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special education, and so forth, will all come along on a much more rapid and sounder base, which is necessary if we can establish some of the new knowledge, the nature of some of the new knowledge and new uses for the old.
Research in the rapidly changing educational environment is the best tool we know to use in securing data as a base for the planning, curriculum revision, and all other aspects of education.
I am very happy, Mr. Chairman, to add my testimony in favor of S. 550, because I think it is very important.
Senator RANDOLPH. We are very appreciative, Dean Boggs, of your testimony today. I have felt, and in this I am sure I am in agreement with you and your colleagues, that we need to organize, if that is the correct word, those of inquiring minds in the manner in which the proposed legislation would bring that into being. Under the program which we now have of the jointly financed cooperative agreements, arrangements with universities and colleges for the conduct of research and surveys, demonstrations, you would wish to add new language to make grants to public or nonprofit private universities, colleges and other institutions with research and training facilities.
Why do you feel that is especially important?
Dr. BOGGS. Because of the great depth and breadth of the job that has to be done at the moment.
Senator RANDOLPH. I only interrupt you to say at that point, so many people are reluctant to accept change; in fact, they resist change change in education, as in other aspects of our living.
I think what you are saying here, what we would say together, is that it is not just change, it is the very fact of change in this time in which we live that we have to inquire into with depth, with scope. People must move forward into these areas of study and research. Is that true?
Dr. BOGGS. Yes. And we need leaders in the identification of the things that need to be done.
For instance, I referred a few moments ago to the Preston County study and you are familiar with that territory. In the second discussion meeting we had, the parents themselves and some of the people identified the idea, well, what is the expectancy level that we have here for our children? Well, that just opened a research study there for them to look at themselves.
Senator RANDOLPH. An appraisal, a reappraisal?
Dr. BOGGS. Yes; a reappraisal, and it is in movement now without any support. We are doing it all on our own. That is why we need help. That is an example of it.
Senator RANDOLPH. Some of the people may have said we are underprivileged, but we are not without purpose; is that true?
Dr. BOGGS. That is right, and we are not without spirit to do something about it.
Senator RANDOLPH. Then we would include these grants, of course, and in cooperation when appropriate, with State or local educational agencies of centers for the conduct of programs of research, development of education, demonstration with approved instructional practices in elementary or secondary schools.
INTERSTATE COOPERATION IN RESEARCH
I wonder—and I am not sure on this point-are we allowed to carry on, say, a cooperative project with, let's say, the States of Virginia and Maryland? Not just make it a West Virginia project, but could we include several States?
Dr. BOGGS. We are proceeding at West Virginia University under the assumption that that would be true because our Center for Appalachian Studies, which we have started, the research projects which I have mentioned, and we have pilot studies in seven of the counties at the present time which are set up now as sort of dry runs to get the bugs out of the research design, and so forth, to take them out into the wider area.
Senator RANDOLPH. We don't need any research in Preston County as to why teachers who live in Kingwood go across the State line and act as instructors in Maryland, because, for the same subjects taught, they receive approximately $100 more a month. We don't need any research on that, do we, sir?
Dr. BOGGS. That is right.
Senator RANDOLPH. But we do need research on this subject matter which you have designated.
Dr. BOGGS. Yes; and many facets of it. Only about one proposal in eight that is considered for financial support by the cooperative research program can be funded because of several limitations in the amount of money for educational research. That is not enough. We have somehow, some way to move much faster, and there are many small institutions which have never gotten in on this which must be brought in some way in order to get geographical coverage where the need is. Senator RANDOLPH. In degree, we might think in terms of the 11 States of the Appalachian area. We have been thinking of that sec tion of the country from the standpoint of the development of certain industrial patterns of growth. We could well think of it, perhaps, in the area of education, phases of education, subject to intensive research. As we look for the truth. And you know what I like about education and the way you men present your thoughts on the subject today is that we attempt to encourage the habit of truth. We must never allow that search for the facts to become just a second-rate projection. So when you come here today and speak as you do, you encourage us in the Congress to know that you, back home, believe this is an imperative matter, I think this is of assistance; as we coordinate, we hope, and develop our positive thinking toward legislaton to be enacted into law.
Thank you, Dean Boggs.
Dr. BOGGS. Thank you, sir.
(The prepared statement of Dean Boggs follows:)
PREPARED STATEMENT OF EARL R. BOGGS, DEAN, COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,
Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I express appreciation for the opportunity to appear before you today in order to support S. 580, the National Education Improvement Act of 1963, which is designed to improve quality, quantity, and opportunities for education at various levels in America. Time limits make it necessary for me to address my testimony to one phase of the
bill-research. However, I should like to emphasize the importance of all other aspects of the bill under consideration.
The improvement of quality in education requires the discipline of systematic and consistent effort on the part of educational leaders. Research is the most effective tool to evaluate this orderly process. The lag in the use of research is largely the result of lack of funds. Two of the major requirements, trained research staff and climate of acceptance, we have today, but without financial support the research program lags far behind demand for development.
Colleges of education today orient efforts toward the improvement of quality with renewed vigor. Staff members are restless to expand present research to secure data which can become the basis for further development of quality. Permit me to list here a few examples of research projects in the College of Education of West Virginia University which have been done in the last year or are currently in progress which need expansion but funds are not available to support further activities: T. J. Brennan, "A Study of High School Dropouts"; E. C. Kennedy, "The Improvement of Reading Skills for College Bound High School Seniors"; B. H. Bailey and Stanley Ikenberry, "Educational Expectancy Levels of Parents for Their Children"; A. N. Hofstetter and Charles Ritchie, "Competencies Needed by Supervisors of Instruction"; R. H. Neff, "Program Requirements for Educable Pupils"; W. V. Wagner, "Criteria for Admission of College Students into Teacher Education"; and K. A. Cook, "Analysis of Contributions of the College of Education of West Virginia University." Other research efforts could be enumerated, but these, no doubt, are exemplary of other graduate institutions, both large and small.
In addition to the yeoman efforts being exerted within individual institutions, there are studies of a national and regional character such as Project Talent, a nationwide inventory of a half million talented students, the study of college teaching methods in academic classes and research in curriculum revision. Many other examples could be cited if time permitted.
The improvement of quality, quantity, and educational opportunities in America requires systematic and consistent effort based on reliable and valid data. Research is the tool by which such data are secured. The climate of acceptance among educational leaders and academicians for this mammoth task is entirely affirmative. The educational environment presently has two sides of the triangle, staff researchers and permissive environment. The passage of S. 580, the National Improvement Act, will help to establish the base to carry forward this educational obligation to the youth of America.
Senator RANDOLPH. Now, I believe we were thinking in terms of Dr. Zacharias speaking next.
STATEMENT OF DR. JERROLD R. ZACHARIAS, PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
Dr. ZACHARIAS. Yes, sir. I would like to have read into the record a four-page statement that you have. But I would like to summarize it and talk freely about it.
Senator RANDOLPH. That will be done.
Dr. ZACHARIAS. The truth is that the subject of education is so big that one is likely to talk about it with waves of the hand and refer to the forest and look at the forest. But I am a woodsman in it and I guess I am really coming before you, it occurs to me, to urge that in some parts of the forest, we learn how to stop using hand axes on particular trees and start learning how to use chain saws and bulldozers. Education can easily get way from us, and other countries. can run away from us if we are not careful.
I am a professional experimental physicist and I am here, strangely enough, to support title III of this bill, because I believe that mathematics and science, improvement in mathematics and science, will not be enough.
Ever since 1956 the country has been going very strongly on massive programs of curriculum reform. A massive program of curriculum reform sounds expensive until you put it in the total_context of what kind of industry you are affecting. Since the education. industry is itself a $30 billion a year industry, when you spend $1 million a year here or there on some particular course, you are really not spending a great deal. But you are putting in from the point of view of education a massive effort.
The National Science Foundation, every since 1956, has been supporting an ever-increasing program in curriculum reform. But that is only mathematics and the sciences. What we dare not do is let these sciences be out of balance, let the curriculum be out of balance. So what I want to do is to urge the passage of appropriate measures and appropriate appropriations so that the Office of Education can provide massive educational reform, as has the Science Foundation in the sciences and mathematics.
Now, the Office of Education has done a first-class job on modern foreign languages. But that is not enough. What you have to do is to press on what I call the three R's, which are, what just occurred to me, reading, writing, and reasoning. You have to work on history, literature, all of the studies of man, music, the arts, and so on. This cannot be done unless the Office of Education, with its new commis sioner, Francis Keppel, has some kind of freedom with which to go ahead. I think this bill, under this title, provides the freedom with which to start that kind of program.
CURRICULUM REFORM NOT FEDERAL CONTROL
Now, there is one funny issue that always keeps coming up. It came up this morning. It is that people say, once you reform the curriculum with Federal funds, then you are cramping the styles of the States. I think quite the opposite is the case. Suppose there were no Federal money for curriculum reform. You would find that the massive programs and the control was not in the hands of the people, but was in the hands of the book publishers, which is where it is now. Take the subject that I know best, namely, physics. The high schools of this country had well over 50 percent of the physics classes out of one textbook, which I considered a terrible misrepresentation of the subject of physics, with no reflection of the attitude that you, Senator Randolph, expressed just a moment ago, namely, that a profes sional scientist lives his daily life by never saying anything that he knows is wrong. He may be in error, but he never can do it deliberately. You cannot make science that way.
So when the Federal Government supports curriculum reform, it is merely adding materials, making materials available to the States and the State supervisors of education have the privilege of choosing a particular curriculum reform or not choosing one from several. So this is a very different situation than control. This is the freedom. that you get by having good materials available. You are not going to get good materials until, in my view, the Federal Government puts money into and makes it possible to handle it, into detailed curriculum
reform. In my view, no single State, not even the sovereign State of New York--budget of $2.2 billion per year--would be capable of making the kind of curriculum reform that we are talking about.
There are just not enough people in New York State who would be willing to peel out of their laboratories, leave their researchers, leave the new books they are writing, leave their scholarly desks, and get into curriculum reform for the sake of one State.
I promise you, I know that they will do it for the sake of the
So take the State you have just been discussing here, West Virginia, or Arkansas. Those States could not, even if they had the best will in the world, could not of themselves just get up and make substantial Curriculum reform. It takes drawing on the entire Nation and that is what the Federal Government is for. That is all.
Senator RANDOLPH. Doctor Zacharias, I wish to compliment you on, not in a manner of pleasantry, but to express my genuine admiration for the vigor with which you have spoken, especially calling attention to the inability, even in the more populous and so-called richer States, to do this job by themselves. This is something that is very important to stress.
We know in West Virginia we must be joined by others if we are to do this task.
You mentioned Arkansas and West Virginia. These are the only two States which between 1950 and 1960 lost population; approximately 7 or 72 percent of our people in these two States, for one reason or another, lessening our population figures.
We hope to, in a sense, if not in the last few months, certainly in the next few months, arrest this outmigration.
But we are conscious of the need for a nationwide approach which will include certainly our State, West Virginia, and other States. The subcommittee will consider most carefully the contents of your stateLent and your observations thereof.
Thank you, sir.
Dr. ZACHARIAS. Thank you.
(The prepared statement of Dr. Jerrold R. Zacharias follows:)
PREPARED STATEMENT OF JERROLD R. ZACHARIAS, PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
This section of S. 580 which is now before Congress, deals with changes in the cooperative research program which are necessary to expedite a massive proof curriculum research and development.
Programs of this sort represent a new technique for the improvement of the ity of education in our elementary and secondary schools. I do not mean ely that they are new to the Office of Education-they are new to the field education itself. The first such massive program was that of the Physical. nce Study Committee, with which I have been intimately involved since it initiated in 1956. In the intervening years the pattern has been applied, great success, to most of the sciences and to mathematics, and it is now ning to be applied to other subjects as well.
I do not mean to suggest that educational research and development is some-new. Every time a scholar or a teacher sits down to create a new course,. rite a new textbook, or to design materials for a new pedagogical approach, engaged in educational research and development. But traditionally this 1:4 of activity has been carried on primarily by individuals or by small local
By a massive program I mean one which concentrates over a relaely short period of time the Nation's best scholars and teachers in any given 4: which makes available to them all the supporting resources they can use;