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the needed revenues. They can and will do more in the future. I am convinced, however, that the size of the task in education in New York State, and in the Nation, demands that the role of the Federa! Government be substantially enlarged.

Federal financial assistance for vocational education and for the support of the National Defense Education Act have been of great value to New York State. Their continuance and expansion as proposed in S. 580 would be of even greater value in the solution of our educational problems.

There is much in S. 580 that appeals to me. I like the fact that it is comprehensive and interrelated-that it recognizes that indivisibility of education, the interdependence of all levels and programs from the kindergarten to the graduate school level. I hope that it will be treated as a whole by the Congress and that some progress will be made with respect to all of its parts.

Before commenting briefly on titles III and IV of S. 580, Mr. Chairman, I would like to refer to a statement of principle which guides my views in general with respect to programs and proposals for Federal aid to education.

As a matter of principle, I strongly favor the policy of leaving as much discretion as possible to the States for determining where the needs are within the State and how best to use the Federal funds for meeting these needs. In short, I favor the noncategorical approach to Federal aid for education, as set forth here by Mr. Ford. My position on this with respect to aid for elementary and secondary education is set forth in a statement of policy adopted last year by the New York State Board of Regents. A copy of that statement is attached.


At the same time, I believe we must identify the most critical of our educational needs and make special efforts to meet them. Until such time as we have developed more experience and sophistication in dealing with the financial roles and relationships of our three levels of government, the categorical approach may be the proper one for the Federal Government.

It is my hope, however, that the trend will be toward strengthening State and local leadership and control, and leaving to the States the widest possible degree of discretion in the use of all funds available to them for education.

Now for a few words about titles III and IV of S. 580. I strongly support that title.

The quality of education is determined primarily by the quality of the teacher. Title III of the bill is addressed to this very subject. Title III of NDEA has helped to strengthen instruction in science, mathematics, and modern foreign language. For instance, with the help of NDEA funds, foreign language teachers in New York State participated in 120 conferences and workshops in 1950-60 with the aim of improving foreign language instruction. Four universities in New York State were designated as language and area centers. They offered 26 languages in 1960. In addition, 97 teachers attended summer language institutes under title VI of NDEA.


In the area of guidance, 213 New York State guidance counselors or teachers attended institutes at 7 colleges or universities for 6- to >-week sessions in the summer of 1960. NDEA funds were of sigificance in increasing the number of guidance counselors in New York State from 1,400 in 1958 to 1,775 in 1960.

Title III of the new bill would expand the teacher institute program (now limited to teachers of foreign languages and guidance. and counseling personnel) to include teachers of English, humanities, siel sciences, and library personnel. New York State is presently Ling efforts to stimulate and produce substantial improvement in e quality of instruction in these area. Federal support would be of great consequence in furthering our efforts.

I would like, in particular, to lend strong endorsement in part D of title III. authorizing the support of educational research and demonstration centers involving colleges and universities and State and local education agencies. We have never had enough money for research.

Also important is part E which extends for 2 years the grants to State education agencies to finance the collection and analysis of statistics about the character, quality, and quantity of educational programs in the States. This is a matter vital to better understanding of education's needs and progress.

Educational statistics, by and large, have been notoriously weak and poor. I think we have made a great deal of progress in strengthening them under the NDEA proposal and what the States have been doing. More is needed here.

Title IV of S. 580 would provide a Federal program for support in such areas as teacher salary improvement, classroom construction, and special projects for improving educational quality particularly in disadvantaged rural and urban areas.

As I have already indicated, this would be of much help to New York State and other States.

I am pleased that the bill appears to leave room for the States with their varying needs to vary in the percentage of funds allocated to each purpose.

I could go into greater detail in giving support to S. 580 but I think I have made sufficiently clear my reasons for believing it to be good and necessary legislation.

I have been speaking primarily from my position as commissioner of education in New York State, but as an educator and as a citizen. of the United States, my interest in education cannot be confined to the limits of State boundaries.


While State responsibility for education is firmly embedded in American tradition and legal structure, practical matters of operation and need have evolved a three-way partnership-local-State-Federal-for the carrying out of this responsibility for education.

Experience has shown that each of these levels has special resources and opportunities and that the most effective operation of education

requires that each be assigned those areas of responsibility and those functions for which each is best suited.

This sharing of powers among the three levels of government has served us well in education and provides, I believe, the best framework for education in a country so vast in dimension and so diverse in needs. In considering the role of the Federal Government in education, or in any other endeavor, it must never be forgotten that the Federal Government is not remote nor impersonal-it is merely the people of the United States operating in a broader sphere of action.

Therefore, it is the duty of the representatives of the people at that level to make certain that they provide the framework and the support necessary for the most effective and most productive exercise of the share of responsibility for education which falls to the Federal Government.

With the responsibility for education distributed over the whole sweep of local-State-Federal organization, there exists the broad scope of action and the variety of approach suitable to education in a country soon to have a population of 200 million. With the proper balance of strengths achieved among the three, there can be the vitality. strength, and responsiveness which give to education the adaptability requisite for eras of unprecedented change.

Carved in the stone of the State Education Building in Albany are these words of Gov. DeWitt Clinton:

The first duty of government, and the surest evidence of good government, is the encouragement of education.

This applies to all government-local, State, or National--and edu cation can be strong only if there is evidence in full measure at each level of this exercise of good government.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Senator RANDOLPH (presiding). Dr. Allen, we are appreciative of your testimony, as we are of the testimony of Dr. Fuller and Dr. Ford. I shall not discuss the statement at too great length, but I would comment on the fact that you have indicated that in the State of New York, in the five categories of education, the publicly supported schools, the privately operated schools, and then the colleges and universities, that there is a total enrollment at the present time of 4,230,000 persons. This is to me a rather startling fact, that in one State, which is, of course, a very populous State, there is this number of persons who are now in the process of education.

You view the problem as one of imperative need to provide on many fronts additional aids.


I also wish to ask you, Dr. Allen, to expand, if you will, just a little further, on the fact that, as you have indicated in your statement, the Federal Government is not remote nor impersonal, it is merely the people of the United States operating in a broader sphere of action. Now, we will hear, as we have heard, the criticism that a program of Federal aid to education, such as is envisaged in S. 508, is an encroachment on the power, to use that word, of the Federal Government as against the State and local levels of government.

Would you comment just a little more on this subject?

Dr. ALLEN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, I will.

I believe the control and the operation of education should remain with the States. But the State cannot be an island. New York State certainly is no island in this Nation. Its success in education depends upon the strength and success of much of the country. How well we do in New York influences the strength of our society nationwide, in my judgment. The city of New York, as I have indicated here, is not a local community, where lines are confined just to that part of the country; it is a great metropolis which serves the whole United States. So that it seems to me that we as a nation are so interdependent between our States and our localities that we must bring forth the entire resources of our Nation to support so important a function as education. I do not believe that it is bad because the Federal Government takes an interest in education, because the Federal Government helps to support needs in education, because the Federal Government identifies those needs that are most urgent in the interest of our national welfare.

I think this is important and good; I believe the States should help to support the interest of the Federal Government. I think the Federal Government must help support the interest of the States. So that I do not think that you can think of the Federal Government as a far-off partner, but as one very close to all of education.

Senator RANDOLPH. Dr. Allen, you perhaps agree with me that the very fact of our change in system of living, with the communication and transportation media so different today from yesterday, the lines are obliterated, are they not, in fact, physically?

Dr. ALLEN. Very much so.

Senator RANDOLPH. I wish also to make a comment with reference to your stressing the need for more adequate teaching. At DavisElkins College on May 2, when I was privileged to dedicate the Benedum Hall, in that address I was covering some of these problems which you have so well set forth, and the reasons why they must be approached in a dynamic fashion. I said, "To cite the illustration for need of more intensified effort in education, I spoke earlier of the doubling time of scientific knowledge and the impact this has on the restructure of our school curricula at every level." But consider in addition to this the problem posed by the fact that in the fall of 1962, the States reported that 83,000 elementary and secondary school teachers failed to meet full State certification requirements. Thus, more than 1 teacher in 20 fails to meet the certification standards of his or her own State. And additional thousands of teachers do not have the opportunity to refresh and update their knowledge of the subject matter they teach.

Dr. ALLEN. I am particularly interested in this part, because I think the one thing that probably keeps me awake more at night than any other is the knowledge that the 120,000 or 125,000 teachers in the State of New York, at least great numbers of them, simply are not up to date in their preparation for teaching the kind of education that the times require. And the attention that this bill gives to that fact, the effort that has been made through the NDEA, are very important. But it is still very meager. Nationally, I think, in the State of New York as well, very meager in terms of the tremendous demand to bring these teachers up to date.


Senator RANDOLPH. Dr. Allen, in conclusion, I think that it wa an excellent quotation that you have used of Governor DeWit Clinton:

The first duty of government and the surest evidence of good government, i the encouragement of education.

I think today that the evidence you speak of here, the evidenc underlies, or I should say underlines the critical importance of mobi lizing all of our resources; private, public, local, State, Federal, in the broad-gage effort to strengthen the educational system of the United States at every level and in every facet.

And wherever one turns, one finds the wisdom in remarks of Epic tetus, the Stoic philosopher, who declared that the State says only the free shall be educated; God states that only the educated should be free.

Thank you very much for your very helpful assistance as a member of the panel, to you, Dr. Ford, and to you, Dr. Fuller.

This has been a most remunerative way you have presented the material. We assure you that the subcommittee and the full committee that the voluminous file you have left us shall not go uninvestigated.

Dr. FULLER. May I say, Mr. Chairman, that with only 55 members in the council, the 50 State officers and 5 from the outlying territories such as Puerto Rico and Guam, we make every effort as a group to represent the entire group adequately and fairly in all of the hearings and in all of the polls that we take and presentations that we make. When we say that something is the policy of the council, that means that it has been carefully ascertained that it is the view of the major ity. We usually try to say what the majority is, whether it is a large majority or a small majority. I regret particularly that the new State Superintendent of Public Instruction of California, Dr. Max Rafferty, was not able to be here today. We hoped that he would join us. He certainly would have given us more variety than we have had with just the three of us.

We try to do an objective, conscientious job. We think that all of education is connected, as we agree with all the purposes that have been stated, I am sure, as council policy. But we do not believe necessarily that all of these purposes, public and private and higher education and elementary and secondary, are implemented the same way. We do not believe that Federal funds are appropriate for some parts under our constitutions and laws, under our policies in education, and under the public policies that exist in this country. We do not do the same thing for everybody in the same way, and yet, we can all agree that all education should be strengthened.

Senator RANDOLPH. I like your comment about the variety. We have had a demonstration of that in another level of our living, with the Americans reaching the peak of Mount Everest. The two teams reached the peak, but they used different approaches. Yet they stood

there on Mount Everest.

Now, I think that we have heard from Max Rafferty. We have had a communication from him. His thinking will supplement what you have said today.

Thank you, again, very much.

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