in the present law, the provisions extend to requiring that the youth be given training which would assure him employment in his area.
We contend that that has been used in many cases as a basis of discrimination, and we would ask that the language there be greatly changed.
I would again call attention, Senator, to the point that I did when I appeared before you on the G.I. bill, that a large number of States at present do not have, in fact 11 States have repealed their compulsory school attendance laws completely, and many that have them have such loopholes in the law that they are of little value.
They excuse a child from attendance, as you know, because he is "too poor to attend" because the family does not have the kind of clothing he needs, because he is needed for the support of a widowed
Obviously, we do need aid to the States in implementing their attendance laws and in having a coordinated relation with public assistance to give to those children who need help in order to stay in school. Title VI meets the problem of the adult and here we would emphasize the different types of adult education as it is developed in the various States and abroad.
The Mexican effort, and successful effort, at helping train the adult who was illiterate and who was made to want better training, better education. The work, for example, of Huxley in developing the adult education field in England, the Scandinavian movement under Grunewald are an example of the fine work that can be done.
We are happy to have this recognition that is given to the community assets, and trust that there will be an expansion of such programs.
We would emphasize the fact that we would leave not only the extension through formal college cooperation but in every way, with private and public agencies to develop an adult field of education. (The prepared statement of Miss Borchardt follows:)
PREPARED STATEMENT OF SELMA M. BORCHARDT, CHAIRMAN, EDUCATION
I am Selma Borchardt, appearing before you today as chairman of the education committee of the Greater Washington Central Labor Council. Our support of the principles set forth in S. 580 is typical of the earnest support being given to this proposed legislation by city, central, and State labor bodies throughout the country.
Our position is guided by our parent body, the AFL-CIO, but at the same time, we are urged to give our own careful study of measures proposed, and when they are adopted to give full support at the local level to the proper and adequate implementation of the proposed program at the local level.
We thank you for giving us the privilege of appearing before you to present a few specific observations.
We shall not take your time to present again to you the facts and figures which have been given this Congress for many years by the U.S. Office of Education and other governmental agencies and many private agencies to show the urgent need for Federal aid for education, now.
We shall assume that the factual data prepared by the excellent professional staff serving this committee data which have been presented to this committee with a full analysis of each section of each title of this bill have been given serious study by the committee.
We shall here present only such data and observations as are not presented in the material which is already before you.
Here, we would but emphasize the urgent need for at least twice the sum provided in this bill for student loans, for student work-study programs for undergraduate and graduate students. It should be remembered that our Government is not asking to give a free college education to all Americans who say they want it. This title provides for loans-to be repaid, with interest, and for payment for services to be performed-salaries and wages that are to be earned. This outlay is, we contend, not an expenditure, but an investment in our country.
To us, in the labor movement, this proposal is of greatest importance. In our domestic government we must realize that we place in an inferior position the boy or girl who cannot go to college. He starts life with a handicap. Please give more opportunities to American youth to earn their college costs either through loans or through study-work programs.
We ask for one other form of student aid: we plead for scholarships—in full or in part, to cover college costs.
The children of thousands of trade unionists who must help support their low-income families in addition to paying their own college costs, surely cannot or will not care for their personal needs alone, and ignore the needs of the family. Hence, we plead for aid for scholarships as well as for loans-give these people the chance to earn or borrow, to help keep the family going while they get at least their tuition and barest living costs for their personal use. To our labor movement the granting of scholarships and loans, and provision for part-time work, is of greatest importance.
I would first refer to part B of title II, aid for the establishment and maintenance of community colleges. Here, again, we speak for the economically restricted poorer community and for the youth who hasn't the money to go away from home for his college education.
Here, in Washington, our Central Labor Council has long endorsed a local public junior college. It is indeed a tragedy that young people in the Nation's Capital have no place to go to get 2 years of general college training without raying high tuition costs. True, we have a publicly supported Teachers' College. But what can we offer youth who may want to take up engineering or agriculture or business administration or social work or any of the many other courses in which young people of today may wish to be schooled.
The need for college facilities is a pressing need, indeed. This need must be met, especially now when we face a likely doubling of college entrance students. If colleges do not get these much needed facilities through Federal aid funds, they will have to raise the cost of tuition to get the funds needed. And this very raising of tuition costs will force some of the potentially superior youths to five up going to college. This just doesn't make sense. The facilities and classrooms are needed for help for the individual student in every college to keep his tuition costs down.
Last year, you will remember, toward the close of the session, a telegram sent by the chief State school officers, the NEA and two or three other groups pro
tested the granting of Federal funds to institutions of higher learning which were church connected, holding that such action is unconstitutional. This telegram, it was held by some, killed the proposed legislation.
You may recall the case decided in the middle of the 19th century (the trustees of Vincennes University, Indiana, in 1852 (14 Howard 268)). In the case, the Federal Government gave money to this university to further educational work in the State. Some State authorities in Indiana contested this grant holding that the giving of Federal funds to a church-supported college was unconstitu tional. The court held that the funds were contributed entirely by a public agency for a public purpose and therefore the action was entirely constitutional Do you know, Senator, if the holding of the court in this issue, well over a hur dred years ago, has been overridden by other decisions of the court? Surely the practice has held since the country was established-that it is in the public in terest to grant aid to higher institutions of learning, to promote education with national support.
We find this principle recognized in the action taken by our parent body the AFL-CIO. In fact, the most recent statement issued by the executive council the AFL-CIO, just a few weeks ago, reiterated this position.
We say at the outset that we hold that no legislative body should ever seek to determine course content.
But, we believe certain basic principles, in relation to teacher training should be emphasized.
While each State must have the unquestionable authority to determine its own standards for education there should be recognition of the need for voluntarily agreed to common principles which would serve as guidelines for all States Perhaps in the institutes provided for in title III consideration might well b given to the establishment of guidelines. Teacher preparation programs could with great profit, consider the need for greater study in the social sciences Even a casual survey has shown us that no State requires teachers to have had courses in anthropology, economics, and practical social work. We would par ticularly call attention to the highly important provision for teacher training for related educational personnel. At this point, we would submit to you the we need more social workers trained as educational social workers in our schoolRecently the dean of the School of Social Work at Howard University. Dear Inabel Lindsay, gave a talk to the Greater Washington Central Labor Counc on the role which social workers could and should have in helping develop th potentialities of children, particularly from the economically depressed area We are happy to find that provision is made here for further educational re search and for teacher demonstration classes.
The provision for State-sponsored statistical services is one that pleases greatly.
In proposing programs for strengthening public elementary and secondar education, it is good to note that the President emphasized the need for arousin an interest and desire on the part of good people to choose to teach. He dwe at some length on the need for improving teachers' salaries if our schools are attract good teachers. We would particularly commend the President's reco nition for the need of a 4-year program through which each of the States ma develop its own plans for such a project.
Here, however, we would, with some urgency, emphasize the lack of recog tion which is given to the work of the classroom teacher. Let us be quite cand at this point. Aside from sentimentalities and cliches there is no evidence th the contribution of the classroom teacher is recognized.
Actually, let us face the fact: teaching is the only profession one must lea in order to rise in it. This is a paradox. Most people have heard it sa of a good teacher, "He is such a good teacher he won't be teaching long." therefore urge that in the various teacher improvement institutes and progra that more attention be given to the role of the teacher in formulating poli and in planning effective implementation of policy than is now asked for fr the teacher. We would also strongly emphasize the need for reuiring sch administrators to keep abreast with possible improvements in teaching.
While provision is expressly made for developing programs in science, mat matics, and modern foreign languages, we regret that the need for a bett
command of the English language is not emphasized. We think it should be. During the last few decades considerable attention has been given to guidance, counseling, and testing. Yet, we would respectfully submit that no two schools have the same meaning for these terms. In order to counsel an adolescent, the hild's counselor should have not only a deep understanding of the psychological and physical problems of the child but also of the work-a-day world into which the counselor would seek to guide the child. Unfortunately, few counselors are quipped to do this. Furthermore, counselors and administrators are assigned tasks ranging from routine clerical work to relieve the principals, to program panning, to relieving school clerks, to discussing matters of interest with individmai children on a catch-as-catch-can basis, to handling discipline cases, and so on. We would cite a few examples. Recently the homeroom or section teacher said to one of the boys whose program she was copying, "Why are you taking Russian?" The boy, a high school junior, answered, "I don't want to take no Russian but she told me I gotta." The reason was because they needed more students to maintain the proper number in the class to continue it.
In another case, I have learned a group of elementary schoolboys were seated on the steps of the House Office Building. A woman approached the steps and noticed the boys were "shooting crap." She stopped and said, "How does it happen you boys are not in school? It's 11 o'clock." At this point, one of the boys became suspicious and said, "Cheez it. She's a hookey cop," and started to run. The woman assured the boys she was not a "hookey cop" and called them over. She asked what would happen when they came back to school. The boys looked at each other and grinned. One said, "Well, won't be much time Bow before school's out." She asked them if they would be "kept back." A wise one in the group answered, "Naw, they ain't got room for us in the grade we're in." So, the boys are to be pushed on. We ask that those who are planning the training centers for counselors of the future be asked to give a definition clearly setting forth what is required and what is not required of a counselor.
We are particularly grateful that the proposed legislation will give just recognition to the right of the District of Columbia to share in the benefits of Public Laws 874 and 815. Surely no State in the Union has felt the impact of Federal demands more heavily than the District of Columbia. This bill, in extending the two laws for 4 more years and including the District of Columbia as a federally impacted area, gives to the District for the first time that which is our due. The case rests on its own merits and we only hope that it will be retained as contained in this bill and as we hope the Senate will pass it.
Title V deals with vocational education and education instruction to children who are mentally or physically handicapped or whose way of life and socioeconomic problems to which they are subjected presents profound problems. We would first urge that greater study be given to the whole question of motivation to keep children in school; to keep them wanting to be in school. A great deal of attention is given to the dropouts but aside from speeches and expressions of sympathy and interest, we are not realistically facing what is happening to the thousands of teenagers who come to school because they are sent-who accomplish nothing in school; who just sit, or sit and make trouble. They are bored and they are frustrated; they cannot read, they cannot write, they cannot speak correct English. All too many of them receive high school diplomas which are losing value as more and more unprepared youth seek work on the basis of the high school diploma which in far too many cases stands for very little.
We urge that in planning the training of these young people for employment that the plans be made in cooperation, not only with people who have taken urses in vocational education, but with people who have learned performances on the job and can teach others what they have learned. We must face the fact that training in even the specialized skills today will not insure employment 10 Tears from now for the needs will change continually.
We urge a continuing standing committee on vocational education which would have the benefit of the advice of persons engaged in actual work in industry and the trades. We are very happy to know that plans are now being ade realistically for helping implement the Youth Employment Act. Provision is made for training teachers who in turn will train the handicapped youth.