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Universal Language and
Dictionary of Names

Kenneth Kelly and Deane B. Judd*
Sensory Environment Section
Center for Building Technology
National Bureau of Standards

Supersedes and Combines
by Kenneth L. Kelly and Deane B. Judd, NBS Circular 553, Nov. 1, 1955
A UNIVERSAL COLOR LANGUAGE, by Kenneth L. Kelly, Color Engineering 3, 16
(March-April 1965)

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary

Edward O. Vetter, Under Secretary

Dr. Betsy Anker-Johnson, Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology

National Bureau of Standards, Ernest Ambler, Acting Director




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COVER PICTURE: Color solid representing the three-dimensional arrangement of colors.
See also page A-2.

Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 440, 184 pages (December 1976).

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

(Order by SD Catalog No. C13. 10:440) Price $3.25

Stock Number 003-003-01705-1

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NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS The National Bureau of Standards’ was established by an act of Congress March 3, 1901. The Bureau's overall goal is to strengthen and advance the Nation's science and technology and facilitate their effective application for public benefit. To this end, the Bureau conducts research and provides: (1) a basis for the Nation's physical measurement system, (2) scientific and technological services for industry and government, (3) a technical basis for equity in trade, and (4) technical services to promote public safety. The Bureau consists of the Institute for Basic Standards, the Institute for Ma als Research, the Institute for Applied Technology, the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, and the Office for Information Programs. THE INSTITUTE FOR BASIC STANDARDS provides the central basis within the United States of a complete and consistent system of physical measurement; coordinates that system with measurement systems of other nations; and furnishes essential services leading to accurate and uniform physical measurements throughout the Nation's scientific community, industry, and commerce. The Institute consists of the Office of Measurement Services, the Office of Radiation Measurement and the following Center and divisions: Applied Mathematics

Electricity Mechanics Heat Optical Physics Center for Radiation Research: Nuclear Sciences; Applied Radiation Laboratory Astrophysics ?

– Cryogenics Electromagnetics ? Time and Frequency ?. THE INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH conducts materials research leading to improved methods of measurement, standards, and data on the properties of well-characterized materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; provides advisory and research services to other Government agencies; and develops, produces, and distributes standard reference materials. The Institute consists of the Office of Standard Reference Materials, the Office of Air and Water Measurement, and the following divisions:

Analytical Chemistry Polymers Metallurgy Inorganic Materials Reactor

Radiation Physical Chemistry.
THE INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED TECHNOLOGY provides technical services to promote
the use of available technology and to facilitate technological innovation in industry and
Government; cooperates with public and private organizations leading to the development of
technological standards (including mandatory safety standards), codes and methods of test;
and provides technical advice and services to Government agencies upon request. The Insti-
tute consists of the following divisions and Centers:

Standards Application and Analysis Electronic Technology Center for Consumer
Product Technology: Product Systems Analysis; Product Engineering Center for Building
Technology: Structures, Materials, and Life Safety; Building Environment; Technical Evalua-

tion and Application Center for Fire Research: Fire Science; Fire Safety Engineering. THE INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts research and provides technical services designed to aid Government agencies in improving cost effectiveness in the conduct of their programs through the selection, acquisition, and effective utilization of automatic data processing equipment; and serves as the principal focus within the executive branch for the development of Federal standards for automatic data processing equipment, techniques, and computer languages. The Institute consists of the following divisions:

Computer Services Systems and Software Computer Systems Engineering — Informa

tion Technology.
THE OFFICE FOR INFORMATION PROGRAMS promotes optimum dissemination and
accessibility of scientific information generated within NBS and other agencies of the Federal
Government; promotes the development of the National Standard Reference Data System and
a system of information analysis centers dealing with the broader aspects of the National
Measurement System; provides appropriate services to ensure that the NBS staff has optimum
accessibility to the scientific information of the world. The Office consists of the following
organizational units:

Office of Standard Reference Data — Office of Information Activities – Office of Technical
Publications Library Office of International Relations Office of International

* Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg. Maryland, unless otherwise noted; mailing address Washington, D.C. 20234.

• Located at Boulder, Colorado 80302.

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