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is added forbade the employment of any child under 14 on the stage and provided that children 14 to 16 years of age must have regular employment certificates for all work in theaters and must not be employed in such work between 6 p. m. and 7 a. m.

1916 ( 23 amending St 1915 s 331a.1. See also St 1915 ss 331a.2–331a.6.

Louisiana.The law fixing a maximum 10-hour day and 60-hour week for females and for persons under 18 employed in specified occupations, and prohibiting night work for boys under 16 and girls under 18, is amended by eliminating the former exemption of stores and mercantile establishments for 20 days before Christmas. The former exemption of such establishments from these regulations on Saturdays is now limited to those employing more than five persons.

1916 A 177 amending WRL Supp 1904–1908 v 3 p 414 (1908 A 301 ss 4, 5).

Louisiana rewords and strengthens the law forbidding women and minors to serve in saloons and other specified places where liquors are sold.

1916 A 220 amending W R L Supp 1904–1908 v 3 p 872 (1908 A 176 s 5).

Maine.—The law passed by the legislature of 1915 limiting hours of work in specified occupations for all females and for boys under 16 years of age to 9 hours per day, with exceptions, and 54 hours

, per week, and prohibiting in the same occupations work of minors under 16 between 6 p. m. and 6.30 a. m., is adopted by referendum vote.

Referendum of Sept 11, 1916 adopting 1915 C 350.

Maryland.-An amendment to the child-labor law adds to occupations prohibited under 14 years of age work in mercantile establishments, stores, offices, boarding houses, places of amusement, clubs, and in the distribution or sale of merchandise. The minimum age for employment in these occupations was formerly 12, but another section of the child-labor law, still in effect, prohibited any employment under 14 during school hours unless child had fulfilled the legal requirements concerning school attendance. The minimum age in canning and packing establishments is left at 12 years. The new law adds to the occupations and processes prohibited under 16 years of age operating crosscut saws, or “any machine operated by power other than foot or hand power," and work in any establishment where “tobacco or tobacco products are prepared, manufactured, assorted, or packed” [instead of “in assorting, manufacturing, or packing tobacco,” as formerly], and work in a theater or motionpicture establishment by omitting the former provision authorizing the chief of the bureau of statistics and information to issue to children under 16 years of age, at his discretion, permits for employment in connection with theatrical exhibitions. The age below which females may not be employed at occupations requiring constant standing is lowered from 18 to 16 years.

The law permits the issuing of employment certificates by county issuing officials only in the county where the child resides, not, as formerly, also in the county where the child is employed; and it adds to the papers which the child must present before an employinent certificate may be issued to him an employment ticket signed by the prospective employer stating the occupation, industry, and place in which child will work. The latter requirement was implied in the former law but was not specifically mentioned. Formerly there were no educational requirements for obtaining a vacation certificate; the new law specifies that the child must be able to read and write English.

The provision as to posting of hours is made more explicit but affects only establishments employing children under 16 instead of 18, as formerly. The requirement that lists of children of specified ages shall be posted is omitted.

The minimum age for newsboys in cities of 20,000 or over is raised from 10 to 12, except for boys over 10 already licensed, and a special badge and permit may be issued to boys over 10 for delivering papers on a regular route between 3.30 and 5 p. m. Formerly there was no restriction upon the age of boys serving routes outside of school hours. Street-trades permits and badges must be renewed one year from date of issuance instead of annually on January 1.

Certain minor changes are made in the office procedure to be followed by certificate-issuing officials.

The hours of work of all children under 16 in all occupations for which the minimum age is 141 are limited to 8 hours per day, 6 days per week, and 48 hours per week, and work in these occupations between 7 p. m. and 7 a. m. is prohibited. Formerly there was no regulation of hours of labor specifically applying to children under 16, except a 10-hour day in stores and mercantile businesses in Baltimore and in factories throughout the State, and a prohibition of night work from 8 p. m. to 8 a. m. for messengers under 16. [For 10-hour day for females in specified establishments and for all boys under 21 and females in certain factories, see A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 100 ss 1-3, 51, 53–55.]

1916 C 222 amending A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 100 ss 4, 5, 7-9, 11-16, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29–31, 37, 39–43, 46, 48, and adding s 22A to same article. Compare A C 1911 v 1 (1911) art 23 s 375; and A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 27 s 239.

The provisions concerning the evidence of age required for employment certificates are amended. The law now provides that only a birth certificate, passport, or baptismal record will be accepted as documentary evidence, whereas formerly other documentary evidence was admitted. In case the specified evidence is not available the law now permits the issuance of a temporary permit, good for 10 days, pending inquiry by issuing officer as to available evidence and the acceptance of a physician's certificate of age. Formerly a child who was unable to present satisfactory documents could not secure any permit until after he had waited 10 days for a physician's certificate of age.

1 Including, among other establishments and occupations, factories, workshops, me chanical and mercantile establishments, and messenger service, but not canning and packing establishments.

1916 C 701 amending A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 100 s 13.

A State board of labor and statistics (three commissioners appointed by the governor) is created and is given all the duties and powers of the former bureau of statistics and information and of the former inspectors of female labor, both abolished by the same act. The board's duties include the administration and the enforcement of the child-labor law and of the law limiting the hours of work of women, but county school superintendents or their deputies retain the right to issue employment certificates outside of Baltimore city. One commissioner is designated by the governor as chairman of the board and receives a salary of $2,500; the other two receive $500 each. The board is authorized to appoint deputies, inspectors, assistants, and employees subject to the approval of the governor.

1916 C 406 amending A C 1911 v 2 (1911) art 89 ss 1, 2, adding ss 2A and 11-15 to same article, and repealing A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 100 s 53; 1916 C 407 amending A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 27 s 240.

The 10-hour law for females employed in specified occupations is amended by omitting the former special provisions concerning seasonal industries in Allegany County, and by adding a new exemption permitting women employed in retail mercantile establishments outside of Baltimore city to work 12 hours on Saturdays and on Christmas Eve and the five preceding working days, provided that on each of those days they have at least two rest intervals of one hour each and provided they do not work more than 9 hours a day during the remainder of the year. This act affects only females 16 years of age and over, as girls under 16 are covered by the provisions of 1916 C 222 [summarized on page 21].

1916 C 147 repealing and reenacting A C 1911 v 3 (1914) art 100 s 51.

Massachusetts.—Provision is made for the issuance of summer vacation employment certificates to children between 14 and 16, subject to the regulations of child labor and to all the requirements for general employment certificates except completion of the fourth grade, which is the educational qualification required for general employment certificates.

1916 C 66 amending 1909 ( 514 s 59 as amended by 1913 ( 779 s 17 and 1914 C 580.


Special employment certificates are to be issued by the local superintendents of schools to children between 14 and 16 years of age who are attending cooperative courses. These are defined as courses approved by the board of education and conducted in public schools, in which technical or related instruction is given in conjunction with practical experience by employment in a cooperating factory, or manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, or workshop. [Contents of certificates are not specified.] Further, pupils in cooperative courses are exempted from the provision requiring a certificate of literacy or attendance at evening school for employment of minors between 16 and 21 years of age.

1916 C 95 amending 1909 C 514 s 17 as amended by 1912 C 191; s 57 as amended by 1913 C 779 s 15; and s 66 as amended by 1913 C 779 s 23.

Massachusetts amends the law fixing a maximum 10-hour day and 54-hour week for women and children under 18 in manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, and other specified establishments, with certain exceptions and exempting manufacturing establishments where employment is by seasons, by providing that the State board of labor and industries shall determine what employments are seasonal.

1916 C 222 amending 1909 C 514 s 48 as amended by 1915 ( 57.

It is provided that in cities [of 50,000 or less population] all children under 16, instead of only those under 14 as heretofore, are to be under the jurisdiction of the school committee with respect to obtaining permits for boot blacking, newspaper selling, and other specified street trades. A special street-trades law applying to cities of over 50,000 population had, before 1916, placed with school officials the licensing of street traders under 16 years of age in such cities. [Cities having over 50,000 population by the Federal census of 1910: Boston, Brockton, Cambridge, Fall River, Holyoke, Lawrence, Lowell, Lynn, New Bedford, Somerville, Springfield, Worcester.]

1916 C 242 s 4 amending R L 1902 C 65 s 17 as amended by 1910 C 419; 1916 C 242 s 5 amending R L 1902 C 65 s 18. For street-trades law applying to cities of over 50,000, see 1913 C 831 ss 11–15, 19, 22–25.

An act providing for special one-day licenses for street selling and soliciting on behalf of a charitable organization states that no person under 16 shall serve as the accredited agent of such organization.

1916 C 188.

The act establishing a minimum wage commission is amended to provide that one of the three members shall be an employer of female. labor and that one member may be a representative of labor. The only former provision as to the personnel of the commission, that one member

may be a woman, is retained. 1916 C 303 amending 1912 C 706 s 1.

The State board of labor and industries is directed to investigate hours and conditions of labor in hotels and restaurants and to report in January, 1917, upon the advisability of legislation providing for one day's rest in seven for hotel and restaurant employees. These are specifically exempt from the existing law requiring one day's rest in seven for employees, with certain exceptions, in manufacturing and mercantile establishments. 1916 Resolves C 74. Compare 1913 C 619.

The special commission on social insurance 1 [appointed by 1916 Resolves ( 157] is directed to study and report on hours of labor in continuous industries and to present drafts of such laws as it may deem expedient to recommend.


1916 Resolves C 164.

Mississippi.The 10-hour law applying to all persons employed in manufacturing or repairing establishments is amended by permitting 30 minutes (instead of 20 minutes) overtime the first five days of the week, provided such overtime is deducted from the working hours on Saturday. The law as amended provides further that persons working only at night may work 114 hours each night from Monday to Friday and 3 hours on Saturday night and specifically exempts employees of railroads or public-service corporations. This law does not apply to all minors employed in manufacturing or repairing establishments, since other acts further regulate hours of boys and girls under specified ages in certain occupations.

1916 C 239 amending 1912 C 157 s 1 as amended by 1914 C 169. See 1908 C 99 as amended by 1912 C 165 and 1914 C 163, 164, 165.

New Jersey.-Provision is made for the issuance of special employment certificates by the commissioner of education and the commissioner of labor for pupils above the age of 14 years attending vocational schools and working part time in factories, workshops, mills, and all places where the manufacture of goods is carried on, designated by the board of education. [Contents of certificates are not specified.] A proviso, the significance of which is not clear, states that “nothing in this act shall be construed to permit children to be employed for more than eight hours in any one day or more than six days in any week and in accordance with the provisions of chapter 252, P. L. 1914.” The earlier act referred to contains the provisions fixing a minimum age of 14 and maximum hours of eight per day in factories and a minimum age of 16 in certain dangerous occupations, and requiring employment certificates.

i916 C 242 supplementing C S 1910 v 3 (Labor) ss 16-25 p 3023 as amended by 1914 C 60, 236, 252. Compare 1913 C 294.

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1 See p. 57.

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