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surate with the highway needs, and on a basis of a fixed formula for the apportionment of the funds among the States.

I believe S. 1048 will provide for a well-balanced, accelerated Federal-aid highway construction program which the States can administer with public support. For those States which have greater demands for the immediate construction of the Interstate System more urgent than other roads on the Federal-aid primary system, they can apply their Federal-aid primary funds to projects on the Interstate System.

There is, however, one provision of S. 1058, which I earnestly believe this committee should give serious consideration to modifying. That is the one-third, two-thirds matching formula for projects on the Interstate System. In view of the extremely high standards which will be required by the Federal Government, adding tremendously to the cost of these roads, it seems to me that the Federal Government should bear about 90 percent of the cost.

In conclusion, may I thank this committee for the opportunity afforded me to appear here today in support of legislation for an expanded highway construction program. The needs are real, and I sincerely hope that this committee will recommend legislation to meet these needs.

Thank you.
Senator SYMINGTON. Thank you, Mr. McMillan. Senator Case.

Senator Case. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I think that is a very fine statement. I found it particularly attractive to me, Mr. MeMillan, because I think it almost describes in several respects what you find in the bill which I propose to introduce today.

The bill which I propose to introduce today puts the matching on the interstate on a 90-10 percent basis, just as you suggested.

It also gives a formula for the apportionment of the interstate funds, and it steps up the secondary and the primary so as to make possible a more balanced completion of systems.

It also increases the transfer clause from 10 percent to 20 percent as between funds so that the State could be sure of balanced completion.

I am not going to ask any questions. When I find a witness has laid such a nice basis for the bill which I am going to introduce, I have no questions.

Senator SYMINGTON. Senator Thurmond.

Senator THURMOND. Chief MeMillan, I would like to ask you this question: Is there any doubt in your mind that we do need an expanded highway system?

Mr. MCMILLAN. No, sir. There is, I believe, no doubt in my mind as far as my ability to know is concerned. I do not know all the United States, but I know our section of it.

Senator THURMOND. Unless we do begin construction of an expanded highway system, do you visualize within the next 10 years a tremendous, terrific traffic jam and congestion?

Mr. MCMILLAN. We have reached that stage now. As you know, Senator, when you were Governor of South Carolina, we expanded and emphasized a secondary road program to get the people out of the mud that had been in there a long time during the war, and we could not wait and under your administration we started that.

We have gotten them out of the mud, but in getting them out of the mud, we neglected the primary system where we got the money with which to build these other roads, and we are attempting to step up very rapidly the improvement of that system, and we can do it.

We are already bottlenecked. We are just fortunate that the local people do not realize it as much as I do. Senator THURMOND. Is it your thinking, if this

Interstate System is built, that the States in cooperation with the Federal Government should select the routes of these new highways?

Mr. McMILLAN. Certainly I think that is true in the selection of any roads. Even in the secondary roads, we saw the wisdom of asking the county delegations to cooperate with us, because they knew more about this local condition than I did or any of the engineers with me, and we neded their

support and cooperation. I think the Federal Government or the Bureau of Public Roads needs our assistance and advice in the selection of interstate roads in South Carolina as much as we needed the advice of the local people.

Senator THURMOND. Considering the urgent need for an Interstate Highway System, as has been described, is it your recommendation that the Congress not delay and proceed at this session to enact legislation to begin construction of such a system?

Mr. McMILLAN. I certainly would recommend that they go ahead with it, but not to the extent of neglecting the other main roads.

I think they must go along together. The public demands it. We work for the public, and without doing that, we would find ourselves in a very, very bad position.

Senator THURMOND. I want to thank you very much, Chief McMillan, for your fine statement, which has been very favorably received before this committee.

Mr. McMILLAN. Thank you, sir.
Senator THURMOND. Senator Kuchel.

Senator KUCHEL. I have no questions, but I join with your own Senator, Mr. McMillan, in congratulating you on your presentation here today.

Senator SYMINGTON. Senator Neuberger.

Senator NEUBERGER. No, Mr. Chairman. I would just like to say though that I thank Mr. McMillan for his fine presentation, and my State is similar to South Carolina in that it is very dependent on agricultural economy.

I agree with you that too much stress on the Interstate System will result in the main sufferers being our rural people, and there is just going to be so much to be spent on roads, and if the vast preponderance is spent on the Interstate System, which is all limited access, that the people in remote rural areas are going to have a difficult time getting into town for the various purposes. I think that is a very serious thing in this administration proposal, that it is going to be at the expense of the rural agricultural States like your State and And, I want to thank you very much for your presentation.

Senator SYMINGTON. Mr. McMillan, what is the reaction among the people in the small towns with regard to the Interstate System which often bypasses the towns ?

my State.

the money.

Mr. McMILLAN. We have a big selling problem. We have that trouble right in our laps now. We have to spend much more time winning public support among those people and explaining just what it is for, why it is, rather than on the drafting board drawing and planning roads.

I find that in my case more so than anyone else in our State. We have got to secure that public support. If we do not, we are stalled. We are stalled even though the Federal Government would furnish

Senator SYMINGTON. Would you say that there are many more people in your State today who are opposed to the Interstate System than who are for it?

Mr. McMILLAN. No, sir; I think they do not understand much about it; and unless we get them better informed, we will find ourselves stopped by the people by the time we got half through.

Senator SYMINGTON. In other words, a selling job has to be done to put this over, is that it?

Mr. MOMILLAN. Yes, sir.

Senator SYMINGTON. Again I want to thank you very much for coming before the committee, and we appreciate it.

Tomorrow, Tuesday, March 29, Attorney General Herbert Brownell and Commissioner C. D. Curtis of the Bureau of Public Roads will come before the committee.

If there is no further business, the committee will stand adjourned.

(Thereupon, at 11:35 a. m., the committee was adjourned to reconvene Tuesday, March 29, 1955, at 10 a. m., at the same place.)

NATIONAL HIGHWAY PROGRAM

TUESDAY, MARCH 29, 1955

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC Roads,

Washington, D. C. The subcommittee met at 10:10 a. m., in room 412, Senate Office Building, Senator Albert Gore (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Chavez, Gore (presiding), McNamara, Case, and Bush.

Senator Gore. The committee will come to order. This morning, in addition to the bills which we have been considering heretofore, the committee has before it a bill introduced yesterday by our distinguished colleague, the Senator from South Dakota, Senate bill 1573.

(The above-mentioned document is as follows:)

[S. 1573, 84th Cong., 1st sess.]

A BILL To provide a ten-year program of Federal-aid highway authorization ; to establish

a corporation to acquire rights-of-way required for the completion of the national system of interstate highways; and for other purposes

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

TITLE 1-INCREASED FEDERAL-AID HIGHWAY AUTHORIZATIONS

TEN-YEAR FEDERAL-AID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY HIGHWAY AUTHORIZATIONS

SECTION 1. (a) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the FederalAid Road Act, approved July 11, 1916 (39 Stat. 355), and all Acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated for each of the ten fiscal years, beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1957, the sum of $810,000,000.

(b) The sum authorized by subsection (a) to be appropriated for each of such fiscal years shall be available for expenditure as follows:

(1) $360,000,000 for projects on the Federal-aid primary highway system; such amount to be in addition to the amounts authorized in section 2 (a) for appropriation to the interstate system, a portion of the primary system.

(2) $360,000,000 for projects on the Federal-aid secondary system.

(3) $90,000,000 for projects on the Federal-aid primary highway system in urban areas and for projects on approved extension of the Federal-aid secondary system within urban areas, such amount to be in addition to the $270,000,000 authorized in section 2 (e) for appropriation to the urban connections and access roads in connection with the national system of interstate highways.

(c) The sums authorized to be appropriated by this section for each fiscal year, respectively, shall be apportioned among the several States in the manner now provided by law and in accordance with the formulas set forth in section 4 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, approved December 20, 1944 (58 Stat. 838).

(d) Any sums apportioned to any State under the provisions of this section shall be available for expenditure in that State for two years after the close of

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