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In the 9 years since the last world war, I have never had a pair of chains on but once, and that was when I was going to a remote ski area in Colorado. Neither have I ever owned or had on my car a pair of these heavy-duty storm tires. So the problems in Colorado are not problems to us. They do not scare us. It is true that our improvements go high, but we go over them, and now we are going through them.

I would like to invite the committee's attention to just one thing with respect to western Colorado, and also Utah. The uranium area of that country is primarily developed now in what is known as the Four Corners area. That is the area which is common to Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

It extends all over the Colorado Plateau. These roads which have been commented on as access roads, I wouldn't want anyone here to think that they were roads in the sense of being usable highways; roads that are used by trucks carrying 8, 10, or 12 tons some people would hesitate to run their cars over. So in that sense only are they access highways.

This general country is one of the wealthiest parts now and potentially of the United States. Not only is there this huge uranium development, but there is also an estimated-and this has been estimated and reestimated-oil shale reserve in this same area of western Colorado which would be made available by such a road as is proposed by Governor Johnson and Senator Millikin, of 400 billion barrels of oil from the oil shale reserve.

I have been informed by reliable sources, chiefly the Colorado Yearbook, that there is in this area enough coal to last the United States 300 years.

I would also like to invite the committee's attention to the production of molybdenum in this area; the production of other elements, feldspar, zinc, lead, also gold and silver, which are prevalent in this area and which make it one of the great economic potentials of the United States.

Then I would like to shift again and emphasize two things which Governor Johnson and Senator Millikin have expressed so well.

First, it doesn't seem sensible to anyone who knows this country, this area of the country, from a national defense standpoint, to run Highway 6 and Highway 40 into Denver and stop the Interstate System. We have not only a great industrial development in Denver, and now even some in Colorado Springs, and the Colorado Fuel & Iron Corp. at Pueblo, which in the last few years has also added a seamless tube mill to it, but we also have the Geneva steel mills on the eastern-southern side of Salt Lake City, all of which should be connected, and connected by a straight and proper and good road in the Interstate Highway System.

I would like to close my statement by calling attention to the resolution clause of a resolution adopted by the State Highway Commission of the State of Colorado November 29 to December i, 1954, being resolution 301-C. To save time I will read of that resolution only

-C the resolution clause: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, that the Commission requests the Colorado delegation to join in petitioning the ('ongress to amend the present law to extend the mileage limitation in amount sufficient to permit a Colorado-Utah road as a part of the Interstate System. As an alternate, it is recommended that the law be amended to permit the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Commerce by joint agreement to add any route that they consider necessary, regardless of the present mileage limitation. That is the end of the resolution.

Then may I say this: As Senator Millikin and Governor Johnson have both so well pointed out, it seems to me that whatever, and without impugning the motives at all, or the action of the gentlemen who did it, it seems to me that from a sheer economic development it is a stifling development to Colorado to be placed in this position, and that it places us in an unfair position economically with our sister States, unless we have a road on the Interstate Highway System east-west.

I think this is fairly well brought out in the Clay report which I have before me and which I have studied to some extent.

Thank you, Gentlemen, for this opportunity of making this short statement. I am sure that this highway over the mountains presents no insufferable barriers to us in Colorado.

Senator GORE. Thank you, Senator Allott. The committee appreciates your appearance and will give careful consideration to your views and recommendations. Do you have any questions, Senator Martin

Senator MARTIN. No.
Senator GORE. Senator Case?
Senator Case. No. I think that is a very good statement.

Governor JOHNSON. Senator, I wonder if the proposed bill could be made a part of the record ?

Senator GORE. Without objection that will be done. (The bill is as follows:)

(S. 1668, 84th Cong., 1st sess.] A BILL Providing for the designation of a highway across the Continental Divide as a part

of the National System of Interstate Highways Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of Commerce is hereby authorized and directed to designate as a part of the National System of Interstate Highways established under section 7 of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1944 (58 Stat. 838) a highway extending by a direct route from United States Highway Numbered 85-87 in Colorado westward across the Continental Divide and connecting with United States Highway Numbered 91 in Utah. The route to be followed by such highway shall be selected by joint action of the State highway departments of the States through which it runs after giving due consideration to any recommendations of the Secretary of Defense. The mileage of the highway designated under this Act shall be counted for the purpose of the mileage limitation on the National System of Interstate Highways.

SEC. 2. The highway designated under the provisions of this Act may be constructed, reconstructed, or improved by the use of Federal-aid road funds in the same manner as, and subject to the same provisions of law as may be applicable to, other highways constituting the National System of Interstate Highways.

Senator GORE. The committee is pleased to note that Congressman Wayne Aspinall has been for a considerable time in attendance at the committee hearings.

Congressman Rogers, would you like to make a statement at this time?

STATEMENT OF HON. BYRON G. ROGERS, A REPRESENTATIVE IN

CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF COLORADO

Mr. Rogers. If I may, Mr. Chairman. As you will note the entire Colorado delegation is highly interested in the testimony here this morning. On behalf of Congressman Aspinall and myself we want to join in with what Governor Johnson has stated, and Senators Millikin and Allott, because we recognize that unless this east-west highway problem is solved and Colorado is not included in it, that there are many potentials in the State that won't be developed.

One thing that should be directed to the attention of the committee is this: As I understand it, the main purpose on these east-west highways is for military defense, and they could be used in case of emergency. As has previously been stated, the city of Pueblo and the city and county of Denver are manufacturing centers. Also, we have many Federal installations and military equipment and plants that are in this area which, in the event of an emergency would be not as accessible if we didn't have this east-west road.

So we in Colorado are highly interested, not only from our own standpoint, but from the national defense standpoint and believe that as we have solved the problems in the mountains it will be to the best interests of the national defense if this east-west highway were designated in this position.

I believe Governor Johnson in his forward-looking program of roads in the State of Colorado, and recently in having the legislature to enact that toll authority to go through the mountains, is something that the committee should take into consideration and, if at all possible, should make it feasible for the State of Colorado to be properly recognized on east-west roads.

Senator GORE. Thank you, Congressman Rogers.
Congressman Chenoweth.

STATEMENT OF HON. J. EDGAR CHENOWETH, A REPRESENTATIVE

IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF COLORADO Mr. CHENOWETH. Mr. Chairman and members of he committee, I appreciate the courtesy you have extended to say a word.

I want to concur in the very splendid statement made by Governor Johnson, so ably supported by Senators Millikin and Allott. I am aware of the intense interest in the State of Colorado in being included on an east-west highway, because I have had considerable correspondence on the subject, and I have also contacted the Bureau of Public Roads and have received the same reply Senator Johnson received, that they do not have sufficient mileage to consider that area.

A committee from the Colorado State Legislature contacted me about a month ago. They were working on that problem at that time. That is when I made the contact with the Bureau, and ran into this dead-end street, where it was indicated that there was no possibility of accomplishing that end. So legislation is necessary, Mr. Chairman, I think, in order to have Colorado included.

There may be a difference of opinion as to just what route the east-west highway should take. There is, I am sure, unanimous approval of the proposal to have an east-west highway through Colorado. Senator GORE. Thank you, Congressman Chenoweth.

Governor Johnson. May I present Mr. Charles Shumate, who is the assistant engineer of the Colorado Highway Department, who is here with us? I think he might add something to the testimony.

Senator GORE. Mr. Shumate, the committee will be pleased to

hear you.

STATEMENT OF CHARLES E. SHUMATE, ASSISTANT HIGHWAY

ENGINEER, COLORADO HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT Mr. SHUMATE. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I would like to point out one thing that I think is significant as it relates to this particular problem.

The National System of Interstate Highways, as they are now designated, was adopted in August 1947, approximately 8 years ago. It is our feeling in the department that circumstances not only possible in our area but in other areas of the United States have changed during that period, which would warrant a review of the present location of the Interstate System toward possible changes in it throughout various parts of the United States.

That is the principal point I wish to bring out, Mr. Chairman.

Senator GORE. In addition to your view as a practical roadbuilder and official in the State highway department, do you not think it is necessary for the Bureau of Public Roads, and the Department of Commerce, to develop some definitive standards by which these routes will be designated interstate routes, particularly in view of the fact that all indications are that the Federal share of the cost of the interstate highways will be increased?

Mr. SHUMATE. I think it would be very desirable.
Senator GORE. Thank you, Mr. Shumate.
Senator Watkins !

Senator ALLOTT. Mr. Chairman, while Senator Watkins is sitting down, could I call the committee's attention to one interesting thing which I forgot to mention?

The city of Pueblo which has not only large steel manufacturing but also one of the large piston plants in the United States, it will be noted that to get to one of the east and west Interstate Highways from Pueblo would require a trip in round numbers of 375 miles to the south to Albuquerque, or about 225 miles to the north to Cheyenne or Laramie.

Senator GORE. I take it, however, that to a Coloradan that would be no obstacle at all.

Senator ALLOTT. The point that I wanted to make, Senator, is that we are so isolated by virture of the present system as set up, that we are at a minimum-Pueblo, for instance, is at a minimum 225 miles off of an Interstate Highway System. That isn't any problem with us, but we would rather have a better one.

Senator GORE. Senator Watkins?

STATEMENT OF HON. ARTHUR V. WATKINS, A UNITED STATES

SENATOR FROM THE STATE OF UTAH

Senator WATKINS. Gentlemen, I arrived home late last evening. I obviously haven't had an opportunity to prepare a formal statement.

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As a member of this committee for a number of years and also as a member of the Subcommittee on Highways I had an opportunity to study this whole program of Federal highways and the trunklines across the country.

I realize that a great deal of construction must be done in the immediate future if we are going to put this country in a position to handle its defense problems in the event of an all-out attack upon us.

I realize that nearly every case that comes before the Congress has a defense angle, at least the sponsors think it does.

I want to assure you that at least in this case we certainly would need these highways all across the country to evacuate the people and to transport troops, because all the railways can't handle them as rapidly as we will need if we ever have an all-out attack on this country.

With reference to the immediate matter to be considered here this morning, that is a highway between Denver and Salt Lake City, that as been needed for a long time. We have a Federal-aid highway, it is true, but as Senator Bennett indicated this morning in his statement, it is not a highway that could handle a great deal of traffic and handle it rapidly.

I have lived in the area between Denver and Salt Lake City and I know how necessary it is to even get into that section.

Senator GORE. Čan you give us an estimate, Senator Watkins, of the traffic load through the area presently? Of course I realize that with an adequate road the traffic would be greatly increased. I am inquiring, however, as to the present traffic load.

Senator WATKINS. I couldn't give that because I don't have that at hand. We have here the chairman of the Utah State Highway Commission who may be able to furnish those figures.

Senator GORE. He is going to appear next.

Senator WATKINS. I want to say that I endorse what has been said by my colleague, Senator Bennett. I am sorry I didn't get to hear ail that Senator Johnson said and the other members of the delegations, but I am sure that I am in full accord with them in their statement with respect to the need of this highway, and of course their whole general program over the whole United States.

Senator GORE. Senator Johnson has a way of getting both Democrats and Republicans in full accord with whatever he says.

Senator WATKINS. He is a very persuasive gentleman, as you know, and usually very sound in his approach, and very practical.

Senator GORE. I thought his testimony earlier in this hearing was very sound.

Senator WATKINS. He lived at one time almost in Utah. on the western slope of Colorado, near my home at Vernal, Utah. I think he probably realizes the need for highways from his past experience in that area.

For many years we didn't have adequate highways of any kind to take care of the needs of that great area known as the Iona Basin. The Senator's home was at Craig, Colo., and that is at the eastern edge, as we think, of the basin.

We know at first hand the problems faced there between Denver and Salt Lake City. At one time a railroad was proposed between Denver and Salt Lake City and a great deal of money was spent. In

He was

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