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It seems as though we need a dynamic, positive program to put before the American people, as well as the alternatives to this dynamic, positive program. We really are not very much concerned about what the alternatives are, and perhaps we really do not know. It appears to me as though this research emphasis is apt to be the key to the door that we need to unlock in the future.

We heard come comments this morning, we read many, as you alluded to, in the newspaper and other places, of a negative nature with respect to education and its possible Federal control.

I suppose these are the idiosyncracies of people reacting in the grassroots to the possibility that such control may exist. But can they quarrel with facts based on evidence produced through research?

Now, if we will make a massive effort in this direction-for if any program needs to be emphasized it is this program—perhaps in a year or two some of the fighting against the sorts of things we hope to accomplish may not be so evident.

We need to change the pattern of thinking of many people-to encourage change. In fact, we need to pioneer change, for the future is much more complex and potentially more dynamic than we could ever have imagined in the past.

Somehow, we have to translate this to the people at large, and to the educational community as well.

The educational ferment of the last decade or two has had something to do with pointing toward change, despite the fact that we have been stanchly criticized on some counts, and reported negatively to some of the criticism. But criticism does make for positive change. We are truly committed to improve education at all levels, to more effectively reach all Americans, which you were talking about a moment ago, so that a generation from now, we may not have to retread adults who were somehow missed in their youth in the educational program through which they traveled.

The people we are concerned with in this legislation, the adult illiterates and others should not have been bypassed, educationally speaking. Whether they came from other countries or not is incidental. In our times, there is no justification for the existence of disadvantaged Americans.


We believe that educational research and development constitutes the most effective route to educational improvement and that research. accomplishment hinges on facts and evidence rather than on emotion. Therefore, we believe the approach suggested refutes controversy, because facts should be on the table to be examined by all. We are confident that truth will result in change for the better. We seek no giveaway program, but truly believe that improvements which need to be effected in American education at all levels are amenable to research and study, for we know that research is what will make the difference between this and future generations.

We must not forget that the strength of our Nation has been dependent upon the nature and complexity or the differences which have characterized our people. I suspect it will continue to be. And we must assure that all individuals have the opportunity to attain the

education of which they are capable. This runs the gamut from the children of migrant laborers to Indian children, to youngsters with different kinds of physical, mental, and societal disadvantages, as well as those we would not consider disadvantaged. We have the responsibility to educate them all and do it much more effectively than we have ever done. We have to project into the future to be absolutely certain that the dynamic changes that the future requires find an atmosphere in which they can develop.

I would like to refer to a few statements in the document that Dean Lindley Stiles and I have prepared.

Senator MORSE. We will put the entire statement in the record. Dr. TOTARO. We have worked with over 400 Americans in all parts of the country in efforts to achieve a breakthrough that would improve the quality of education through a more realistic investment in educational research and development.

It has been the desire of these individuals who represent many different walks of life that the emphasis in American education be such as to assure that our people not only be equipped to keep abreast of the latest advances in all fields, but that they also continue to be actively involved in pushing forward the frontiers of knowledge. That they have had a profound effect on the thinking of people in their own communities regarding educational improvement is most gratifying. But while our gains have been considerable, much remains to be accomplished. Other nations, cognizant of the relationship of education to progress have made dramatic advances in recent years because they have recognized the need for improving education and were willing to invest what was necessary for its accomplishment. We who have achieved so much in the past must not now take educational quality and progress for granted. We have a long way to go. I will close with the final paragraph of this statement:


The quality of American education, and the degree to which it can condition our people to respond, efficiently and effectively to the dynamic challenges which lie ahead, will largely determine whether we continue as a leader among nations or slip to subservience. A continuing realistic investment in educational research and development is absolutely essential if we are to remain on top. At a time when our very survival is threatened, can we afford not to create an atmosphere. in which all Americans may have the opportunity and will be encouraged to pursue the amount and kind of education of which they are capable? Education for survival is nonpartisan. Accordingly, we hope you will consider this plea for improving American education

on its merits.

Attached to our statement is an itemization of a number of cooperative research projects which have been in progress, to show you some of the advances that have actually been achieved through this pro


We think that one of its major shortcomings is a lack of funds. What is going on in some of the key universities, including my own, includin ing Dr. Zacharias' institution, needs to be spread out across the country and that cannot be done unless we have demonstration

programs, unless we have centers at which these researches are continued and the results funneled out to the grassroots of all our States. We hope that our pleas will make it possible for you to awaken interest at the source from which funds must come.

Thank you.

Senator MORSE. The statement of accomplishments will be included. in the record along with the full statement.

(The documents referred to are as follows:)


I thank the subcommittee for this opportunity to present facts about the edu cational needs of American youth. Let me also express my respect for the years of thought and effort many of you have devoted to meeting the Nation's critical and expanding educational needs.

We are all aware that our society continually becomes more technical and complex. Consequently larger percentages of our citizens need higher levels of training. Citizens' capacity to earn paychecks for their families depends on education commensurate with present-day need. So does the prosperity and progress of our country. Clearly, somehow, citizens, localities, States, and our National Government, together, must develop ways of allocating a more adequate portion of our manpower, time, and unprecedented financial resources to provision of such education.

S. 580 proposes action on a few of the Nation's most urgent educational needs. I strongly urge vigorous action on every one of those proposals. I will comment particularly on items which bear most heavily on needs and problems with which I happen to have direct contact and experience.

The college student loan, employment, and fellowship proposals represent a very modest start on meeting the Nation's immediate need to make advanced training accessible to a larger percentage of our youth. We all know that in the modern technological world citizens' opportunity to earn a living and contribute to our economy depends largely on training which fits them for modern occupations.

The facts about our national shortage of well-trained people and our surplus of poorly trained ones are well known. Facts also show that increases in the costs of tuitions, fees, travel, and other costs of attending colleges are outrunning the financial resources of many families. Numerous studies show that for many years large percentages of the Nation's most able youth have not attended college because they cannot pay the costs. The need for actions which will make college and university training more accessible is obvious.

As some of you have observed, at present a growing number of colleges and universities are forced to restrict admission because facilities are not adequate for larger enrollments. Obviously the S. 580 college facilities grants and loan proposals comprise an essential counterpart of student finance proposals.

Industrial, commercial, and scientific experience clearly demonstrate the value of research and development. S. 580 proposals for research and developmental training aimed at improvement of instruction are particularly urgent as means of enabling the Nation to use its educational manpower, facilities, and funds in ways that yield the best possible instruction for youth.

More adequate research and development funds will release and stimulate the energies of a large reservoir of well-trained and dedicated research personnel now employed by the Nation's universities. For example, at Washington State University alone, in the past 3 years nine college of education staff members have sought funds to pursue research which promises to improve instruction. Only two have been able to obtain such funds. None from Federal sources.

To make education as effective as it can and should be, there is urgent need for research that will (1) better enable teachers to identify and develop all capacities of all pupils; (2) reveal more effective means of motivating pupils to learn during their school years and to continue learning throughout their adult lives: (3) show how modern teaching tools and materials can be used most effectively: (4) show how personnel can best be used to provide high-quality education for our ever larger numbers of pupils.

I strongly urge the subcommittee to support the full amount of research funds recommended by the U.S. Commissioner of Education.

Again, based on first hand experience, I can assure you of the immense beneats to millions of youth inherent in continuation of funds for guidance and counseling institutes. In the past 5 years, National Education Defense Act funds tave enabled Washington State University to train 148 counselors. Conservative estimates indicate that those counselors are serving more than 74,000 pupils. The need for more counselors at both elementary and high schools levels remains great.

S. 50 proposals for appropriations to States for teachers' salaries, school facilities and improvement of instruction are indeed modest in terms of the Nation's vast need. Personally, I feel that much larger sums should be made available to be spent for whatever purposes State departments of education determine to be most urgent. But I understand the circumstances that make it difficult for the Congress to provide general Federal aid. Under those circumstances I urge the modest start proposed by S. 580.

Facts demonstrating the urgent need for vocational and adult training improvements at which S. 580 proposals are aimed are familiar to all. At present, rapid technological change is seriously restricting the opportunities of an increasing percentage of citizens to earn paychecks for their families. This trend constitutes an alarming threat to democratic principles and to our national prosperity.

I assure you that the millions of youth in our schools and all citizens who value a prosperous and developing America will be grateful for the favorable consideration you give to S. 580. Thank you.


The longitudinal study of centralized school districts in rural areas in Wisconsin was designed initially to produce both basic and practical research outcomes The vital assistance which came from the cooperative research program accelerated the practical aspects of this research and enabled the publication of pertinent documents which are eagerly sought by the public. Additional basic research has also been accomplished. The following account is an example of the requests for information related to the research which were received and met by this office during one week (February 18–22, 1963).

Monday, February 18: Phone call from Kansas School Boards Association seeking 200 copies of Special Bulletin No. 6 for distribution to the State legislature then considering a school district bill for Kansas.

Tuesday, February 19: Letters requesting copies of materials from Pennsylvania, California, and Nebraska.

Wednesday, February 20: Request for booking or purchase of the filmed research reports on school organization from Contra Costa County, Calif. Thursday, February 21: Inquiry from South Dakota regarding the purebase of school reorganizational films. Five letters and three phone calls requesting copies of Special Bulletin No. 6 within Wisconsin.

Friday, February 22: Two phone calls requesting the research director to give oral reports, one from a community group and one from a group of school administrators.

Requests for help from a citizens' committee engaged in a survey of reorganization possibilities for three high school districts in Waupaca County, Wisconsin.

Special Bulletin No. 6 was released by the University of Wisconsin College of Agriculture bulletin room in the spring of 1961. Since that period 35,000 of these reports have been requested and used. More than half of these requests originated outside of Wisconsin.


Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I have been asked to disass briefly the nature of research in the arts. If by "research" we mean the pursuit of new knowledge or the application of knowledge with innovative or investigate intent, then art itself can be called research. A serious artist in any medium is trying to extend the limits both of man's imagination and of his

understanding of his world. The means used may be based on verbal, visual, tonal, structural or (as in drama and dance) projective techniques. The activity of the artist results in a product, art, the limits of which have not been prede termined. Art can be, in its highest form, pure research into the phenomena of seeing, feeling, insight, and communicative purpose.

But because "research" is not usually the term used to describe this creative process, it is not likely that the arts will spring quickly to mind when S. 580 is studied. Research efforts of a more orthodox kind have frequently been applied to the arts, not always at effective educational levels or with significant results. It is quite likely that better understanding of the whole creative process, to the benefit of both education and science, as well as new art expression could emerge from serious and imaginative investigation into the artist's conceptual processes. Because the artist often is concerned with nonverbal communicative techniques, we could perhaps through these find a better measure of intelligence for some people than the scales of verbal and mathematical aptitude which, as now applied, control the opportunities, and thus the destinies, of many citizens. We need better studies of structural types and materials applicable to the design problems of architecture. There are problems which involve aesthetics and design knowledge to be solved in the rehabilitation and extension of our cities. We can profitably investigate, through the drama, certain qualities of audience response.

These are some, but by no means all of the avenues which invite broad investigative effort in the arts.

The arts, like the sciences and the humanities, require some open opportunities for speculation before many of the problems open to solution will emerge. Until vigorous minds are permitted to move without restraint into areas of free inquiry (beyond those which traditionally artists have been able to control through the simple application of techniques to their production of art) there will be little revelation of the extent to which the processes of art can contribute to a more complete understanding of man and society.

This would suggest that institutions which are already engaged in broad research projects in diversified areas could (if the environment permits) productively add investigative projects in the arts at graduate levels. Institutions which have responsibily administered funds for other research purposes can with equal confidence be given custodial control of research funds the areas for which the arts have primary concern-creativity, the uses of the imagination in the conception and development of new problems, education at all stages of human growth, communication of both emotions and ideas, and the development of a balanced society.

Although some studies of sensory perception have been made, our understanding in this area is still far from complete. Beyond the value of such studies for artists and teachers, there are in these investigations far more complex inplications for those who study the learning processes as a whole. The same can be said about whatever new insight we can gain into the neuromuscular mechanisms which condition performance on a musical instrument.

Certainly the arts have not been entirely isolated from studies that originate in the areas of psychology, physiology, engineering, science, sociology, and economics. But the attraction of talented and perceptive artists to collaborative efforts with research scholars in these fields has not been marked, largely because the arts have not been able to subsidize their part of such enquiries. Without doubt the studies which might be most useful in a general senseand also probably those which are most complex-are those which deal with the nature of the creative process, however it may be applied, toward the arts, toward science, toward social growth, educational progress, engineering, or political action. This would appear to be a corporate undertaking of considerable magnitude.

Those of you who have watched carefully the development of precollege programs at both elementary and secondary school levels during these recent years of change, have undoubtedly seen the ways in which young people with high intelligence have been guided (rather inexorably at times) into paths which would bring them into the colleges equipped to cope with almost anything except the problems of the arts. Expanded school programs in the arts have been reserved for the "slow track" people, those who cannot, without having college and professional school qualification barriers lowered for their accommodation, hope to compete intellectually with their college fellows. Thus we rapidly reach a point of greatly diminishing returns in the arts: we cannot

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