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in connection with such transportation (this applies to employees of common, contract, and private carriers) are covered by the wage and hours provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act and are not subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation. Examples are: (1) Drivers transporting goods in and about a plant producing goods for commerce; (2) chauffeurs or drivers of company cars or buses transporting officers or employees from place to place in the course of their employment in an establishment which produces goods for commerces; (3) drivers who transport goods from a producer's plant to the plant of a processor, who, in turn, sells goods in interstate commerce, the first producer's goods being a part or ingredient of the second producer's goods; (4) drivers transporting goods between a factory and the plant of an independent contractor who performs operations on the goods, after which they are returned to the factory which further processes the goods for commerce; and (5) drivers transporting goods such as machinery or tools and dies, for example, to be used or consumed in the production of other goods for commerce. These and other employees engaged in connection with the transportation within a State of persons or property by motor vehicle who are subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act because engaged in the production of goods for commerce and who are not subject to the Motor Carrier Act because not engaged in interstate or foreign commerce within the meaning of that act, are not within the exemption provided by section 13(b)(1). (Walling v. Comet Carriers, 151 F. (2d) 107 (C.A. 2); Griffin Cartage Co. v. Walling, 153 F. (2d) 587 (C.A. 6); Walling v. Morris, 155 F. (2d) 832 (C.A. 6), reversed on other grounds in Morris v. McComb, 332 U.S. 422; West Kentucky Coal Co. v. Walling, 153 F. (2d) 582 (C.A. 6); Hamlet Ice Co. v. Fleming, 127 F. (2d) 165 (C.A. 4); Atlantic Co. v. Walling, 131 F. (2d) 518 (C.A. 5); Chapman v. Home Ice Co., 136 F. (2d) 353 (C.A. 6); Walling v. Griffin Cartage Co., 62 F. Supp. 396 (E.D. Mich.), affirmed 153 F. (2d) 587 (C.A. 6); Dallum v. Farmers Coop. Trucking Assn., 46 F. Supp. 785 (D.
§ 782.8 Special classes of carriers.
(a) The Interstate Commerce Commission consistently maintained that transportation with a State of consumable goods (such as food, coal, and ice) to railroad, docks, etc., for use of trains and steamships is not such transportation as is subject to its jurisdiction. (New Pittsburgh Coal Co. v. Hocking Valley Ry. Co., 24 I.C.C. 244; Corona Coal Co. v. Secretary of War, 69 I.C.C. 389; Bunker Coal from Alabama to Gulf Ports, 227 I.C.C. 485.) The intrastate delivery of chandleries, including cordage, canvas, repair parts, wire rope, etc., to ocean-going vessels for use and consumption aboard such vessels which move in interstate or foreign commerce falls within this category. Employees of carriers so engaged are considered to be engaged in commerce, as that term is used in the Fair Labor Standards Act. These employees may also be engaged in the "production of goods for commerce" within the meaning of section 3(j) of the Fair Labor Standards Act. See cases cited in § 782.7(c), and see Mitchell v. Independent Ice Co., 294 F. 2d 186 (C.A. 5), certiorari denied 368 U.S. 952, and part 776 of this chapter. Since the Commission has disclaimed jurisdiction over this type of operation (see, in this connection § 782.7(b)), it is the Division's opinion that drivers, driver's helpers, loaders, and mechanics employed by companies engaged in such activities are covered by the wage and hours provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, and are not within the exemption contained in section 13(b)(1). (See Hansen v. Salinas Valley Ice Co. (Cal. App.), 144 P. (2d) 896.)
(b) Prior to June 14, 1972, when the Department of Transportation published a notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER (37 FR 11781) asserting its power to establish qualifications and maxi
mum hours of service of employees of contract mail haulers, thereby reversing the long-standing position of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division had taken the position that employees engaged in the transportation of mail under contract with the Postal Service were not within the exemption provided by section 13(b)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act. As the result of the notice of June 14, 1972, the Administrator will no longer assert that employees of contract mail carriers are not within the 13(b)(1) exemption for overtime work performed after June 14, 1972, pending authoritative court decisions to the contrary. This position is adopted without prejudice to the rights of individual employees under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards Act.
(c) Section 202(c)(2) of the Motor Carrier Act, as amended on May 16, 1942, makes section 204 of that act "relative to qualifications and maximum hours of service of employees and safety of operations and equipment," applicable "to transportation by motor vehicle by any person (whether as agent or under a contractual arrangement) for a ✦✦✦ railroad ... motor car
express company rier water carrier freight forwarder * * * in the performance within terminal areas of transfer, collection, or delivery service." Thus, drivers, drivers' helpers, loaders, and mechanics of a motor carrier performing pickup and delivery service for a railroad, express company, or water carrier are to be regarded as within the 13(b)(1) exemption. (See Levinson v. Spector Motor Service, 330 U.S. 649 (footnote 10); cf. Cedarblade v. Parmelee Transp. Co. (C.A. 7), 166 F. (2d) 554, 14 Labor Cases, par. 64,340.) The same is true of drivers, drivers' helpers, loaders, and mechanics employed directly by a railroad, a water carrier or a freight forwarder in pickup and delivery service. Section 202(c)(1) of the Motor Carrier Act, as amended on May 16, 1942, includes employees employed by railroads, water carriers, and freight forwarders, in transfer, collection, and delivery service in terminal areas by motor vehicles within the Interstate Commerce Commis
sion's regulatory power under section 204 of the same act. See Morris v. McComb, 332 U.S. 422 and § 782.2(a). (Such employees of a carrier subject to part I of the Interstate Commerce Act may come within the exemption from the overtime requirements provided by section 13(b)(2). Cf. Cedarblade v. Parmelee Transp. Co. (C.A. 7), 166 F. (2d) 554, 14 Labor Cases, par. 64,340. Thus, only employees of a railroad, water carrier, or freight forwarder outside of the scope of part I of the Interstate Commerce Act and of the 13(b)(2) exemption are affected by the above on and after the date of the amendment.) Both before and after the amendments referred to, it has been the Division's position that the 13(b)(1) exemption is applicable to drivers, drivers' helpers, loaders, and mechanics employed in pickup and delivery service to line-haul motor carrier depots or under contract with forwarding companies, since the Interstate Commerce Commission had determined that its regulatory power under section 204 of the Motor Carrier Act extended to such employees.
(d) The determinations of the Interstate Commerce Commission discussed in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section have not been amended or revoked by the Secretary of Transportation. These determinations will continue to guide the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division in his enforcement of section 13(b)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act.
[36 FR 21778, Nov. 13, 1971, as amended at 37 FR 23638, Nov. 7, 1972]
WHAT IS AN "AMERICAN Vessel"
783.38 Statutory definition of "American
783.39 "Vessel" includes all means of water transportation.
783.40 "Documented" vessel.
783.41 "Numbered" vessel.
783.42 Vessels neither "documented" nor "numbered".
COMPUTATION OF WAGES AND HOURS
783.43 Computation of seaman's minimum wage.
783.44 Board and lodging as wages.
783.45 Deductions from wages.
783.46 Hours worked.
783.47 Off-duty periods.
APPLICATION OF THE EXEMPTIONS
783.48 Factors determining application of exemptions.
783.49 Workweek unit in applying the ex
783.50 Work exempt under another section of the Act.
783.51 Seamen on a fishing vessel.
AUTHORITY: Secs. 1-19, 52 Stat. 1060, as amended; 29 U.S.C. 201-219.
SOURCE: 27 FR 8309, Aug. 21, 1962, unless otherwise noted.
§ 783.0 Purpose of this part.
This part 783 is the official interpretation of the Department of Labor with respect to the meaning and application of sections 6(b)(2), 13(a)(14), and 13(b)(6) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, which govern the application of the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements of the Act to employees employed as seamen. Prior to the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1961, which became effective on September 3, 1961, all employees employed as seamen were exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Act. The 1961 amendments have narrowed this exemption so as to extend the minimum wage provisions of the Act to employees employed as seamen on American vessels. Employees employed as seamen on vessels other than American vessels continue to be exempt from both the minimum wage and the overtime pay requirements of the Act. It is the purpose of this part
to make available in one place the interpretations of the law relating to employees employed as seamen which will guide the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator in the performance of their duties under the Act.
§ 783.1 General scope of the Act.
The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, is a Federal statute of general application which establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, and child labor requirements that apply as provided in the Act. All employees, whose employment has the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies, are subject to the prescribed labor standards unless specifically exempt from them. Employers having such employees are required to comply with the Act's provisions in this regard unless relieved therefrom by some exemption in the Act. Such employers are also required to comply with specified recordkeeping requirements contained in part 516 of this chapter. The law authorizes the Department of Labor to investigate for compliance and, in the event of violations, to supervise the payment of unpaid wages or unpaid overtime compensation owing to any employee. The law also provides for enforcement in the courts.
§ 783.2 Matters discussed in this part.
This part 783 discusses the meaning and application of the exemptions provided in sections 13(a)(14) and 13(b)(6) of the Act. The provisions of section 6(b)(2) of the Act, which relate to the calculation of minimum wages and the hours worked by seamen on American vessels, are also discussed in this part. Other provisions of the Act are discussed only to make clear their relevance to these provisions and are not considered in detail in this part. Interpretations and regulations also published elsewhere in this title deal in some detail with such subjects as the general coverage of the Act (part 776 of this chapter), methods of payment of wages (part 531 of this chapter), hours worked (part 785 of this chapter), recordkeeping requirements (part 516 of this chapter), and qualifications for exempt executive, administrative, and professional employees (part 541
of this chapter). Reference should also be made to subpart G of part 570 of this chapter which contains the official interpretations of the child labor provisions of the Act. Copies of any of these documents may be obtained from any office of the Wage and Hour Division.
§ 783.3 Significance of official interpretations.
This part contains the official interpretations of the Department of Labor pertaining to the provisions of section 6(b)(2) and the exemptions provided in sections 13(a)(14) and 13(b)(6) of the Act. It is intended that the positions stated concerning the Act will serve as "a practical guide to employers and employees as to how the office representing the public interest in its enforcement will seek to apply it" (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). The Secretary of Labor and the Administrator will follow these interpretations in the performance of their duties under the Act, unless and until they are otherwise directed by authoritative decisions of the courts or conclude upon re-examination of an interpretation that it is incorrect. The interpretations contained herein may be relied upon in accordance with section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act (29 U.S.C. 251-262), so long as they remain effective and are not modified, amended, rescinded, or determined by judicial authority to be incorrect.
§ 783.4 Basic support for interpretations.
The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the Act are made by the courts (Mitchell v. Zachry, 362 U.S. 310; Kirschbaum v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517). Court decisions supporting interpretations contained in this part are cited where it is believed they may be helpful. On matters which have not been determined by the courts, it is necessary for the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator to reach conclusions as to the meaning and the application of provisions of the law in order to carry out their responsibilities of administration and enforcement (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). In order that these positions may be made known to persons who may be
affected by them, official interpretations are issued by the Administrator on the advice of the Solicitor of Labor, as authorized by the Secretary (reorg. Pl. 6 of 1950, 64 Stat. 1263; Gen. Ord. 45A, May 24, 1950, 15 FR 3290). As included in this part, these interpretations are believed to express the intent of the law as reflected in its provisions and as construed by the courts and evidenced by its legislative history. References to pertinent legislative history are made in this part where it appears that they will contribute to a better understanding of the interpretations.
§ 783.5 Interpretations made, continued, and superseded by this part.
On and after publication of this part 783 in the FEDERAL REGISTER, the interpretations contained therein shall be in effect and shall remain in effect until they are modified, rescinded or withdrawn. This part supersedes and replaces the interpretations previously published in the FEDERAL REGISTER and Code of Federal Regulations as part 783 of this chapter. Prior opinions, rulings, and interpretations and prior enforcement policies which are not inconsistent with the interpretations in this part or with the Fair Labor Standards Act as amended by the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1961 are continued in effect; all other opinions, rulings, interpretations, and enforcement policies on the subjects discussed in the interpretations in this part are rescinded and withdrawn. The interpretations in this part provide statements of general principles applicable to the subjects discussed and illustrations of the application of these principles to situations that frequently arise. They do not and cannot refer specifically to every problem which may be met by employers and employees in the application of the Act. The omission to discuss a particular problem in this part or in interpretations supplementing it should not be taken to indicate the adoption of any position by the Secretary of Labor or the Administrator with respect to such problem or to constitute an administrative interpretations or practice or enforcement policy. Questions on matters not fully
covered by this part may be addressed to the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210, or to any Regional Office of the Division. SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS
§ 783.6 Definitions of terms used in the Act.
The meaning and application of the provisions of law discussed in this part depend in large degree on the definitions of terms used in these provisions. The Act itself defines some of these terms. Others have been defined and construed in decisions of the courts. In the following sections some of these basic definitions are set forth for ready reference in connection with the part's discussion of the various provisions in which they appear. These definitions and their application are further considered in other statements of interpretations to which reference is made, and in the sections of this part where the particular provisions containing the defined terms are discussed.
The Act's major provisions impose certain requirements and prohibitions on every "employer" subject to their terms. The employment by an "employer" of an "employee" is, to the extent specified in the Act, made subject to minimum wage and overtime pay requirements and to prohibitions against the employment of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of "employer", "employee", and "employ”, under which “economic reality" rather than "technical concepts" determines whether there is employment subject to its terms (Goldberg v. Whitaker House Cooperative, 366 U.S. 28; United States v. Silk, 331 U.S. 704; Rutherford Food Corp. v. McComb, 331 U.S. 772). An “employer", as defined in section 3(d) of the Act, "includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State, or any labor organization (other than when acting as an