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volve the solicitation of other potential students to enroll in the school; or

(B) in community service in accordance with paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection;

(9) provide assurances that employment made available from funds under this part may be used to support programs for supportive services to students with disabilities;

(10) provide assurances that the institution will inform all eligible students of the opportunity to perform community service, and will consult with local nonprofit, governmental, and community-based organizations to identify such opportunities;


(11) include such other reasonable provisions as the Secretary shall deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purpose of this part.

(c) PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT.-As part of its agreement described in subsection (b), an institution of higher education may, at its option, enter into an additional agreement with the Secretary which shall

(1) provide for the operation by the institution of a program of part-time employment of its students in work for a private for-profit organization under an arrangement between the institution and such organization that complies with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (b)(1) and subsection (b)(3);

(2) provide that the institution will use not more than 25 percent of the funds made available to such institution under this part for any fiscal year for the operation of the program described in paragraph (1);

(3) provide that, notwithstanding subsection (b)(5), the Federal share of the compensation of students employed in such program will not exceed 60 percent for academic years 1987-1988 and 1988-1989, 55 percent for academic year 1989– 1990, and 50 percent for academic year 1990-1991 and succeeding academic years, and that the non-Federal share of such compensation will be provided by the private for-profit organization in which the student is employed;

(4) provide that jobs under the work study program will be academically relevant, to the maximum extent practicable; and

(5) provide that the for-profit organization will not use funds made available under this part to pay any employee who would otherwise be employed by the organization. (d) TUTORING AND LITERACY ACTIVITIES.

(1) USE OF FUNDS.—In any academic year to which subsection (b)(2)(B) applies, an institution shall ensure that funds granted to such institution under this section are used in accordance with such subsection to compensate (including compensation for time spent in training and travel directly related to tutoring in reading and family literacy activities) students(A) employed as reading tutors for children who are preschool age or are in elementary school; or

(B) employed in family literacy projects.

(2) PRIORITY FOR SCHOOLS.-To the extent practicable, an institution shall

(A) give priority to the employment of students in the provision of tutoring in reading in schools that are participating in a reading reform project that

(i) is designed to train teachers how to teach reading on the basis of scientifically-based research on reading; and

(ii) is funded under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965; and

(B) ensure that any student compensated with the funds described in paragraph (1) who is employed in a school participating in a reading reform project described in subparagraph (A) receives training from the employing school in the instructional practices used by the school.

(3) FEDERAL SHARE.-The Federal share of the compensation of work-study students compensated under this subsection may exceed 75 percent.


Nothing in this part shall be construed as restricting the source (other than this part) from which the institution may pay its share of the compensation of a student employed under a workstudy program covered by an agreement under this part, and such share may be paid to such student in the form of services and equipment (including tuition, room, board, and books) furnished by such institution.

SEC. 445. [42 U.S.C. 2755] FLEXIBLE USE OF FUNDS.

(a) CARRY-OVER AUTHORITY.-(1) Of the sums granted to an eligible institution under this part for any fiscal year, 10 percent may, at the discretion of the institution, remain available for expenditure during the succeeding fiscal year to carry out programs under this part.

(2) Any of the sums so granted to an institution for a fiscal year which are not needed by that institution to operate workstudy programs during that fiscal year, and which it does not wish to use during the next fiscal year as authorized in the preceding sentence, shall remain available to the Secretary for making grants under section 443 to other institutions in the same State until the close of the second fiscal year next succeeding the fiscal year for which such funds were appropriated.

(b) CARRY-BACK AUTHORITY. (1) Up to 10 percent of the sums the Secretary determines an eligible institution may receive from funds which have been appropriated for a fiscal year may be used by the Secretary to make grants under this part to such institution for expenditure during the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which the sums were appropriated.

(2) An eligible institution may make payments to students of wages earned after the end of the academic year, but prior to the beginning of the succeeding fiscal year, from such succeeding fiscal year's appropriations.

(c) FLEXIBLE USE OF FUNDS.—An eligible institution may, upon the request of a student, make payments to the student under this part by crediting the student's account at the institution or by making a direct deposit to the student's account at a depository in

stitution. An eligible institution may only credit the student's account at the institution for (1) tuition and fees, (2) in the case of institutionally owned housing, room and board, and (3) other institutionally provided goods and services.


(a) AGREEMENTS REQUIRED. (1) The Secretary is authorized to enter into agreements with eligible institutions under which such institution may use not more than 10 percent or $50,000 of its allotment under section 442, whichever is less, to establish or expand a program under which such institution, separately or in combination with other eligible institutions, locates and develops jobs, including community service jobs, for currently enrolled students.

(2) Jobs located and developed under this section shall be jobs that are suitable to the scheduling and other needs of such students and that, to the maximum extent practicable, complement and reinforce the educational programs or vocational goals of such students.

(b) CONTENTS OF AGREEMENTS.-Agreements under subsection (a) shall

(1) provide that the Federal share of the cost of any program under this section will not exceed 80 percent of such cost; (2) provide satisfactory assurance that funds available under this section will not be used to locate or develop jobs at an eligible institution;

(3) provide satisfactory assurance that funds available under this section will not be used for the location or development of jobs for students to obtain upon graduation, but rather for the location and development of jobs available to students during and between periods of attendance at such institution;

(4) provide satisfactory assurance that the location or development of jobs pursuant to programs assisted under this section will not result in the displacement of employed workers or impair existing contracts for services;

(5) provide satisfactory assurance that Federal funds used for the purpose of this section can realistically be expected to help generate student wages exceeding, in the aggregate, the amount of such funds, and that if such funds are used to contract with another organization, appropriate performance standards are part of such contract; and

(6) provide that the institution will submit to the Secretary an annual report on the uses made of funds provided under this section and an evaluation of the effectiveness of such program in benefiting the students of such institution.


Each institution participating under this part may use up to 10 percent of the funds made available under section 489(a) and attributable to the amount of the institution's expenditures under this part to conduct that institution's program of community service-learning, including—

(1) development of mechanisms to assure the academic quality of the student experience,

(2) assuring student access to educational resources, expertise, and supervision necessary to achieve community service objectives, and

(3) collaboration with public and private nonprofit agencies, and programs assisted under the National and Community Service Act of 1990 in the planning, development, and administration of such programs.

SEC. 448. [42 U.S.C. 2756b] WORK COLLEGES.

(a) PURPOSE.—The purpose of this section is to recognize, encourage, and promote the use of comprehensive work-learning programs as a valuable educational approach when it is an integral part of the institution's educational program and a part of a financial plan which decreases reliance on grants and loans.


(1) SOURCE OF FUNDS.-In addition to the sums appropriated under subsection (f), funds allocated to the institution under part C and part E of this title may be transferred for use under this section to provide flexibility in strengthening the self-help-through-work element in financial aid packaging.

(2) ACTIVITIES AUTHORIZED.-From the sums appropriated pursuant to subsection (f), and from the funds available under paragraph (1), eligible institutions may, following approval of an application under subsection (c) by the Secretary

(A) support the educational costs of qualified students through self-help payments or credits provided under the work-learning program of the institution within the limits of part F of this title;

(B) promote the work-learning-service experience as a tool of postsecondary education, financial self-help and community service-learning opportunities;

(C) carry out activities described in section 443 or 446; (D) be used for the administration, development and assessment of comprehensive work-learning programs, including

(i) community-based work-learning alternatives that expand opportunities for community service and career-related work; and

(ii) alternatives that develop sound citizenship, encourage student persistence, and make optimum use of assistance under this part in education and student development;

(E) coordinate and carry out joint projects and activities to promote work service learning; and

(F) carry out a comprehensive, longitudinal study of student academic progress and academic and career outcomes, relative to student self-sufficiency in financing their higher education, repayment of student loans, continued community service, kind and quality of service performed, and career choice and community service selected after graduation.

(c) APPLICATION.-Each eligible institution may submit an application for funds authorized by subsection (f) to use funds under

subsection (b)(1) at such time and in such manner as the Secretary, by regulation, may reasonably require.

(d) MATCH REQUIRED.-Funds made available to work-colleges pursuant to this section shall be matched on a dollar-for-dollar basis from non-Federal sources.

(e) DEFINITIONS.-For the purpose of this section

(1) the term "work-college" means an eligible institution that

(A) has been a public or private nonprofit institution with a commitment to community service;

(B) has operated a comprehensive work-learning program for at least 2 years;

(C) requires all resident students who reside on campus to participate in a comprehensive work-learning program and the provision of services as an integral part of the institution's educational program and as part of the institution's educational philosophy; and

(D) provides students participating in the comprehensive work-learning program with the opportunity to contribute to their education and to the welfare of the community as a whole; and

(2) the term "comprehensive student work-learning program" means a student work/service program that is an integral and stated part of the institution's educational philosophy and program; requires participation of all resident students for enrollment, participation, and graduation; includes learning objectives, evaluation and a record of work performance as part of the student's college record; provides programmatic leadership by college personnel at levels comparable to traditional academic programs; recognizes the educational role of worklearning supervisors; and includes consequences for nonperformance or failure in the work-learning program similar to the consequences for failure in the regular academic program. (f) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.-There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years.


SEC. 451. [20 U.S.C. 1087a] PROGRAM AUTHORITY.

(a) IN GENERAL.-There are hereby made available, in accordance with the provisions of this part, such sums as may be necessary to make loans to all eligible students (and the eligible parents of such students) in attendance at participating institutions of higher education selected by the Secretary, to enable such students to pursue their courses of study at such institutions during the period beginning July 1, 1994. Such loans shall be made by participating institutions, or consortia thereof, that have agreements with the Secretary to originate loans, or by alternative originators designated by the Secretary to make loans for students in attendance at participating institutions (and their parents).

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