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agement of the large number of new children, most of whom came directly from the
The school opened on the 1st of November, 1879, with 147 students. On the 6th of November we received 6 Sisseton Sioux and 2 Menomonees. On the 28th of February, 1880, 8 Iowa and Sac and Fox children reached us, under the care of Agent Kent. On the 9th of March a Lipan boy and girl were sent to us by order of the War Department. They had been captured three years previous, by the Fourth Cavalry, in Old Mexico. On the 20th of February 11 Ponca and Nez Percés children were received from Inspector Pollock, and on the 1st of April 10 Kiowa, Comanche, and Wichita children were added to those previously received from that agency. July 31, Rev. Sheldon Jackson brought to us 1 Apache and 10 Pueblo children from New Mexico. September 6, Agent John D. Miles brought to us 41 Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Comanche children from his own and the Kiowa Agencies. This aggregated us 239 children in all.
Our losses have been 28 boys and 9 girls, returned to their agencies. Nine of these were of the former Florida prisoners, who being sufficiently advanced to render good service at their agencies as workers and examples to their people, and being rather old, and some of them heads of families, it was considered best to return them to their tribes, and fill up with children, great numbers of whom were anxious to come.
Of the remaining 19 boys and 9 girls returned, Spotted Tail, because of dissatisfaction on account of the non-employment of his son-in-law, carried away 9 of his own children and relations; 4 of the others were allowed to go home with the chiefs for special reasons, and the remaining 15 were returned because of imperfect physical and mental condition. We have lost by death 6 boys, and have heard of the death of 4 of those returned to their agencies. These changes leave us at the date of this report, October 5, with 196 pupils, 139 of whom are boys and 57 girls.
About one-half of these had received instruction at agency schools; the remainder came to us directly from the camps. Two-thirds are the children of chiefs and head men. About 10 per cent. are mixed blood.
The school work is organized into six graded departments, with additional side recitations. In the educational department the instruction is objective, although objectteaching is subordinate to the study of the language. This is the first point, the mastery of the English language. We begin this study and that of reading by the objective word method. The object or thought is presented first, then language given to express the idea. We use script characters first, reading and writing being taught at the same time by the use of the blackboard. Drill in elementary sounds aids in securing correct pronunciation. Spelling is taught only in this way and by writing. Numbers are taught objectively, as far as the knowledge of language will permit, following Grube's method. Geography is taught by oral lessons and by drawing.
For beginners we use no text-books. Keep's First Lessons for the Deaf and Dumb has been serviceable and suggestive for teachers' use. To a limited extent we have followed this method. We use Webb's Model First Reader and Appleton's Second, Keep's Stories, with questions, and in arithmetic Franklin's Primary. Picture-Teaching, by Janet Byrne, is especially adapted to Indian work, but is expensive. We find pictures and objects of great service, furnishing material for sentence-building and conversations.
The progress in our school-room work is most gratifying. It is not too much to say that these Indian children have advanced as well as other children would have done in the same period. They have been especially forward in arithmetic and in writing, and their correspondence with their parents and friends is becoming a source of great interest and satisfaction.
Industrially, it has been our object to give direction and encouragement to each student of sufficient age in some particular branch. To accomplish this, various branches of the mechanic arts have been established, under competent and practical workmen, and a skilled farmer placed in charge of the agricultural department. The boys desiring to learn trades have generally been allowed to choose. Once placed at a trade they are not changed, except for extraordinary reasons. A number of the boys who have passed the age of maturity, and have expressed a desire to become proficient mechanics, are kept continuously at work, and are given the benefits of a night-school; but the general system has been to work at the trades a day and a half or two days each week and attend school the other days.
Under this system we have a blacksmith and wagon-maker with ten apprentices, a carpenter with seven apprentices, a harness-maker with thirteen apprentices, a tinner with four apprentices, a shoemaker with eight apprentices, and a tailor with three apprentices. There are three boys in the printing office, under competent instruction, and two baking bread. The mechanical branches, except the shoemaker and carpenter, were established last April. All boys not under instruction at trades have been required to work, periodically, under the direction of the farmer. The progress, willingness to work, and desire to learn on the part of the boys in their several occu
pations have been very satisfactory. Being guided and watched by competent mechanics, the quality of the work turned out challenges comparison.
The carpenters have been kept busy in repairing and remodeling, &c., and in constructing the chapel and an addition to our mess-room. The blacksmith and wagonmaker, in addition to fitting up the shops and getting ready for work, has made a number of plows, harrows, and other agricultural implements; has done all our repairing, horse and mule shoeing, and has constructed one carriage and two springwagons suitable for agency use. In the harness-shop the boys have developed a special capacity. We have manufactured 55 double sets of wagon harness and 3 single sets of carriage harness.
In the tin-shop we have manufactured 177 dozen of tinware, consisting of buckets, coffee-pots, teapots, pans, foot-baths, oil-cans, and cups; and in addition have repaired our roofs, spouting, &c., to the extent of about a month's work for the instructor and apprentices. In the shoemaker's shop we have been unable, so far, to do much outside of repairing. We have half-soled and otherwise repaired about 800 pairs of shoes. The tailoring department was only established the 15th of August. Already our boys are able to do all the sewing on a pair of trousers very satisfactorily. Two of the boys in the printing office are able to set type and assist in getting off our school paper, printing lessons, &c., and one of them is so far advanced as to edit and print a very small monthly paper, which he calls "The School News," and which has won many friends for the school. Our bakers make good wholesome bread, in quantities sufficient to supply the school. The products of the farm are given in the general statistics. In all these several branches of labor we have found capacity and industry sufficient to warrant the assertion that the Indian, having equal chances, may take his place and meet successfully the issues of competition with his white neighbor.
The girls have been placed under a system of training in the manufacture and mending of garments, the use of the sewing-machine, laundry work, cooking, and the routine of household duties pertaining to their sex. All of the girls' clothing, and most of the boys' underwear and some of the boys' outer garments, have been manufactured in the industrial room, in all of which the girls have taken part and given very satisfactory evidence of their capacity. About twenty-five of the older girls do effective work on the sewing-machine.
At our recent fair here we placed on exhibition samples of the work of all the departments, all of which attracted much favorable comment. The report of the committee appointed to examine and report on the exhibit made by the school is appended hereto.
Under the authority of the department, last spring I sent two boys and one girl to Lee, Mass., where they were placed in the family of Mr. Hyde for the summer months. Arrangements were made for twenty-five others, through Captain Alvord, of Easthampton, Mass. A misunderstanding having arisen with regard to the ages and probable working qualities of the youth to be sent, I did not send this last party. Five girls and sixteen boys were placed in families in this vicinity for different periods during the summer months. The children have generally given satisfaction. The coming year, with a better understanding of the Indian on the part of the whites, and a better understanding of English and increased desire to work on the part of the Indian, there is reason to believe that all the children we may desire to put out during vacation will find places. This plan is an individualizing process most helpful to the work.
The discipline of the school has been maintained without difficulty, and punishments have been called for but infrequently. When offenses have been serious enough to demand corporal punishment, the cases have generally been submitted to a court of the older pupils, and this has proved a most satisfactory method. No trouble has arisen from the coeducation of the sexes; on the contrary, it has marked advantages.
The boys have been organized into companies as soldiers, and the best material selected for sergeants and corporals. They have been uniformed and drilled in many of the movements of army tactics. This has taught them obedience and cleanliness, and given them a better carriage.
A lady friend in Boston gave us a set of brass instruments. Under the direction of a'competent instructor, twelve of the boys have in a little over two months learned to play these instruments so as to give us tolerable music for our parades.
There has been no epidemic, and we have had but very few deaths that could not be traced to hereditary causes or chronic affections.
The good people of the town have given us active sympathy and aid, and have welcomed the children to the different Sunday schools and churches. All of the boys have been divided into classes, and regularly attend the different Sunday schools of the town. This has been an inestimable benefit and a great encouragement to teachers and scholars. Several of our older and more intelligent boys have become members of the Presbyterian Church, and in their daily conduct show a proper regard for
their profession. The Episcopal Church has baptized and confirmed most of the Sioux children. The Rev. Dr. Wing, of the Presbyterian Church, and Professor Lippincott, of Dickinson College, have been kind enough to give us regular religious services on Sabbath afternoons.
Numerous letters from many parts of the Indian country, and from parents and relations of the children here, and from other Indians, show that there is an awakening among the Indians in favor of education and industrial training for the young. I have to acknowledge with gratitude the deep interest and liberal support of the department, the hearty and efficient co-operation of teachers and other employés, and the sympathy and kindness of a multitude of friends all over the country, which, with the blessing of God, have rendered this effort so far a success.
With great respect, I am your obedient servant,
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
R. H. PRATT, First Lieutenant, in charge.
Report of committee at the Cumberland County fair on the exhibit from the Indian training school.
To the officers and managers of the Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Agricultural Society: GENTLEMEN: The committee appointed to examine and report on the exhibits from the Indian training school, at Carlisle Barracks, under charge of Capt. R. H. Pratt, report as follows:
The methods of determining the comparative merits of these exhibits, and the conclusions reached upon an examination of them must necessarily, from the nature of the exhibits themselves, as well as from the character of the exhibitors, be somewhat different from the methods governing and the conclusions arrived at by a general committee in this exhibition A new field of view is presented and a new basis of comparison necessary.
Your committee are much pleased to be able to express their great gratification with the results attained by these Indian boys and girls during their short training, as shown by the large number of articles on exhibition. No one can look on the work here exhibited, and see the proficiency reached in the different departments of their industries, without a feeling of the utmost surprise and satisfaction This sentiment is shared by all visitors, as well as your committee.
Besides the exhibits of their industry, to which due attention will be called, were to be found many things now to be looked upon as relics. A case of Indian clothing, implements, ornaments, and curiosities attracted very general attention, and, by the thoughtful, could not but be contrasted with the articles manufactured by the children of the school. There was seen a suit dressed with the scalps of the owner's Indian enemies and a female's sack ornamented with elk teeth; near them plain and neat clothing made by the apprentice tailors and seamstresses of the school. Moccasins trimmed with beads, in contrast with shoes made by the Indian pupils. Bows and arrows for the hunt, and near by excellent bread baked by Indian bakers, and grains, fruits, and vegetables raised in the fields connected with the school by Indian labor. Tomahawks, knife sheaths, and tobacco pouches greatly contrasting with the neat, well-made tables, tin cups, rattles, and pans fresh from the shops at the school. Rude and grotesque paintings side by side with very fine specimens of penmanship and plain drawing, showing what rapid progress the boys and girls have made.
Among the articles exhibited were shoes, new and repaired, buggy and wagon harness, quilt, child's dress, boys' shirts, machine and hand-made, night dresses, chemises, specimens of darning, boys' pantaloons, table with inlaid top, tinware in great variety, bread, agricultural products, such as corn, potatoes, and vegetables of all kinds, also specimens of penmanship and drawing.
A number of the Indian boys afforded the crowds of visitors much entertainment by their exhibitions of pony riding, foot racing, and shooting with the bow and arrow. The following premiums were awarded:
To Julia, a Sioux, for quilt, 50 cts.; to Justine, a Sioux, for shirt, 50 cts.; to Cora, a Pawnee, for shirt, 50 cts.; to Winnie, a Sioux, for night dress, 50 cts.; to Maud, a Sioux, for chemise, 50 cts.; to Susey, a Cheyenne, for darning, 25 cts.; to Emily, a Kiowa, for darning, 25 cts.; pantaloons made by Paul, a Sioux, and Alfred, an Arapaho, are also worthy of notice. To Wisecoby and Grant, for shoes, each 50 cts.; to Guy and Samuel, for very good bread, each 50 cts. In the bakery, everything except the care of the yeast is attended to by the boys. To Joe Gun, a Ponca, for table with inlaid top, 50 cts. This specimen satisfied the committee that Joe will make a good
To Roman Nose, a Cheyenne, for fine tinware, 50 cts.; to Primaux, a Ponca, for fine tinware, 50 cts. Very creditable work in this department by Myers and Upright. These exhibits of tinware show aptness and care, the result being very good work. To Julian, a Sioux, for handsome set of buggy harness, every stitch of which was made by himself, we award $1.00. This set of harness compares very favorably with work by pale-face mechanics. To Morton, a Cheyenne, for harness, 50 cts.; to Lawrence, a Sioux, for harness, 50 cts.; to Toom, a Kiowa, for harness, 50 cts.
The display of penmanship and drawing was quite large and very satisfatory, there being nearly 100 specimens, by as many of the pupils. The evidences of progress in this department were quite marked. To Ellwood Dorian, Johnson Lane, Luther, Eva Picard, a Wichita, and Lizzie Walton, a Pawnee, for choice specimens, we award each 25 cts.
The successful competitors in the pony riding, foot racing, and bow and arrow shooting were Roman Nose and Samuel, in running; Poco, a Comanche; Richard, a Cheyenne; Carl, a Kiowa; and Frank, a Wichita, in riding; and Cyrus, Etadleuh, and Roman Nose, in shooting. We award to each a premium of $1.00.
CAPT. J. B LANDIS,.
HAMPTON NORMAL AND AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE,
Hampton, Va., September 20, 1870.
SIR: According to request, I have the honor to submit the following report of the work which has been accomplished at the Hampton Institute for Indians. They have arrived and left as follows: From Saint Augustine, Fla., April, 1878 (ex-prisoners of war), men, 17. From Dakota Territory, November, 1878, as follows: Fort Berthold, 9 boys, 4 girls; Standing Rock, 3 boys, I girl; Cheyenne River, 9 boys; Crow Creek, 5 boys, 1 girl; Lower Brulé, 6 boys; Yankton Agency, 8 boys, 3 girls-49. Omaha and Winnebago Agency, January 22, 1880, 3 boys, 2 girls; Cherokee Indian (John Donning); Wichita Agency, Indian Territory, September, 1878, 1 boy; Menomonees from Wisconsin, October, 1879, 2 boys; November, 1879, 2 boys. Pawnees from Indian Territory, October, 1879, 2 boys. Absentee Shawnees from Indian Territory, October, 1879, 2 boys; September 16, 1880, 2 boys. From Cheyenne River, Dakota, November, 1879, 2 girls. From Standing Rock, Dakota, November, 1879, 3 girls. From Yankton, Dakota, December, 1879, 7 boys and 9 girls, making a total of 103. Saint Augustine Indians left, 13; died, 3; Dakotas, died at school, 5; Dakotas sent home for sickness, 14; Dakotas sent home for misconduct, 2-37. Number of Indians present, 66; number of Dakotas died since return, 4. Of the Saint Augustine Indians who have died there came diseased 1; of the Dakotas who have died there came diseased 3; very delicate, 3; apparently sound, 1. Almost all those who came last fall arrived with heavy colds; five have since had hemorrhages, and others show signs of lung trouble. The Florida boys have all left but one; the others are at Carlisle or at their homes; one has relapsed into barbarism, the rest are doing well.
There has been some difficulty in getting girls but none as to boys, and in spite of our efforts there is not yet the right proportion of girls. With the race, coeducation of the sexes is most important and is successful. We are now assured that from one
agency alone (Cheyenne River) our schools could be filled with girls. Hundreds of both sexes are eager to come, and not one is here but by free choice and the consent of parents.
The result of fourteen months' education is shown in several photographic groups representing parties of our students as they appeared on their arrival in November, 1878, and in January, 180. I think they would impress the most skeptical that the Indian is, like other people, improved by education.
The majority of our Indian pupils have now been under instruction from November, 1878, twenty-two months. The chief trouble is with their health. Out of ninety-six there have been eight deaths; in all cases but two, the disease, consumption, was brought with them, and their friends at home were not surprised. One chief, on learning of the death of his adopted boy, of whom he was very fond, called his people together and said, "if only one sent from this tribe to Hampton comes back to us, it is all right." Fourteen have been sent home for ill-health, of whom four have died. Many who came last fall were seriously injured by exposure on the way. There has been an acclimating process and a holding their own, with a few exceptions. They do not thrive as well during the hottest weather, and accordingly the hours of study and labor have been temporarily cut down.
Some experienced persons prophesy a relapse of educated Indians on their return to their homes, from opposition, ridicule, and shock at the old life, and from the force of
circumstances. By their studying one-half the day and working the other half, by being built up in ideas, and in working skill and habits, and by a radical change of the inner life, we believe they will, as a whole,stand the test of returning home. But no little care must be taken when they go back that favorable arrangements shall be made for a start in life; neglect at this point will imperil all the fruit of our la bors.
Their studies are rudimentary; teaching is chiefly by the object method. They are now reading simple stories, are eager to learn, and most interesting as pupils. As a rule they understand ordinary conversation, and many can write a grammatical letter, but these very ones are most reluctant to display their knowledge of English, except to their teacher, and do themselves injustice when addressed by strangers.
During the summer there has been almost entire cessation from study, but regular habits and days' works have been kept up. They are greatly improved in ability to do steady manual labor. In work they are slow, but, as a rule, willing, and have made satisfactory progress. In the Indian workshops the following articles have been made: a one-horse cart complete, and quantities of spokes and other materials used in wheelwrighting; a variety of small and useful articles of blacksmith work; all the wooden tables used in the school, and many articles of wood-work; all the tinware needed by the school; most of the shoe-mending and a few pairs of shoes. They have replaced broken window-panes, and done many small jobs in painting and other mechanical work. They have, under the direction of a carpenter, built a two-story carriagehouse, 24 by 50 feet, weather-boarded and shingled. The farm squad has worked regularly half a day, cultivating the various crops. The girls have had instruction in household industries-washing, ironing, and cooking. They are learning to make and mend their own clothes.
Instead of receiving clothing as fast as it was worn out, the boys have been put on wages, out of which they are expected to purchase their clothing; there is some waste, but the consequences of any folly are sure to be felt, and a valuable lesson in the use of money is thus given. Putting men on a manly footing is the best way to promote manhood.
Places for the summer in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, were secured for twenty-five Indian boys and girls, each one in a separate home to work out his living expenses under the care of kind and excellent farming people, with whom they have learned our language rapidly, and got a three-and-a-half nionths' drill in practical living and working, as valuable, I think, as any school experience; and their health has improved by it. These farmers testify that "no like number of American boys and girls could have done better.” Three years at Hampton will, I believe, fit Indians for a life of usefulness and decency in their own homes.
Our 66 Indians are maintained as follows: By private charity, 6; by government aid ($150 per year) and private aid (from $50 to $70 per year), 60. The regular school charges are as follows: Board, fuel, washing, mending, lights, medical attendance, &c. (at $10 per month for 12 months), $120; tuition (pro rata cost of education of each student of the school), $70; clothing, $60-$250. Therefore, at the rate of government payment, $150 per year, there is, after allowing $30 per year for the value of the labor of each Indian, an annual deficit. This is met by individuals and societies, who provide for clothing from $50 to $60, or a scholarship of $70. Indian pupils require more teachers in proportion than other students; they wear out clothing rapidly, and are on hand the entire year. By this method there has been excited an interest in the welfare of Indians in many of the Eastern States, from Virginia to Massachusetts. The people care for those they keep, and an increasing and deep interest unknown before is spreading over the country. The demand for magazine articles on the Indian question is an evidence of this. A right public sentiment is half the battle with all public questions. Our appeal to the benevolent will result in a widespread and intelligent interest in Indian civilization. Aside from current expenses, the entire cost of building and outfit for the benefit of Indians at this institution since November, 1878, has been $13,726.72, all from private contributions.
It has been proposed by friends of this race to enlarge our work for Indian girls, by erecting for their benefit a building which shall cost complete and furnished $15,000, to be owned and managed by the institution. A beautiful site has been kindly giveu by a lady friend and benefactor of the school, adjoining the school premises on the north. All progress is based on the intelligence and integrity of women.
We claim most encouraging results thus far from nearly two years' experience in training Indian girls sent here from Dakota Territory and elsewhere.
Our Indian pupils are fond of writing letters home, averaging one a week apiece. I believe that, while some misstatements have been made and mischiet done, there is, on the whole, much benefit to their parents from this correspondence. The monthly report of each pupil as to conduct and progress in study is eagerly looked for by the Sioux parents, who quickly complain of any neglect in this matter.
The policy of showing Indians our great guns and enormous resources is not, I believe, so wise as that of showing them how those resources were secured, letting them witness and learn the steady, thrifty habits that are at the bottom of our prosperity.