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plies are all delivered at Vermillion Lake the agent, with his interpreter, witnesses, and assistants proceed to the lake and make the issue and payment of the money; it generally takes some two weeks to make the trip. In accordance with the late Agent Mahan's special report dated July 14, 1877, I would urge that 1,000 acres of land on the south side of Vermillion Lake be set aside for agricultural and educational purposes for the benefit of these Indians and the employés permanently located there, and that the boundary be defined by survey and the Indians be induced to select homes and settle thereon.
I have the pleasure to report a decided improvement in matters relating to the moral condition of all the Indians and that the progress is steadily forward. We have assurances every day that they have an appreciation of what is being done for them. We have had less complaints from the employés than any year in the past; the Indians are more disposed to accept that better life and sobriety and industry. The whisky drinking has nearly stopped, and I feel safe in saying that there has been less drunkenness on the reservation and among the mixed bloods living in the settlements than ever known before. We often point now to Indians who were once known as great drinkers, and say, "There is a man who a year or so ago would get drunk every time he could get liquor; now you could not hire him to taste it." There are men so low in the scale of human nature as to take the Indian's money and buy him liquor in order to get a drink or make a good trade with him, but we are keeping such a strict watch that even this class fear us. This is all due to the indefatigable efforts of late Agent Mahan, assisted by every employé in the service. To hear of an Indian being under the influence of liquor has come to be an item of news, whereas in the past years to see the Indian drunk in the streets of the towns and villages, or hear of them being so was nothing new. It is now generally understood that we are looking up such matters, and, as a consequence, those who deal in the drug are very careful, and the complaints which reach us are few and far between.
The Indians are very quiet and orderly; not so much dancing or counselling and more work. The axe, grub-hoe, plow, seed, and the scythe receive more of their time; thus we see them lay off and forsake one by one those old customs and heathenish habits, by adopting those of civilization. It is our policy to help those who help themselves, and those who are inclined to hold to old customs and hunt, fish, and lie around the towns, and drink when they can get liquor, lazy good-for-nothing beings, get but little help, and when they do come to us they are told to go to work. If they say they say they have no work, we look around and find them something to do, and when they have shown a disposition, and the lesson is well understood, we pay them. The influence of those who do work is having a substantial effect; their efforts bring to their families plenty to eat and wear and as a consequence happiness and contentment, and others seeing this, one by one fall into line. The young men of the agency, when their planting and harvesting is over, engage themselves in the saw-mills, fisheries, logging camps, and as packers to explorers, tourists, surveying parties, &c., and their wages are as good, if not better, than the same class of labor in the more settled parts of the country.
The shortest road in the civilization of the Indian is through the education of the youth, and the need of this just at this time is very great, and our facilities are limited; but those we have are well managed. The number of children of school-going age is 438; the number of children who can be accommodated, 277; number of schools, 4. At Red Cliff and Grand Portage we have day schools, and at Bad River a manual labor and boarding school which will accommodate 25 children, and is known as the Odanah Mission. This is under the care of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, by contract with the department, Rev. I. Baird as superintendent. They also carry on in connection with it a day school for the instruction of those not boarders at the mission. At Bakweiawa, on Lac Court d'Oreilles Reservation, the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions have established a mission day school under Rev. Mr. Baird, as principal, assisted by L. Manypenny, a full-blood, and much good is being done by them.
In the day school at Red Cliff and that connected with the Odanah Mission we issue a lunch or ration to each and every scholar attending a full day. This is an inducement to those who are poor and who are not inclined to accept the benefits of an education. The plan is a good one and works well. The little expended comes back to us with interest, for it not only gives the Indian child an incentive to come, but stimulates the parent to urge them, as it often increases the family meal, which is many times too small in proportion to the mouths that have to be filled. Education builds the bridge on which the Indian passes to civilization and that better life of Christian love and happiness; but first we should supply the system with the more substantial food before
In speaking of the Indian advancing toward civilization, I will mention a little incident that came to my notice not long since. Jack Butterfly lost a boy, and he furnished at his own expense the coffin, mountings, and ornaments, and they would compare favorably with the display in the more settled parts of the country, refusing to have anything but the best, and insisting on having white stockings that his boy might look like white people, as he was just as good. This was a surprise, as Jack was never supposed to have any very high idea of civilization.
We are carrying out the provisions of the act of Congress in 1875, and require every able-bodied male Indian to work for what he receives from the government, and the effect is wholesome and is doing more toward bringing them under the civilizing influence of the agency than any other medium of the service.
This season's crops will fall far short of former years. The Indians had finished planting, and all the lands seeded down, and there came one of the most devastating freshets ever known in this part of the country, covering the lands, washing out the seed, carrying away fences, and in many instances compelling the Indians to abandon their homes, and in some instances destroying them. Bad River was especially affected by this flood, and when it subsided it left the farms and clearings covered with brush and logs and the crops destroyed, and that which promised so much in the spring had to be done over, and the poor Indian out of seed. Yet undaunted they proceeded to get the land ready for the second crop, the young men going outside for work to earn money to purchase seed. After this came a dry spell, and for two months we had no rain. The forest-fires broke out over the country and spread through the reservations. The ground dried up and parched the seeds; the fires destroyed houses, barns and fences, and John B. Gordin, a mixed blood of Red Cliff Reserve, lost all he had. There will not be produce enough raised in this county to supply it withseed the next year, let alone supply the people with subsistence. The rice crops will be a failure, and the Indians depend upon this for winter use and also for means of obtaining such articles as they need and are not furnished by the department.
The potato crop is also a failure. The merchants are now sending below and importing for present consumption and home use-a thing almost unknown to us here. What the Indians will do is a mystery. We will have to furnish seed another year-a thing which we all hoped we should not be called upon to do, and had the indications of the spring prospered well all would have had seed to plant and plenty to sell. The 50 wagons furnished this agency by the department in the summer have had a good effect. They have been issued, as per instructions, to worthy Indians, and those who receive them take as much pride in them as a child would with a new toy; they prize them highly, and care for them as a white man would, by building sheds to protect them from the severe storms, and I hope to accomplish much good through their medium by teaching the Indians habits of care and industry. There is gradually developing itself a feeling of emulation among them. Antoni Buffalo, chief, set a good example to his people this summer by painting his house white; he is worthy of mention, energetic, shrewd, and a hard worker, and is succeeding well in his endeavors. John B. Gordin is another. With the fire he lost everything, but not discouraged set about to rebuild; he sent to Detroit for land plaster for his field, and others followed his example. I have great hopes for their success, for they are learning that "where there's a will there's a way."
We have had no police force at the agency during the past year, but in my judgment a small force on Red Cliff and Bad River Reservations would be advantageous this year, and the department should authorize the same.
The feasibility of Indians transporting the goods and supplies with their teams to the different reservations is a question not to be considered in connection with this agency. The wagons and oxen furnished them cannot be used for such a purpose just now. The agency is not so located that they can do the work, the reservations are so distant from the base of supplies. The goods and supplies are deposited at Bayfield for the Red Cliff, Bad River, Grand Portage, Lac Court d'Oreille, and Lac de Flambeau Reserves; and those for Fond du Lac and Bois Forte, at Duluth. Those for Red Cliff and Bad River we have the Indians deliver with small boats or by tug during navigation. The roads are not in condition that the Indians could make a living by hauling them with ox teams; it is much easier to do the same by water. Those goods for Lac de Flambeau have to be taken with tug and railroad to point of delivery, and for those for Grand Portage we use a tug or steamer, as it is necessary to cross the lake. Those for Fond du Lac we use the railroad, and those for Lac Court d'Oreille steamer is taken to Duluth, thence by railroad to Chandler and in by team. This is the only reservation on which we could use the Indian with his team, and to make it a success
here we should fix up the road that the Indians would have no trouble with crossing bad hills and creeks; bridges should be built, &c., that they would not have any difficulty to overcome, as they are not far enough advanced to meet such with success. The road between Ashland and Bad River could be fixed so the Indians could haul from that point, and I would earnestly recommend the repairing of the road they now use in winter, as it would be of great benefit to them in summer outside of the use that could be made of it for transporting the goods. The goods and supplies for Bois Forte we will have to continue to deliver by contract, as the Indians have not the horses or sleighs and are not far enough advanced or in a condition to do the work.
I would urge upon the department the necessity of issuing patents to those to whom allotments have been made, as an act of justice. Keep faith and set a good example if you would wish the Indians to do likewise, for this long waiting retards our work. There is hardly a day goes by without some one asks, "Have our patents come?" And we are compelled to answer, "Not yet"; and the Indian goes away sorrowful, and when we tell them that they will surely come and advise them to work on, they say to us "What is the use. If I do clear up a farm and build a home, some one may come and take it from me.' Here you see the great importance of giving the Indian his patent. This would assure him that he could not be disturbed in his rights, for they have great faith in a patent.
This agency should be furnished with a few good breeding mares and a stallion to supply those with stock who are advanced and have farms. A few sheep should also be furnished, as we have had applications for them, and I think the time has come when they could be made of good profit. Ir is to be hoped that our friend Thad. C. Pound, present Member of Congress from this district, will be successful with the bills which he now has in hand for the benefit of Bad River, Lac de Flambeau, and Lac Court d'Oreille bands of Indians, in the interest of which three chiefs from each of these reservations visited Washington last winter. The people seem to be well satisfied with the provisions of the bills and are continually asking if anything has been done, and we do hope and pray that Mr. Pound's unceasing efforts may be rewarded with success; by it these people will have means of their own to benefit their condition, which is so much needed now.
Herewith I have the honor to hand you the statistics of each band as full and complete as I have been able to obtain them.
I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
S. E. MAHAN, United States Indian Agent.
SHOSHONE AND BANNOCK AGENCY, WYOMING,
August 25, 1880. SIR: I have the honor herewith to subinit to you my first annual report in accordance with printed instructions received from the office and dated July 18, 1880. From the census taken last winter soon after my arrival, I find there are at the agency 1,050 Shoshones, and from what I could learn there were about 100 of the same tribe still out on the hunt. The number of Arapahoes, including a few halfbreeds and neighboring Indians, who have identified themselves with this tribe by intermarriage or adoption, numbers 913, making total number of both tribes 1,963. The Shoshones have, I understand, made some attempts at farming for several years past, though not with very satisfactorly results. They have not been taught to save grain and other seeds for sowing and planting, and have no conveniences for so doing. The seed grain furnished by the department did not reach here in time for sowing this season; the seed potatoes also were so late in getting here that the crop will amount to but little, consequently their farming operations will count nothing towards their support this year. The garden seeds, however, were received in time for use, and all who desired it were supplied with the same and requested to make the best possible use of them. The farmer and employés broke garden patches for quite a number of the Arapahoes, and instructed them in planting. Quite a number of both tribes have good gardens.
A second installment of stock cattle for the Arapahoes, 250 head, was received in June last, and the cattle were issued to them in severalty. Some of these Indians have built corrals in which they keep their cows at night, and milk them regularly. They are very fond of milk, and I think this start will have a salutary effect in begetting a desire to increase their herds instead of killing them for meat as formerly done.
A large amount of agricultural implements, including reapers and mowers, were shipped for this agency last season and left on the road, about 70 miles distant. As soon as the roads were passable, and the feed would permit, I started fifty Indian teamsters, twenty-five from each tribe, each driving four ponies, to bring these goods to the agency. They made two trips, getting all in without accident. Quite an amount of these goods left at Pacific Springs have been stolen by emigrants on their way of Washington Territory. I find that the officers in this county whose duty it is to pursue and arrest these parties are very slow to move in any case of this kind, without my offering a large reward, which I had no authority to do. The first of the present month, I started fifty-five Indian teams to Rawlins, 130 miles distant, in charge of two train-masters, to bring in this year's supplies.
But a very small portion of the implements and machinery above alluded to can be utilized until more land is broken and fenced. There is now so much stock running at large that no hay can be cut nearer than seventy miles, and that over a very bad road. It is utterly impossible for these Indians to break wild lands with their ponies; good teams and skilled workmen are required for that purpose. With a sufficient amount of land properly broken and fenced, and a sufficient force to instruct them in sowing, cultivating, and gathering crops, more favorable results might be reasonably expected.
Quite a number of the Shoshones have been in the habit of burning fences for fuel during the winter season; to obviate this evil, in making my estimate for annuity goods in the early spring, Í estimated for a sufficient amount of barbed wire to fence a section of meadow land, which will furnish the government animals with forage and relieve us of the necessity of going to Owl Creek in order to procure hay.
The schools have not been running since I came here, for lack of buildings. This is a serious drawback to the progress of the young, whose reformation depends upon their education. I was much pleased to receive the welcome tidings from the department expressing their determination to relieve us by building suitable school buildings for these Indians, who are so desirous for the education of their children.
The agency has been without the services of a physician since the last of June. I trust this office will soon be filled by some good physician, as many Indians are suffering from loathsome diseases, requiring skillful treatment.
Among the deaths in the last six months was that of Chief Wannypitz, second to Washakie, and Bishop, Washakie's eldest son, whose death has been a severe blow to Washakie, as in him he had great hopes.
During the early part of summer, quite a number of Shoshones left the reservation for Salt Lake. Not understanding the reason of this mysterious departure, as most of them slipped away in the night time, I inquired of Washakie the cause; his explanation was they were Mormons; they have gone to Salt Lake to get washed, and then they can see their departed friends and relatives, next summer. I judge from this the Mormons have instructed them to be baptized in the Mormon Church, and in the future life they will meet their friends gone before.
Some of the Indians still manage to get whisky of settlers in the adjacent valley, and have been guilty of some misdemeanors. I have done my best to prevent their leaving the reservation, but they will occasionally break all restraint. Shortly after my passing through North Fork, on Saturday, the 21st inst., there was a fight at the place between two drunken Indians. One killed the other with his knife, and fled the country. The friends of the deceased brought the corpse home on Monday morning; the Indian killed resided in one of the Indian houses near the agency. Early Tuesday morning I discovered the building burning. I proceeded to the scene at once, with full intentions of punishing the offending parties. The squaw who had set fire to the building on account of a severe case of bad heart, had departed for parts unknown previous to my arrival at the fire, for fear of punishment.
I feel a growing interest in the welfare of this people, and trust that all needful facilities for their progress and education will be furnished. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
United States Indian Agent.
INDIAN TRAINING SCHOOL, Forest Grove, Oregon. SIR: In accordance with circular letter, dated Office Indian Affairs, July 18, 1880, to Indian agents with reference to annual reports, I have to state that I have answered all applicable questions contained in said letter, and return it herewith. My reply would have been at an earlier date had I not been necessarily absent. From this letter to agents it is evident that it is the desire to obtain all possible information concerning this school.
WORK ACCOMPLISHED FROM FEBRUARY 25 TO JUNE 30, 1880.
Under this head, during the four months and four days during which this school has been in operation, I can do no better than make a thorough quotation from one of my special reports-that under date of April 12, 1880, as follows:
"In November, 1879, received information that a part of the $5,000 allowed for the Indian school for this fiscal year could be expended in the erection of a building. The 1st of January, 1880, the building was completed, but being constructed during incessant rain, the month of January and part of the month of February was needed to dry it sufficiently to render it safe for occupancy. It will give ample accommo
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dation for 75 children, and is intended for girls. Have also purchased lumber, which is already on the ground, sufficient for an addition to the boys' quarters, which will also accommodate 75. I have also put up a building sufficiently large to subdivide into carpenter, wagon, blacksmith, tin, shoe, and harness shops. This building for shops and the boys' addition was constructed entirely by my Indian boys, under the direction of my teacher, who is as well a practical mechanic. To prepare comfortable buildings for 150 children, furnish the home, secure 18, and complete arrangements to more than fill the required number, 25, for this fiscal year; to clothe, subsist, purchase books and stationery, pay teachers, pay matrons and cook, each one of them efficient, will, I trust, be considered both by the honorable Secretary of the Interior and the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs a satisfactory expenditure of the $5,000 allowed for this current fiscal year."
The administration of Indian affairs, and the friends of Indian education generally, will be gratified with the real success obtained during the time this school has been in operation, and the results fully justify the wisdom of a complete separation of Indian children from their parents and the debasing influences of their homes with their associations.
COST OF MAINTAINING THIS SCHOOL.
The Pacific University, near which this school is located, has neither dormitories nor a boarding-house, so that, from the very first steps taken, the Office of Indian Affairs has done and must do everything. Tools, material for shops, agricultural implements, and all instruction must be furnished here, as at Carlisle Barracks, directly by the government, so that while this school will be directly benefited by the fostering care of the university, it is as much by itself in its necessity for assistance as though it were a thousand miles away from its present location.
Since the formation of this government no money has been expended by it from which such ample, such immediate, and direct returns have been made. Now, when it is the evident policy to break up reservations, dividing lands in severalty among the Indians, it certainly would seem that our law-makers would see the wisdom of making full appropriations for the special support of schools in character like this, where so many Indian boys and girls may be at least measurably prepared as teachers, housekeepers, craftsmen, and farmers, for the trying change which so speedily and surely awaits them.
M. C. WILKINSON, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry, in Charge of School.
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR YOUTH, CARLISLE BARRACKS,
SIR: I have the honor to transmit the annual report of this school, required by your letter of July 18, 1880.
In order that the whole number of students, tribes, increase and decrease may be understood, I furnish a tabulated statement.
Under your orders of September 6, 1879, I proceeded to Dakota, and brought from the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Agencies 60 boys and 24 girls. This detachment reached Carlisle October 5, 1879. I then went to the Indian Territory, and brought from the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Pawnee, and other tribes, 38 boys and 14 girls, and returned to Carlisle on the 27th of October. On both of these visits I was accompanied by Miss S. A. Mather, of Saint Augustine, Fla., from whom I received valuable assistance in the care and management of the youth.
With the consent of General Armstrong, I had brought from the Hampton Institute 11 of the young men, who were formerly prisoners under my care, in Florida, and had, at that time, been under the care of the Hampton Institute 18 months. These formed a nucleus for the school, and rendered most valuable assistance in the care and man