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1. It is recommended that Public Law 815 and 874 be continued with the exception of minor modification for Public Law 815 as heretofore mentioned (see letter of transmittal).
2. It is recommended that where districts like Granite have a Federal impact sufficient to perpetuate serious overcrowding, that a waiver be given regardless of any percentage requirements.
3. It is recommended that any law formulated recognize all categories of children whether directly or indirectly federally conected (i.e., Hercules Plant 81 employees are counted and Hercules Plant I employees are not, even though both plants are necessary to the war effort).
Senator Moss. I would like to make only one more point with reference to impacted area laws. I feel the program should be expanded to include the District of Columbia. It is obvious to all of those of us who live in the District of Columbia, or in its environs, and who read its daily newspapers, or listen to its radio or TV stations, that the District schools are vastly underfinanced. If they are to be representative of the Nation's school system-as they should be-we must provide the District School Board with more money to build schools, to buy textbooks, and to pay teachers. Again, the impacted area laws provide a sturdy and appropriate instrument.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for giving me this time. I have restricted my remarks to part D of title IV of S. 580-to the impacted area laws-not because I do not have firm convictions about other titles in the chairman's bill, and in other school bills before the subcommittee, but because I wanted to use my time to promote what I feel is a sound approach to strengthening our grammar schools, our junior high schools, and our high schools where our children get their basic training.
I am also very much interested in advanced education programs, loans and scholarships, in college housing, and in other facets of the overall educational problem in America. The subcommittee has my best wishes and support in bringing a broad and practical educational bill to the floor of the Senate for debate.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you, Senator Moss, for a very fine statement and very forceful manner in which it has been presented. Senator Goldwater?
Senator GOLDWATER. I have no questions.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Senator Moss, when you introduced your bill, I had had no proper opportunity to study or examine it at that time. Now that I have studied and examined it and heard your statement, I desire to be listed among those now sponsoring it as a cosponsor. Senator Moss. I will be very happy to make that request at the appropriate time on the floor of the Senate.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you. Any other questions?
The next witness is Senator Howard W. Cannon, of Nevada. It is a pleasure to welcome to this subcommittee one of the dynamic Members of the Senate from the great Southwest area.
We have some other energetic Senators, and we congratulate you, Senator Cannon, on your activities and leadership in the field of ducation and for the statements you have made on education in past. ions and your very, very active work in the Senate. You may proceed in your own way.
STATEMENT OF HON. HOWARD W. CANNON, A U.S. SENATOR FROM THE STATE OF NEVADA
Senator CANNON. Thank you. Mr. Chairman, Senator Goldwater, Senator Jordan, no nation remains free which restricts the development or impairs the nurture of ideas. The whole panoply of our constitutional and social fabric is interwoven with this fundamental concept. Our past has been illuminated because of this attitude; and the plateau of achievement on which we presently stand could not have been attained with a lesser idea.
But we cannot recline on the attainment of a prior effort. The challenges we face as a Nation make marginal those we have met and mastered. To meet and conquer these new areas which face us we must continue to provide the intellectual climate where ideas can sprout and grow. Because of the expanding demands on our Nation, we need to provide for the expansion of our academic institutions in order that all those who wish to and can contribute to the Nation's future may have full opportunity to do so.
Our educational system should be so organized and advanced that the potential capabilities of the Nation's students can fully flower. The present system is inadequate at every level to meet the coming demand. To submit the specífics as to why this is so would amount to redundancy for this committee.
Rather, I would prefer to indicate to the committee my own firm conviction as to the imperativeness of congressional action.
Repeatedly during the last year or more I have called the attention of the Senate to the urgency of doing something about the Nation's scientific manpower policies which were woefully inadequate to meet the exigencies of the Government for technicians and engineers. It has long seemed inconceivable that we can know our reserves of raw material such as plutonium or iron ore down to a gnat's hair while not having the faintest notion as to our more priceless resource-our engineering and scientific talent.
The same theme was eloquently enunciated by Dr. James R. Killian, Jr., in the March issue of the Atlantic Monthly. He said:
The issues are profoundly important not only to our national security and world position but also to the Nation's general welfare, its economic growth, the utilization of its human resources, and the integrity and strength of its system of higher education.
His closing paragraph illustrates the possibilities which the Nation has if we meet our responsibility. I quote:
As a research-oriented society, we have the possibility of-in fact, we may now be in the midst of a great creative thrust in which the energies of our people will find a new measure of release and our power as a nation will be raised to a new level of benignity.
This renaissance through research, especially corporate-sponsored research, can afford a flowing of individual skills and new avenues of individual fulfillment that will draw out as never before the latent talents and the sense of joyous exploration in increasing numbers of our people. Such is the promise of research if we deploy our funds and creative talent wisely.
Mr. Chairman, others have given equally lucid comment, much of which you have heard, on various aspects of the Nation's need, and the locus of education in any system of solution.
Our responsibility in the Congress is clear. Perhaps our course is less clear. Many would decry the actions we take, projecting on the screen of their future a multitude of fanciful evils usurpation of State prerogatives, bureaucratic expansion, merciless Federal controls. Yet the programs we have devised in the past have been noted for the language which precludes such evils.
I think those safeguards were necessary. I would propose to continue them in this legislation. They have assured the discretion of State educational administrators. And I believe that no Senator would wish to change that.
Still the criticism comes. The need is ignored for fear the procedure is inherently bad. We must respond to the demand of the present and the future.
SUPPORT OF S. 415; NEVADA SITUATION
My own interest has been in preserving and extending that which has proven workable, while seeking sensible innovations to meet existing and new exigencies. This session I have sponsored a bill, which is before the Finance Committee, to provide a tax incentive to the parents of university students. I have cosponsored an expansion of the GI benefits to include the veterans of the cold war. S. 415, to extend the impacted areas aid, includes my name as a sponsor, and may I say, parenthetically, that I hope the committee will not delay action on this aspect of the total package so as to disrupt the planning of those school districts which receive this aid.
By way of illustration, I would point out that Nevada received over $3 million in fiscal year 1962 under the combined impacted area programs. Even if the student registration were to remain static so that no expanded demands were necessitated, it would be virtually impossible for the State treasury to absorb the loss of the Federal funds. The potential difficulty is telescoped to alarming proportions by the realism of our rate of student influx. In Las Vegas alone, which incidentally receives a large part of the Federal payment, the building demand calls for construction of two new classrooms each week. Mr. Chairman, I think that is a record high throughout the country today for any area of comparable population. Think of that. new classrooms a week in an area of that size to keep up with current rate of growth.
The required financing is hopefully expected to come from a 1-percent increase in sales tax which the State legislature is submitting to the voters in referendum June 11. And I point this out to show that we are not trying to look solely to the Federal Government for help but we are trying to solve at least part of the problem ourselves. Certainly the imposition of taxes is something that is not a pleasant method to look forward to by any of us, and I find myself in a rather enviable position this year in that we are talking about reducing taxes at the Federal level, where at the State level now, as I previously stated, we are talking about the imposition of a tax.
As a matter of fact, I even see that the chamber of commerce, which notoriously is opposed to the increase of taxation, is now advocating the imposition of a sales tax in my hometown today to try to solve this ever-expanding need brought about by the school situation.
The catastrophic effect of the failure by Congress to extend Public Laws 815 and 874 is obvious. And I am certain that the Nevada situation is depictive of many other States.
CORRELATION OF EFFORT
Mr. Chairman, there is no single approach which will solve our problem by itself. Various efforts must be correlated, each of which is designed to deal with a different aspect of our education needs. I firmly believe that all children desire to compete as adults on an equal basis with their fellows. I believe, too, that every parent desires to give his child that opportunity.
Yet, many of the country's youth are being denied this advantage and, as a consequence, our whole country suffers. That suffering becomes increasingly acute in the light of our high rate of unemployment and the continuing trend toward automation.
We must devise those programs which will eliminate educational inadequacies, provide intellectual opportunities, and, at the same time, give security to the freedoms which this Nation enjoys.
Mr. Chairman, the President in his special message to the Congress on education began by saying, "Education is the keystone in the arch of freedom and progress."
I believe that the facts which this subcommittee will develop will give literal credence to that phrase and that eventually all citizens of this Nation will recognize that the best security for freedom lies in a citizenry which has had full opportunity to develop its intellectual capability.
I thank the chairman of the subcommittee for this opportunity to appear to present my views.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Senator Cannon, I congratulate you on the continued activity you have shown in the Senate in support of greater educational efforts for this country, and I congratulate you on your broad language in this, that you don't tie yourself to any one single solution, but different bills, different approaches, and I agree with you on that.
I cosponsored a good many educational bills but I would not try to put the particular form I think best; I would not try to impress it upon other Senators or Congress as a whole. This problem is so broad and very vast that there are many different approaches, and I hope some of these approaches can be carried through.
I particularly want to thank you and congratulate you on your cosponsorship of the cold war GI bill. Now, in many phases of this educational effort we are not falling behind what we have done in the past. Our failure is that we are not moving forward fast enough, but in the education of veterans we are falling_woefully behind. We did not educate the veterans of World War I, the
so-called apple-picking days, and the consequences of our procedure in Congress at this time we all know. We just had never done that. The people in the world as a whole hadn't done it. Then men of vision wrote bills for the veterans of World War II and under that bill 7.800,000 veterans went to school, to the great benefit of this Nation.
In the Korean conflict, about 434 million veterans, some 46 percent of those went to school under the Korean GI bill. We are now cutting veterans of the cold war adrift and like the veterans of World War I, they have to go out untrained, and unemployed, and unemployable largely until they can retrain themselves.
This is not a bonus bill, but a veteran's readjustment bill. I want to commend you for your reiteration of your support for it in this statement. You have stressed in this, Senator Cannon, that the great need is in the field of science and engineering. The most recent report that our Government has made on that is covered in one of the President's messages to the Congress this year, that the Soviet Union is graduating from her universities and colleges three times as many scientists and engineers each year and 22 times as many physicians as we are per
I think we have learned from the past that men in service who worked with some electronic equipment or radar, as a group, a larger percentage of those take science and engineering than any other group of students in college.
I think the GI bill would do more than any other single measure to get more students in college studying these critical categories. This where the different advisory boards, the President's educators, and all point that there has been a lag in connection with what we will need in the future.
I think that Admiral Rickover and also Dr. Teller have pointed out the great need in sciences and the great need for stepped-up emphasis on that in other places, that we must increase the number of men training in fields of science and engineering. If we don't, we will fall behind within not more than two decades, and one of them thanks within a decade in the field of science and engineering. Thank you a lot.
Senator GOLDWATER. I have just one comment to make. We in Arizona are very proud of this product of Arizona's higher educational system. Senator Cannon graduated from our university.
SALES TAX IN NEVADA
I was very happy, Senator, to see that the legislature has submitted to the people of Nevada the proposal for a 1-percent addition to your sales tax. We tried that in Arizona and up to now it has very adequately taken care of our school needs. I don't mean by this that we don't have impacted areas. We do. But it has taken care of our education needs in a very fine way.
I don't think it will forever, but I think Nevada will be pleased with the results if she will enact this into law.
Senator CANNON. Mr. Chairman, we enacted a 2-percent sales tax several years ago solely because we could not keep up with the school