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A Brief Review of Certain Current Thoughts that Affect Curriculum and Teachers. Covers curricula areas of social science, consumer education, industrial education, and reading. $.15 per copy.

A Brief Review of the A.F.T.'s Fight for Integration. Reviews highlights of AFT convention action from 1947 to 1959 on school integration. $.15 per copy.

A Sample Study of Teachers' Freedom of Choice in Joining Professional Organizations. A review of the opinions of officials in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, and Wisconsin. $.10 per copy.

A Sample Study of the 1961 Leg. islative Goals of Certain State Federations. Research study reviews current goals of 21 state federations. $.15 per copy.

A Selected Bibliography Concern. ing Merit Rating. A research study reviewing articles publish. ed on the subject, with annotations. $20 per copy.

A Summary of Districts Providing Fringe Benefits for Teachers. A study of districts providing fringe benefits including for: sick leave, severance pay, health insurance policies, teacher retirement programs. sabbatical leave, maternity leave, funeral leave, military leave. and Federal social security benefits. $ .25 per copy.

A Survey of Legislative Action in the State Legislatures Concerning Education. A research study reviewing 15,000 pages of reports from chief state school officers on the subject. $.50 per copy.

Atypical Children in American Education. Study of the presence and placement of atypical children in American schools as related through authorities in the field. $.15 per copy.

Current Fears of Teachers. Study of the economic, social, legal, physical, and moral fears of teachers. $.15 per copy.

Discipline During the Age of the New Frontier. Reviews various state regulations concerning school discipline, relating the study to modern life and education. $15 per copy.

Education and Congress. Research study of educational attainments of members of the legislative branch of the national government and review of promises of major parties concerning Federal aid for education. $.15 per copy.

American Federation of Teachers Research Studies

By Dr. George S. Reuter, Jr., Research Director Evaluation of Personnel Prac tices. Reviews code of fair administrative practices approved by the AFT. Covers such items as personnel handbooks, superintendents' communications, grievance procedures, defined school day, ethics, and transfer policies. A sequel to Personnel Relations for Teachers. $.15 per copy.

Examples of Payroll Deductions. Reviews the forms used by school districts. $.10 per copy.

Financial Comparisons of Public Schools by States. Four approaches to financial comparisons of public schools. $.10 per


Fiscal Independence Versus Fis cal Dependence of School Boards. 32 pp. Research study, the first of its kind to cover major school districts in America. Practice of school districts on such subjects as school levies, school bonds, school elections, and school indebtedness. $ 25 per copy.

Historical Justification for Feder al Aid to Education. Reviews grants to states by the Federal government on their admission to the union and Federal grants subsequent to admission to the union prior to 1900. Definitely proves that Federal Aid to Education has existed since before the be ginning of our Republic. Revised. $.15 per copy.

How the School Dollar is Spent in Our Larger Cities. Research study concerning the amount of the school dollar allocated to administration, instruction, maintenance, plant operation, other school services, transportation and fixed charges. $.10 per copy.

Lunchroom Supervision Practices in Cities of 500,000 Popula tion and Up. Research study of large cities and their lunchroom practices, including duty-free lunch period. $.10 per copy.

Per Pupil Cost in Representative Districts of America. Research study giving cost variations of pupils between elementary and secondary schools. $.10 per copy. Personnel Relations for Teachers. 32 pp. Resch study. A guide for teachers in personnel rela. tions with school districts and administration. $.50 per copy. Recent Major Litigation Concern. ing Integration. Research study reviewing major cases concern. ing school integration. $ .25 per copy.

Reciprocity in Teacher Certifica tion. Research study of state which cooperate with other state in granting teaching certificates $.10 per copy.

Reforms Needed in the Selecti of Textbooks. 24 pp. Rescator study on current adoption pia tices, suggested improveme recommendations. $30 per copy

Selected Opinions Concerning th National Defense Education Act Research study of the opinion of educators concerning this law $.10 per copy.

Some Constitutional Prohibition Against Financial Aid to Privat Schools. Reviews AFT actio against Federal aid for priva education, and points out lej: roadblocks involved $15 p copy.

Some Current Issues in Industri al Education. Research study re viewing vocational and industria education and problems $1 per copy.

Summary of A.F.T. State Federa tion Data. Research comparison of dues structure of state feder tions of teachers and other in ternational unions. $ 15 copy.

Superintendents' Salaries Ra search study evaluating salary wise relationship to the teacher $20 per copy.

Teaching Machines and the Ag of the New Frontier. Research study of history of teaching ma chines and review of pro and cor thinking concerning them. $ per copy.

The Defined School Year. Re search review and issues in volved. $20 per copy.

The Limitation of Class Size Kr. search review of historical stu dies in this area. $ 25 per copy.

The Teacher and Automation Research review by several au thorities. $25 per copy.

The Teacher and General Educa tion. Research review of the subject. 8 .20 per copy.

The Teacher and Grievance Pro cedures. Research review of es tablished procedures. $25 per


The Utilization of Educators Re search study of actual utiliza? of teachers and administrators b school districts. $ 15 per copy

Senator YARBOROUGH. The next witnesses are Miss Selma Borchardt of the Greater Washington Central Labor Council and Mr. Don B. Goodloe.


Senator YARBOROUGH. Miss Borchardt, you are the first witness in this panel of two. Will you proceed, please?

Miss BORCHARDT. I am Selma Borchardt, appearing before you today as chairman of the Education Committee of the Greater Washington Central Labor Council. Our support of the principles set forth in S. 580 is typical of the earnest support being given to this proposed legislation by city, central, and State labor bodies throughout the country.

We support the principles put forth here, S. 580, by our parent body, the AFL-CIO.

May I say, Senator, that I am not sticking strictly to the text, but trying to condense as we go along?

Senator YARBOROUGH. You may read the text and I will read the text as you summarize it and it will be printed in the record for the other Senators to have the benefit of who could not come this morning, because the Senate is in session and there are other committees in session, too.

Miss BORCHARDT. We, as I say, support, of course, the principles of our parent body, who have testified here today. We are grateful for the privilege of appearing before you to amplify the testimony of the central body and the position taken by the parent body.

We are not presenting to you the factual data which the excellent professional staff of this subcommittee have prepared and which have been placed before the committee. It would not only be repetitious but it would be presumptuous to seek to improve on those facts and figures as they have presented them.

We shall here present only such data and observations as are not , presented in the material which is already before you through your professional committee.


We would emphasize the urgent need for at least twice the amount provided in this bill for student loans, for student work study programs, for undergraduate and graduate students.

It should be remembered that our Government is not asked under this bill to give a free college education to all Americans who may want it at the college level. This title, title I, provides for loans to be repaid with interest, and for payment for services to be rendered by the students. This outlay is, we contend, not an expenditure but an investment in our country.

To us in the labor movement, this proposal is of greatest importance; that is, the proposal of loans and, which we point our later, we want some scholarships also. We believe that the young man who comes

from the family which is not able to pay for the full college work certainly merits the consideration that is given by the very position that others may enjoy..

The children of thousands of our trade unionists who must help support their low income families in addition to paying their own college costs surely cannot or will not care for their personal needs alone and ignore the needs of the family. They certainly deserve consideration and it is for them that we plead for scholarship grants as well as for loans.

We have some data gathered by our central bodies in various parts of the country on that, and at this point, if I may submit statements of this type, I should appreciate doing it.


I would at first, now, under title II, refer to part B for the establishment and maintenance of community colleges. Here again we speak for the economically restricted poorer community and for the youth who has not the money to go away from home for his college education.

Here, in Washington, our central labor council has endorsed a local public junior college for the city for many years. It is indeed a trag. edy that young people in the Nation's Capital have no place in the city to go to get 2 years of general college training without paying high tuition costs. True, we have a publicly supported teachers' college. But what can we offer to the youth who may want to take up engineering, agriculture, business administration, social work, or many of the other disciplines of learning?

The need for college facilities is a pressing need, indeed; that is, a public junior college is vitally essential to our Nation's Capital and to many of the other local communities.


Last year, Senator, you will remember that toward the end of the session, the chief State school officers and two or three other organizations sent a telegram, just as we were hoping, for favorable action on the college aid bill and everything looked as if that would be passed. But unfortunately, they raised the question at that time of the constitutionality of Federal grants to church aided institutions. In that way, they played a major part in killing the bill last year.

You may recall, you may have heard of a case, Trustees of Vincennes University, in Indiana, way back in 1852. So far as we could find, it is the only case in which the Supreme Court held that the granting of such aid to the colleges, whether publicly or privately, nonprofit, support is given them. In this case, the Court and the citation is 14 Howard 268. In this case, the Federal Government gave money to this university to further educational work in the State at the college level. Some State authorities in Indiana contested this grant, holding that the giving of Federal funds to a church supported college was unconstitutional. The case was carried to the Supreme Court, in the citation I have given here.

The Court held that the funds were contributed entirely by a public agency for a public purpose, and therefore the action was entirely constitutional.

Now, that is in complete derogation of statements that have been made. May I say that we in the trade union movement subscribe to the position taken by the Supreme Court, the only time we have found a citation showing that they were acted on?

We find this principle recognized in the action taken by our central body's parent body, the AFL-CIO. In the most recent statement by the AFL-CIO, which I trust and I put in the record, you find a specific reference to this point in complete compliance with the decision of the Court in the Vincennes University case.


Now in title III we say at the outset that we hold that no legislative body should ever seek to determine course content.

We all know of attempts that have been made in many States to have course content dictated by legislative action. We think that is extremely dangerous and we think that it leads to the establishment of a State policy which is repugnant to all of us.

But we believe that certain basic principles, in relation to teacher training, should be emphasized. While each State must have the unquestionable authority to determine its own standards for education, there should be recognition of the need for voluntarily agreed to common principles which would serve as guidelines for all States. Perhaps in the institutes provided for in title III consideration might be given to the establishment of such guidelines. Teacher preparation programs could, with great profit, consider the need for greater study in the social sciences. Even a casual survey has shown us that not one State in the Union requires a teacher to have had a course in such things as anthropology, economics, and practical social work. Yet knowledge and training in those fields is essential to good teacher preparation.

We would like particularly to call attention to the highly important provision for teacher training for related educational personnel provided for in this bill. At this point we would submit to you the fact that we need more social workers for all of the schools. While they may be covered in the recognition of their work by related personnel we would like to see specific recognition given to the need for more social workers.

We would at this point bring to the attention of the subcommittee a speech made by the dean of social work at Howard University, Dean Lindsay, who spoke to our labor people on the need for more social workers, and I would say that the talk was very, very cordially welcomed by the men and women present.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I am sure it will be helpful to us in our deliberations, Miss Borchardt.

Miss BORCHARDT. We are happy to see a provision for State-sponsored statistics, because we believe it is the business of the State to get them.


In title IV, in proposing programs for strengthening public elementary and secondary education, it is good to note that the President emphasized the need for arousing an interest and desire on the part of good people to choose to teach. He dwelt at some length on the need for improving teachers' salaries if our schools are to attract good teachers. We would particularly commend the President's recognition for the need of a 4-year program through which each of the aims of the States in this way would be recognized in a continuing


Here however we would, with some urgency, emphasize the lack of recognition which is given to the work of the classroom teacher. Actually, aside from the sentimentalities and cliches, there is little evidence that the contribution of the classroom teacher is recognized. We are a professional organization dealing with classroom teachers as workers who perform and want specific recognition of the need of the classroom teacher in formulating policies.

Actually let us face the fact: Teaching is the only profession one must leave in order to rise in it. This is a paradox. Most people, however, have heard it said of a good teacher: "He is such a good teacher he won't be teaching long.'

And that is a sad state of affairs for it means that here, unlike the practices, Senator, in practically every one of the European countries in Western Europe, you will find that the headmaster, or principal, as we call him, is required to teach. They never have an administrator in charge of a school who is not doing part-time teaching. The need of keeping the administrative part of the school and the classroom performance at a common level cannot be overstressed. It is essential and we would like to see more and more recognition given to that.

While provision is expressly made for developing programs in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, we regret that the need for a better command of the English language is not emphasized or, in fact, even mentioned here. We think it should be.


During the last few decades considerable attention has been given to the question of guidance, counseling, and testing. Yet we would respectfully submit that no two schools have the same meaning for these terms. In order to counsel an adolescent the child's counselor should have not only a deep understanding of the psychological and physical problems of the child, but also of the workaday world into which the counselor would seek to guide the child. Unfortunately few counselors as yet are equipped to do this. Furthermore counselors and administrators are assigned tasks ranging from routine clerical work, "to relieve the principals," to program planning, to relieving school clerks, to discussing matters of interest with individual children on a catch-as-catch-can basis, to handling discipline cases, and so on.

We would cite a few examples of what may happen under these conditions. Recently in a city not far from here a section teacher, or homeroom teacher, said to one of the boys in the homeroom whose

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