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exceeds or may exceed existing economic demand; research to encour-. age the discovery, introduction, and breeding of new and useful agricultural crops, plants, and animals, both foreign and native, particularly for those crops and plants which may be adapted to utilization in chemical and manufacturing industries; research relating to new and more profitable uses for our resources of agricultural manpower, soils, plants, animals, and equipment than those to which they are now, or may after August 14, 1946, be, devoted; research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land, forest, and water resources for agricultural purposes; research relating to the design, development, and the more efficient and satisfactory use of farm buildings, farm homes, farm machinery, including the application of electricity and other forms of power; research relating to the diversification of farm enterprises, both as to the type of commodities produced, and as to the types of operations performed, on the individual farm; research relating to any other laws and principles that may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a permane effective agricultural industry including such investigations as have for their purpose the development and improvement of the rural home and rural life, and the maximum contribution by agriculture to the welfare of the consumer and the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity; and such other researches or experiments bearing on the agricultural industry or on rural homes of the Unted States as may in each case be deemed advisible, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of Puerto Rico, the respective States, and Territories. In effectuating the purposes of this section, maximum use shall be made of existing research facilities owned or controlled by the Federal Government or by State agricultural experiment stations and of the facilities of the Federal and State extension services. Research authorized under this section shall be in addition to research provided for under existing law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable). (As amended Aug. 14, 1946, ch.966, title I, $ 101, 60 Stat. 1082.)

Act Aug. 14, 1946, cited to text, amended section generally to provide for a greatly augmented research program in order to enable agriculture to attain a position in research comparable to that of other industries.

§ 427h. Same; appropriations; availability of unexpended balances; allotments to experimental stations and Office of Experiment Stations.-(a) In order to carry out further the purposes of section 427a of this title, there is authorized to be appropriated in addition to all other appropriations authorized by sections 427-427j of this title the following sums.

(1) $2,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $2,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) An additional $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(6) In addition to the foregoing such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.

The moneys appropriated in pursuance of said sections shall also be available for the purchase and rental of land and the construction or acquisition of buildings necessary for conducting research provided for in said sections, for the equipment and maintenance of such buildings, and for printing and disseminating the results of research. Sums appropriated in pursuance of said sections shall be in addition to, and not in substitution for, sums appropriated or otherwise made available for agricultural experiment stations. The said agricultural experiment stations are authorized to plan and conduct any research provided for under said sections in cooperation with each other and such other appropriate agencies and individuals as may contribute to the solution of these problems and sums appropriated in pursuance of said sections shall be available to meet the necessary expenses of such research.

Unexpended balances of allotments to experiment stations from appropriations made under this section during the first five fiscal years may remain available for expenditure by the same experiment stations at which the unexpended balances occurred for the purposes specified in section 427 of this title and for the following periods: Unexpended balances of the first year's allotments, five years; of the second fiscal year's allotments, four years; of the third fiscal year's allotments, three years; of the fourth fiscal year's allotments, two years; and of the fifth fiscal year's allotments, one year; and any unexpended balances of allotments to any experiment stations from appropriations made under this section of any subsequent fiscal year shall be deducted from the next succeeding annual allotments to such experiment stations.

(b) Not less than 97 per centum of the sums appropriated for any fiscal year under this section shall be available for the purposes of section 427a of this title to be allotted to Puerto Rico, each State and Territory as follows:

(1) Twenty per centum of the sums appropriated for any fiscal year under this section shall be allotted equally to Puerto Rico, each State and Territory: Provided, That no allotment and no payment under any allotment shall be made for any fiscal

year

in excess of the amount which Puerto Rico or the State or Territory makes available for such fiscal year out of its own funds, for research and for the establishment and maintenance of necessary facilities for the prosecution of such research. If Puerto Rico or any State or Territory fails to make available for such purposes for any fiscal year a sum equal to the amount to which it may be entitled for such year, the remainder of such amount shall be withheld by the Secretary.

(2) Not less than 52 per centum of the sums appropriated for any fiscal year under this section shall be allotted to Puerto Rico, each State and Territory as follows: One-half in an amount which bears the same ratio to the total amount to be allotted as the rural population of Puerto Rico or the State or Territory bears to the total rural population of Puerto Rico and all the States and Territories as determined by the last preceding decennial census; and one-half in an amount which bears the same ratio to the total amount to be allotted as the farm population of Puerto Rico or the State or Territory bears to the total farm population of Puerto Rico and all the States and Territories as determined by the last preceding decennial census: Provided, That no allotment and no payment under any allotment shall be made for any fiscal year in excess of the amount which Puerto Rico, or the State or Territory makes available for such fiscal year out of its own funds for research and for the establishment and maintenance of necessary facilities for the prosecution of such research. If Puerto Rico or any State or Territory fails to make available for such purposes for any fiscal year a sum equal to the amount to which it may be entitled for such year, the remainder of such amount shall be withheld by the Secretary.

(3) Not more than 25 per centum of the sums appropriated for any fiscal year under this section shall be allotted to the States for cooperative research in which two or more State agricultural experiment stations are cooperating to solve problems that concern the agriculture of more than one State. The funds available for such purposes shall be designated as the “Regional research fund, Office of Experiment Stations" and shall be used only for cooperative regional projects recommended by a committee of nine persons elected by and representing the directors of the State agricultural experiment stations and approved by the Secretary of Agriculture or his authorized representative. The necessary travel expense of said committee of nine in performance of their duties may be paid from the regional research fund, Office of Experiment Stations, provided for under this subsection.

(c) Three per centum of the sums appropriated for any fiscal year under this section shall be available to the Office of Experiment Stations of the United States Department of Agriculture for administration of research under this section, including participation in planning and coordinating the cooperative regional research. (June 29, 1935, ch. 338, $ 9, as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch.966, title I, $ 101, 60 Stat. 1082.)

$ 427i. Same; additional appropriations; administrative expenses; availability of special research fund.—(a) In order to carry out further research on utilization and associated problems in connection with the development and application of present, new,

and extended uses of agricultural commodities and products thereof authorized by section 427 of this title, and to disseminate information relative thereto, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by sections 427-427j of this title, there is authorized to be appropriated the following sums:

(1) $3,000,000 or the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30,1951, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(6) In addition to the foregoing such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.

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The Secretary of Agriculture, in accordance with such regulations as he deems necessary, and when in his judgment the work to be performed will be carried out more effectively, more rapidly, or at less cost than if performed by the Department of Agriculture, may enter into contracts with such public or private organizations or individuals as he may find qualified to carry on work under this section without regard to the provisions of section 5 of Title 41, and with respect to such contracts he may make advance progress or other payments without regard to the provisions of section 529 of Title 31. Contracts under this section may be made for work to continue not more than four years from the date of any such contract. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 713 of Title 31, any unexpended balances of appropriations properly obligated by contracting with an organization as provided in this subsection may remain upon the books of the Treasury for not more than five fiscal years before being carried to the surplus fund and covered into the Treasury. Research authorized under this subsection shall be conducted so far as practicable at laboratories of the Department of Agriculture. Projects conducted under contract with public and private agencies shall be supplemental to and coordinated with research of these laboratories. Any contracts made pursuant to this authority shall contain requirements making the results of research and investigation available to the public through dedication, assignment to the Government, or such other means as the Secretary shall determine.

(b) In order to carry out further the purposes of section 427 of this title, other than research on utilization of agricultural commodities and the products thereof, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by sections 427-427j of this title, there is authorized to be appropriated for cooperative research with the State agricultural experiment stations and such other appropriate agencies as may be mutually agreeable to the Department of Agriculture and the experiment stations concerned, the following sums:

(1) $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) ` An additional $1,500,00 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) In addition to the foregoing such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.

(c) The Secretary may incur necessary administrative expenses not to exceed 3 per centum of the amount appropriated in any fiscal year in carrying out this section, including the specific objects of expense enumerated in section 427b of this title.

(d) The “Special research fund, Department of Agriculture”, provided by section 427c of this title, shall continue to be available solely for research into laws and principles underlying basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects; research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of, new and improved methods of production of, distribution of, and new and extended uses and markets for, agricultural commodities and byproducts and manufactures thereof; and research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land and water resources for agricultural purposes. Such research shall be in addition to research provided for under other law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable) and shall be conducted by such agencies of the Department of Agriculture as the Secretary of Agriculture may designate or establish. (June 29, 1935, ch. 338, § 10, as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, § 101, 60 Stat. 1082.)

§ 427j. Same; use of funds for market research projects; report to Congress.—Notwithstanding any other provision of sections 427– 427j of this title, (1) not less than 20 per centum of the funds authorized to be appropriated under section 427h (a) of this title shall be used by State agricultural experiment stations for conducting marketing research projects approved by the Department of Agriculture, and (2) cooperative research projects provided for under sections 427h (b) 13) and 427i (b) of this title shall be carried out under cooperative agreements between the Secretary of Agriculture and the cooperating agencies and shall include appropriate provisions for preventing duplication or overlapping of work within the State or States cooperating. Should duplication or overlapping occur subsequent to approval of a cooperative research project, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to withhold unexpended balances on such projects notwithstanding the prior approval thereof. The Secretary of Agriculture shall include in his annual report to Congress a complete statement of research work being performed under contracts or cooperative agreements under sections 427-427j of this title, showing the names of the agencies cooperating and the amounts expended thereon, segregated by Federal and non-Federal funds. (June 29, 1935, ch. 338, $ 11, as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, $ 101, 60 Stat. 1082.)

8 428. Option to purchase lands.—Repeated in act May 5, 1945, ch. 109, $ 1,59 Stat. 136; and June 22, 1946, ch. 445, $ 1,60 Stat. 271.

Adjustment of title to lands under jurisdiction of Secretary of Agriculture, see section 567 oi Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

§ 433. Domestic raising of fur-bearing animals; classification.For the purposes of all classification and administration of Acts of Congress, Executive orders, administrative orders, and regulations pertaining to

(a) fox, rabbit, mink, chinchilla, marten, fisher, muskrat, karakul and all other fur-bearing animals, raised in captivity for breeding or other useful purposes shall be deemed domestic animals;

(b) such animals and the products thereof shall be deemed agricultural products; and

(c) the breeding, raising, producing, or marketing of such animals or their products by the producer shall be deemed an agricultural pursuit. (Apr. 30, 1946, c. 242, § 1,60 Stat. 127.)

Effective date.-Section 3 of act Apr. 30, 1946, cited to text, provided that this section and section 434 of this title should become effective sixty days after Apr. 30, 1946.

8 434. Same; transfer of functions, appropriations, records and property to Secretary of Agriculture.-(a) All the functions of the Secretary of the Interior and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior, which affect the breeding, raising,

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