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time. If the sleeping time, meal periods or other periods of free time are interrupted by a call to duty, the interruption must be counted as hours worked. See regulations part 785, § 785.23.

(b) Where there is a reasonable agreement, as indicated in (a) above, it may be used to establish the employee's hours of work in lieu of maintaining precise records of the hours actually worked. The employer shall keep a copy of the agreement and indicate that the employee's work time generally coincides with the agreement. If it is found by the parties that there is a significant deviation from the initial agreement, a separate record should be kept for that period or a new agreement should be reached that reflects the actual facts.

§ 552.103 Babysitting services in general.

The term "babysitting services" is defined in § 552.4. Babysitting is a form of domestic service, and babysitters other than those working on a casual basis are entitled to the same benefits under the Act as other domestic service employees.

§ 552.104 Babysitting services performed on a casual basis.

(a) Employees performing babysitting services on a casual basis, as defined in § 552.5 are excluded from the minimum wage and overtime provisions of the Act. The rationale for this exclusion is that such persons are usually not dependent upon the income from rendering such services for their livelihood. Such services are often provided by (1) Teenagers during nonschool hours or for a short period after completing high school but prior to entering other employment as a vocation, or (2) older persons whose main source of livelihood is from other means.

(b) Employment in babysitting services would usually be on a "casual basis", whether performed for one or more employees, if such employment by all such employers does not exceed 20 hours per week in the aggregate. Employment in excess of these hours may still be on a "casual basis" if the excessive hours of employment are without regularity or are for irregular

or intermittent periods. Employment in babysitting services shall also be deemed to be on a "casual basis" (regardless of the number of weekly hours worked by the babysitter) in the case of individuals whose vacations are not domestic service who accompany families for a vaction period to take care of the children if the duration of such employment does not exceed 6 weeks.

(c) If the individual performing babysitting services on a "casual basis" devotes more than 20 percent of his or her time to household work during a babysitting assignment, the exemption for "babysitting services on a casual basis" does not apply during that assignment and the individual must be paid in accordance with the Act's minimum wage and overtime requirements. This does not affect the application of the exemption for previous or subsequent babysitting assignments where the 20 percent tolerance is not exceeded.

(d) Individuals who engage in babysitting as a full-time occupation are not employed on a “casual basis.”

§ 552.105 Individuals performing babysitting services in their own homes.

(a) It is clear from the legislative history that the Act's new coverage of domestic service employees is limited to those persons who perform such services in or about the private household of the employer. Accordingly, if such services are performed away from the employer's permanent, or temporary household there is no coverage under sections 6(f) and 7(1) of the Act. A typical example would be an individual who cares for the children of others in her own home. This type of operation, however, could, depending on the particular facts, qualify as a preschool or day care center and thus be covered under section 3(s)(4) of the Act in which case the person providing the service would be required to comply with the applicable provisions of the Act.

(b) An individual in a local neighborhood who takes four or five children into his or her home, which is operated as a day care home, and who does not have more than one employee or

whose only employees are members of that individual's immediate family is not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act.

§ 552.106 Companionship services for the aged or infirm.

The term "companionship services for the aged or infirm" is defined in § 552.6. Persons who provide care and protection for babies and young children, who are not physically or mentally infirm, are considered babysitters, not companions. The companion must perform the services with respect to the aged or infirm persons and not generally to other persons. The "casual" limitation does not apply to companion services.

§ 552.107 Yard maintenance workers.

Persons who mow lawns and perform other yard work in a neighborhood community generally provide their own equipment, set their own work schedule and occasionally hire other individuals. Such persons will be recognized as independent contractors who are not covered by the Act as domestic service employees. On the other hand, gardeners and yardmen employed primarily by one household are not usually independent contractors.

§ 552.108 Child labor provisions.

Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor provisions of the Act do not apply unless the underaged minor (a) is individually engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or (b) is employed by an enterprise meeting the coverage tests of sections 3(r) and 3(s)(1) of the Act, or (c) is employed in or about a home where work in the production of goods for commerce is performed.

§ 552.109 Third party employment.

(a) Employees who are engaged in providing companionship services, as defined in § 552.6, and who are employed by an employer or agency other than the family or household using their services, are exempt from the Act's minimum wage and overtime pay requirements by virtue of section

13(a)(15). Assigning such an employee to more than one household or family in the same workweek would not defeat the exemption for that workweek, provided that the services rendered during each assignment come within the definition of companionship services.

(b) Employees who are engaged in providing babysitting services and who are employed by an employer or agency other than the family or household using their services are not employed on a "casual basis" for purposes of the section 13(a)(15) exemption. Such employees are engaged in this occupation as a vocation.

(c) Live-in domestic service employees who are employed by an employer or agency other than the family or household using their services are exempt from the Act's overtime requirements by virtue

of section 13(b)(21). This exemption, however, will not apply where the employee works only temporarily for any one family or household, since that employee would not be "residing" on the premises of such family or household.

§ 552.110 Recordkeeping requirements.

(a) The general recordkeeping regulations are found in part 516 of this chapter and they require that every employer having covered domestic service employees shall keep records which show for each such employee: (1) Name in full, (2) social security number, (3) address in full, including zip code, (4) total hours worked each week by the employee for the employer, (5) total cash wages paid each week to the employee by the employer, (6) weekly sums claimed by the employer for board, lodging or other facilities, and (7) extra pay for weekly hours worked in excess of 40 by the employee for the employer. No particular form of records is required, so long as the above information is recorded and the record is maintained and preserved for a period of 3 years.

(b) In the case of an employee who resides on the premises, records of the actual hours worked are not required. Instead, the employer may maintain a copy of the agreement referred to in § 552.102. The more limited record

keeping requirement provided by this subsection does not apply to third party employers. No records are required for casual babysitters.

(c) Where a domestic service employee works on a fixed schedule, the employer may use a schedule of daily and weekly hours that the employee normally works and either the employer or the employee may: (1) Indicate by check marks, statement or other method that such hours were actually worked, and (2) when more or less than the scheduled hours are worked, show the exact number of hours worked.

(d) The employer may require the domestic service employee to record the hours worked and submit such record to the employer.

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(a) Act or FLSA means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (52 Stat. 1060, as amended; 29 U.S.C. 201-219).

(b) 1985 Amendments means the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-150).

(c) Public agency means a State, a political subdivision of a State or an interstate governmental agency.

(d) State means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other Territory or possession of the United States (29 U.S.C. 203(c) and 213(f)).

§ 553.2 Purpose and scope.

(a) The 1985 Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) changed certain provisions of the Act as they apply to employees of State and local public agencies. The purpose of part 553 is to set forth the regulations to carry out the provisions of these Amendments, as well as other FLSA provisions previously in existence relating to such public agency employees.

(b) The regulations in this part are divided into three subparts. Subpart A interprets and applies the special FLSA provisions that are generally applicable to all covered and nonexempt employees of State and local governments. Subpart A also contains provisions concerning certain individuals (i.e., elected officials, their appointees, and legislative branch employees) who are excluded from the definition of "employee" and thus from FLSA coverage. This subpart also interprets and applies sections 7(o), and 7(p)(2), 7(p)(3), and 11(c) of the Act regarding compensatory time off, occasional or

sporadic part-time employment, and the performance of substitute work by public agency employees, respectively.

(c) Subpart B of this part deals with "volunteer" services performed by individuals for public agencies. Subpart C applies various FLSA provisions as they relate to fire protection and law enforcement employees of public agen


§ 553.3 Coverage—general.

(a)(1) In 1966, Congress amended the FLSA to extend coverage to State and local government employees engaged in the operation of hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and mass transit systems.

(2) In 1972, the Education Amendments further extended coverage to employees of public preschools.

(3) In 1974, the FLSA Amendments extended coverage to virtually all of the remaining State and local government employees who were not covered as a result of the 1966 and 1972 legislation.

(b) Certain definitions already in the Act were modified by the 1974 Amendments. The definition of the term "employer" was changed to include public agencies and that of "employee" was amended to include individuals employed by public agencies. The definition of "enterprise" contained in section 3(r) of the Act was modified to provide that activities of a public agency are performed for a "business purpose." The term "enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce" defined in section 3(s) of the Act was expanded to include public agencies.


8 553.10 General.

Section 3(e)(2)(C) of the Act excludes from the definition of “employee", and thus from coverage, certain individuals employed by public agencies. This exclusion applies to elected public officials, their immediate advisors, and certain individuals whom they appoint or select to serve in various capacities. In addition, the 1985 Amendments exclude employees of legislative branches of State and local governments. A condition for exclu

sion is that the employee must not be subject to the civil service laws of the employing State or local agency.

§ 553.11

Exclusion for elected officials and their appointees.

(a) Section 3(e)(2)(C) provides an exclusion from the Act's coverage for officials elected by the voters of their jurisdictions. Also excluded under this provision are personal staff members and officials in policymaking positions who are selected or appointed by the elected public officials and certain advisers to such officials.

(b) The statutory term "member of personal staff" generally includes only persons who are under the direct supervision of the selecting elected official and have regular contact with such official. The term typically does not include individuals who are directly supervised by someone other than the elected official even though they may have been selected by the official. For example, the term might include the elected official's personal secretary, but would not include the secretary to an assistant.

(c) In order to qualify as personal staff members or officials in policymaking positions, the individuals in question must not be subject to the civil service laws of their employing agencies. The term "civil service laws" refers to a personnel system established by law which is designed to protect employees from arbitrary action, personal favoritism, and political coercion, and which uses a competitive or merit examination process for selection and placement. Continued tenure of employment of employees under civil service, except for cause, is provided. In addition, such personal staff members must be appointed by, and serve solely at the pleasure or discretion of, the elected official.

(d) The exclusion for “immediate adviser" to elected officials is limited to staff who serve as advisers on constitutional or legal matters, and who are not subject to the civil service rules of their employing agency.

§ 553.12 Exclusion for employees of legislative branches.

(a) Section 3(e)(2)(C) of the Act provides an exclusion from the definition

of the term "employee" for individuals who are not subject to the civil service laws of their employing agencies and are employed by legislative branches or bodies of States, their political subdivisions or interstate governmental agencies.

(b) Employees of State or local legislative libraries do not come within this statutory exclusion. Also, employees of school boards, other than elected officials and their appointees (as discussed in § 553.11), do not come within this exclusion.


§ 553.20 Introduction.

Section 7 of the FLSA requires that covered, nonexempt employees receive not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay for hours worked in excess of the applicable maximum hours standards. However, section 7(o) of the Act provides an element of flexibility to State and local government employers and an element of choice to their employees or the representatives of their employees regarding compensation for statutory overtime hours. The exemption provided by this subsection authorizes a public agency which is a State, a political subdivision of a State, or an interstate governmental agency, to provide compensatory time off (with certain limitations, as provided in § 553.21) in lieu of monetary overtime compensation that would otherwise be required under section 7. Compensatory time received by an employee in lieu of cash must be at the rate of not less than one and one-half hours of compensatory time for each hour of overtime work, just as the monetary rate for overtime is calculated at the rate of not less than one and one-half times the regular rate of pay.

§ 553.21 Statutory provisions.

Section 7(0) provides as follows:

(o)(1) Employees of a public agency which is a State, a political subdivision of a State, or an interstate governmental agency may receive, in accordance with this subsection and in lieu of overtime compensation, compensatory time off at a rate not less than one and one-half hours for each hour of em

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