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cally ordered by the court and is not required when inmate has husband, wife, or child lawfully dependent on him or her for support. 1916 C 255.

MOTHERS' PENSIONS. Maryland.Provision is made for pensions from county funds, or in Baltimore city from city funds, for widowed mothers of children under 14 years of age, subject to the following conditions: (1) Child or children must be living with the mother; (2) conditions must be such that if relief were not granted the mother would be required to work regularly away from home in order to maintain her child or children (but permission may be granted to a mother receiving a pension to work away from home for a definite number of days each week to be specified in the order giving relief); (3) mother must be “a proper person, worthy and fit, to bring up her children ”; (4) mother may not be owner of property, either real or personal, other than her household goods; (5) mother must have resided in the County where application is made, or in Baltimore city if application is made there, at least three years before making application; (6) relief granted on behalf of any child ceases when that child becomes 14 years of age, except that if child is ill or incapacitated for work the pension may continue during his illness or incapacity until he is 16. Amount of pension is fixed as follows: $12 per month for the oldest child, $10 per month for the next oldest, and $6 per month for each additional child; total not to exceed $10 for any one family. County commissioners in the counties, and in Baltimore city the board of estimate and city council, are empowered and instructed to raise funds to pay the allowances by a tax levy not exceeding onetenth of a mill, or to provide funds from the general tax levy. The total to be raised is not stated, and the law provides that in case funds are insufficient the neediest mothers shall be selected.

The administration of the law in Baltimore city is placed with the board for mothers' relief (three persons, only two of whom shall be of the same sex) to be appointed by the mayor, or with the supervisors of city charities if, at the discretion of the mayor and city council, such board is not appointed. In the counties the law iş to be administered by the county commissioners. Petition for pension is presented to these authorities and investigated by them, but the power to grant and to revoke a pension rests with the juvenile court or, in a county where no juvenile court exists, with the circuit court. The State appropriates $10,000 for the establishment and maintenance of the board of mothers' relief in Baltimore city; the board is to receive $5 per day for each member for each day the board shall sit, and it has power to employ a secretary, a stenographer, and three investigators. It also appropriates $5,000 “ for administrative purposes," to be divided among the several counties in proportion to their population. Recommendations, together with a detailed report of the number of beneficiaries, the amount expended, and the advantages of the system, are to be made to the legislature of 1918 by the authorities administering the law.

1916 C 670.

New Jersey. It is provided that if any county board of chosen freeholders has appropriated no money or too little money to meet the expenses of certain specified county activities, including widows' pensions and work of the State board of children's guardians [care and supervision of dependent children], then the board may raise the money to meet the deficiency by adding the amount thereof to the appropriations for the current year, which may be raised by taxation or by a temporary loan bond.

1916 C 201 supplementing C S 1910 v 1 (Chosen Freeholders) ss 70–74 p 492. See C S 1910 v 2 (Infants) ss 62–74 p 2819 and 1913 C 281 as amended by 1915 C 118 and 238.

New York. The provision that city commissioners of public charities shall be ex officio members of the city boards of child welfare appointed to administer the mothers' pension law in cities is repealed. An appointed member is to be substituted for such commissioner, and the term of office for all members is lengthened from eight to nine years. The investigation and supervision of persons receiving allowances is to be only by the board; formerly “ by the board when congistently possible or by authorities now intrusted with similar work.”

1916 C 504 amending C L 1909 (General Municipal) C 24 ss 150 and 152 subdivision 4, both as added by 1915 C 228.



Georgia.Provision is made that at each regular term of court the grand jury of each county shall appoint from among their own lumber a special committee of not less than five persons, whose duty it shall be to visit, inspect, and inquire into all private institutions of specified types within the county [institutions in which persons are kept in confinement; orphanages specified in title of act]. The committee is instructed to confer with each inmate to learn how he or she came to be confined in the institution; what labor, if any, is required; and whether he or she desires to remain. The committee is to report publicly to the judge and to the solicitor of the superior court the names of dissatisfied persons and the facts in each case; if any person is illegally deprived of liberty, the committee shall demand his release; if release is refused, the grand jury shall make special presentment for false imprisonment. A previous law, still in force, provides for annual inspection of the Georgia Industrial Home and other similar institutions for children by a committee of nine from the general assembly. 1916 No 548 p 126. Compare Code 1914 (Civil) s 2865.

Maryland.—The provisions relating to organization and powers of the board of State aid and charities are changed. Provision is now made for appointment by the governor biennially of three members to serve four years, the governor himself to be ex officio the seventh member of the board. Two of the members

be women;

not more than three members shall be residents of the same city or county. The salary of the secretary is raised from $1,800 to $2,200 and he is required to give full time to the duties of the board. The law now provides also for clerks. Right of inspection is extended to include institutions for dependents and delinquents having contracts with the State as well as such institutions receiving financial aid from the State. Formerly the board had supervision only over the latter. Appeal from decision of the board may be taken to any court of general common-law jurisdiction in the county or city where the office of the board is located. All moneys appropriated to institutions shall be paid on a per capita basis according to rates fixed by the board of public works.

1916 C 705 amending A C 1911 v 2 (1911) art 88A ss 1, 3, 5, 6, and adding S 4A to same article.

A child under 6 months of age may not be separated from its mother for the purpose of placing child in foster home or institution unless (a) two physicians certify that the separation is necessary for the physical good of mother or child; or (b) a court of competent jurisdiction so orders; or (c) the board of State aid and charities considers the separation necessary and consents in writing thereto. A foster home or institution receiving any child under such age without its mother is required to file the physicians' certificate above provided for with the board of State aid and charities. It is the duty of all persons participating in the separation of a child from its mother to find out whether the separation has been duly permitted or ordered. All participating in receiving a child at an institution are required to find out whether the mother is living, and in that case are similarly responsible for verifying the legality of the separation and also for reporting any violation of the act. This board shall investigate the facts in each case of separation coming under its notice, and when it appears that this act has been violated shall report the facts to the authorities charged with the enforcement of the criminal laws. Violation of any provision is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $100, or imprisonment in jail for not more than 100 days,

or both.

1916 C 210 amending A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 27 by adding s 483.



Louisiana.It is required that in all grades of the public schools higher than the eighth instruction in military science and tactics shall be given to all male pupils for at least one hour a week.

1916 A 131.

Maryland.The governor is authorized to appoint a nonsalaried commission of nine persons (adjutant general and two other officers of militia, three members of veteran organizations, and three persons not members of either), to report on military education, military service, and a military reserve. Two of the subjects specified are the practicability of providing military education for boys between 14 and 21 and the practicability of providing military training for youths in the public schools.

1916 C 23.

Massachusetts.The governor is authorized to appoint a special nonsalaried board of three persons to investigate the subject of physical training of boys and girls in public schools and to recommend a system which will improve their physical, mental, and moral qualities and provide an adequate basis for a citizen soldiery, with special reference to physical and disciplinary training, military history, and personal hygiene and sanitation; the board is to report to the legislature in January, 1917. The sum of $1,000 is allowed for expenses. [A similar commission was appointed in 1915 to report in January, 1916, on military training in high schools.]

1916 Resolves C 90. Compare 1915 Resolves C 81.

A law is enacted permitting students in educational institutions where military science is a prescribed part of the course of instruction and students enrolled in a military organization approved by the Secretary of War or the Secretary of the Navy of the United States, and over which an officer of the United States Army or Navy or the Massachusetts volunteer militia has supervision, to drill and parade with firearms in public under the superintendence of their instructors, subject to the approval of the governor and such conditions as he may prescribe.

1916 C 8 amending 1908 C 604 s 170.

New Jersey.Provision is made for a nonsalaried commission to investigate and report to the legislature on February 1, 1917, upon military training and instruction for national defense in high schools. This commission is directed to consider what instruction would be feasible, the extent to which the Federal Government would cooperate, and the probable expense to the State, giving attention to the experience of other States and nations. It shall consist of one member of the house and one member of the senate, to be named by these bodies; two schoolmen connected with the high schools of New Jersey, to be named by the commissioner of education; and one person in active military service, if possible the national service, to be appointed by the governor. The commission shall expire on June 1, 1917, unless otherwise ordered by the legislature. The sum of $2,000 is appropriated for expenses.

1916 C 211.

New York.Provision is made for a permanent nonsalaried military training commission of three members—the major general commanding the National Guard, one member appointed by the board of regents of the University of the State of New York, and one member appointed by the governor; the term of office of appointed members is four years. The commission shall appoint an inspector of physical training at a salary not to exceed $5,000. An appropriation of $100,000 is made for expenses.

1 All boys above 16 and not over 19 years of age are to be given such military training as the commission shall prescribe for not more than three hours weekly, except that any boy may be exempted by the commission, and that boys who are regularly and lawfully employed are not required to take training unless they volunteer and are accepted. For boys attending school or college this training shall be given during the school or college year, but outside of the time assigned to other instruction; for boys who are not pupils it shall be given between September 1 and June 15. This training is to be conducted under the supervision of the commission by such male teachers and physical directors as may be assigned by school and college authorities and accepted by the commission, and by militia officers and men detailed by the major general commanding the National Guard or such officers and men of the United States Army as may be available. Instructors other than United States Army instructors are to be paid by the commission.

The commission shall establish and maintain State military camps for field training of boys between 16 and 19 years of age who are physically fit and who are accepted by the commission; where sufficient money is not available to provide for all, preference will be given first to boys attending secondary schools during the preceding year, and second to those attending State agricultural schools and colleges. Each detachment of boys must remain in camp not less than two nor more than four weeks, as the commission mine; training and discipline are to be under the major general commanding the National Guard, subject to the supervision of the


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