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Mr. FOGARTY. What laboratory?

Mr. Bright. These are the research and development centers, such as the one at the University of Pittsburgh, the one at the University of Oregon, the University of Wisconsin. These centers had special educational interest.

These centers have been asked to submit what they think are needed in the way of facilities as a minimum to effectively carry on the programs they are responsible for. In addition there will be a considerable amount of facility request in conjunction with the new regional laboratory program. These are just in the very early planning stage at the present time and these requests will be coming in late in this year.

Mr. FOGARTY. Is matching required?


Mr. FOGARTY. For research, surveys, and demonstrations you are requesting an increase of $17,600,000, from $50 million to $67,600,000. How much of the increase is just to cover continuation costs of projects started in 1966 ?

Mr. Karsh. $30,626,000. I would like to add to that. There are continuing costs for all projects initiated prior to the year. They may have been initiated earlier than 1966.


Mr. FOGARTY. With regard to research, how many new projects will the 1966 appropriation finance and how many will the request for 1967 finance-new projects?

Mr. Bright. There are approximately 530 new projects supported in fiscal year 1966 and approximately 500 are anticipated to be supported in 1967.

Mr. FOGARTY. You are sure that you can support about the same number of new projects in 1967 as you did in 1966 with this appropriation ?

Mr. BRIGHT. I believe with this increase in the funds this is


Mr. FOGARTY. Are you going to have approved applications that you will not have funds to finance in 1966 ?

Mr. BRIGHT. Yes, we will.
Mr. FOGARTY. About how many and how many dollars?

Mr. Bright. The major one of these will be in connection with additional R. & D. centers that have been requested. The review committees met on this just yesterday and I think-frankly I have not seen how

many of them were recommended—but with the present level of funding we do not think we will be able to fund more than one.

How many were recommended for support? Approximately seven is what we expect to be recommended. There were about 14 or 17 major applications for these centers.

Mr. FOGARTY. Approvable or approved ?
Mr. Bright. Not approved. We expect seven would be.
Mr. FOGARTY. You will only be able to finance one ?
Mr. BRIGHT. That is correct.


Mr. FOGARTY. How is the small grant program going? How do you define a small grant?

Mr. BRIGHT. A small grant program is the grant of $7,500 or less.
Mr. FOGARTY. How is that going?
Mr. BRIGHT. That is going extremely well. The total number

— Mr. FOGARTY. Supply that for the record. Mr. BRIGHT. We shall do so. (The information requested follows:)

Bureau of Research small grants program to date, fiscal year 1966 Proposals received fiscal year 1966_

511 Proposals approved to date.--

112 Approximate dollar commitment to date.

$1, 024, 000 Mr. BRIGHT. As we mentioned here, the total number of proposals coming to the office so far this year has exceeded the total number that we had last year. To date we have received approximately 3,000 requests or proposals.

Mr. FOGARTY. I do not think you have half enough money in this budget; do you?

Mr. Bright. It is always possible to spend more, I think, effectively in the research area.


Mr. FOGARTY. Give us some examples of results that you have obtained during the last year.

Mr. BRIGHT. There are several given in the justifications.

Mr. FOGARTY. Give me a couple and put more in the record later, good ones.

Mr. Bright. The range goes from such things as the development of a sequential and cumulative program in English for able collegebound students, grades 10 through 12, in cooperation with the Carnegie Institute of Technology, which has been extremely enthusiastically received across the country. Other areas are

Mr. FOGARTY. That would not be a very good example for me to give up on the floor.


Mr. Bright. I am just covering the range here. Another type of proposal is the study of speeded research as an educational media. This one is particularly effective for instruction to the deaf. It turns out that the reading speed of a deaf person reading braille is only a tiny fraction—I have forgotten what it is at the moment I think about 20 percent of that which a sighted person can read a book, which means that the ability of the person to absorb information is very slow.

Úr. FOGARTY. What is it, a machine?

Mr. BRIGHT. In this particular case it is working toward this. It is a tape recorder which has some special features by which it can play speech back considerably faster than it was spoken without changing the pitch.

Mr. FOGARTY. Some similar progress is being made with the blind, too?

Mr. Brigit. No; I am sorry—this is blind.

Mr. FOGARTY. I thought they were working on something else that was a very expensive piece of equipment along this same line a year ago?

Mr. BRIGHT. There are some projects underway by which it is possible to take a device and just run it along a standard book which will transfer these characters from the book into a form which can be sensed by the person so that he can read conventional books instead of depending on braille. All of these are in very early experimental stages of their development.

Mr. FOGARTY. I am thinking about the testimony of the Printing House for the Blind.

Mr. CARDWELL. Both the American Printing House for the Blind and the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation have been interested in this very same effort; Vocational Rehabilitation has for several years been working in a similar direction with MIT.

Mr. FOGARTY. I was thinking it was very expensive at that time.
Mr. BRIGHT. That is not related to this project; no.
Mr. FOGARTY. It may have been the year before last. Go ahead.

Mr. Bright. There have been a number of developments in curriculum of all types, supporting developments in not only English curriculum but language curriculums, physics, mathematics for the early grades, and a very wide variety of curriculum developments.


Recently there has been a considerable amount of attention paid to projects concerned with teaching English as either, say, a second language or, more importantly perhaps, for those who speak an English dialect of the type which is not of a nature that would easily allow them to obtain jobs or things of this type. We find that to correct the English pronunciation to what is generally considered acceptable English requires techniques very similar to that of teaching a new language. There has been a great deal of effort in some of our projects this last year devoted to this type of language correction.

Do you want any other examples ?
Mr. FOGARTY. Supply more for the record.
Mr. BRIGHT. All right.
(The examples requested follow :)

SAMPLE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS 577 Walter R. Borg. “An Evaluation of Ability Grouping," Utah State Uni

versity, Logan, Utah. After an intensive study of patterns of ability grouping at the elementary level, Borg concluded that if a decision were to be made to employ ability grouping, it would have to be made on the basis of some consideration other than achievement, since significant differences were not found in ability grouping. Also, children in random grouping situations consistently developed better study habits than pupils in ability grouping situations. 696 Ruth B. Glassow. Lola E. Halverson, G. Lawrence Rarick. "Improvement

of Motor Development and Physical Fitness in Elementary School Chil

dren," University of Wisconsin, Madison. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of a program of physical education of vigorous activity with those of a traditional type of program. It also investigated the coordinations of children grades 1 through 6 in fundamental skills. It was found that mean coordination measures from 6 to 12 years of age differ only slightly. Specific muscle groups can be strengthened between ages 6 and 12 through participation in a school physical education program. Gains are found to be greater when efforts are made to stress vigorous activity. 853 Neal Gross. “The Role of the Elementary, Junior High, and Senior High

School Principals,” Harvard University. This project was a large-scale research program called the national principalship study. The study examined such problems as (1) the determinants and effects of the professional leadership exhibited by principals as the executives of their schools, (2) the role performance and reactions to their work of men and women school administrators, (3) the role conflicts and their correlates to which principals are exposed, and (4) the determinants and effects of selected dimensions of the principals administrative performance. 1091 James B. MacDonald. "A Research-Oriented Elementary Education Stu

dent-Teaching Program," University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. This study sought to examine the extent to which effective decisionmaking can be strengthened in teachers through a special student-teaching experience that emphasizes an experimental, research-oriented approach to the problems of teaching. The evidence indicated a generally higher performance in the experimental group as compared with the performance of groups receiving more traditional training. Followup data showed that only the experimental group turned to their research experiences in solving problems during the first year of teaching. 1146 Allan Tucker. “Factors Related to Attrition Among Doctoral Students,"

Michigan State University. This study attempted to determine why individuals who had been enrolled as doctoral students between September 1950 and December 1953 dropped out of school and did not complete the requirements for a Ph. D. degree. The findings revealed that the attrition rate was about 31 percent, which is not as great as it had been assumed to be. The data suggest that most of the dropouts did not complete the degree requirements mainly because they lacked sufficient motivation to do so. Although some dropouts stated that lack of adequate finances may have been one of several factors which contributed to their attrition, less than 20 percent indicated it was the main reason. The average annual income of dropouts is about $2,000 less than that of recipients of the doctorate. Of the dropouts, 60 percent earned less than $10,000 per year, while 60 percent of the Ph. D. recipients earned more than $10,000 per year. E-019 Desmond L. Cook. "The Applicability of PERT to Educational Research

and Development Activities,” Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. This project resulted in specific guidelines and procedures for applying planning and managing techniques to educational research activities. The Department of Defense has used the PERT management technique with their research and development projects for some time. Cook's adaption of this technique to educational research should be beneficial both in savings of Federal funds and in better executed projects. 1635 Gerald S. Lesser. "Mental Abilities of Children in Different Social and

Cultural Groups," Harvard University. This study attempted to determine the effect which social class, ethnic background, and a combination of these two variables, had on four mental-ability test scores. The tests measured verbal, reasoning, numerical, and space abilities. The subjects were 320 first grade children from Jewish, Negro, Chinese, and Puerto Rican families. Each cultural group contained 40 middle class and 40 lower class children. The results suggest that social class has a "highly significant” effect on the level of ability but a nonsignificant effect on the pattern of abilities, as measured by the four tests. Ethnic background has a “highly significant” effect on both the level and pattern of ability. And, finally, social class and ethnic background in combination have only a "significant” effect on level of ability and a "nonsignificant" effect on pattern of ability.

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1636 Wilbur B. Brookover. “Improving Academic Achievement Through

Students' Self-Concept Enhancement," Michigan State University. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three treatments designed to improve the self-concept of junior high school students in an attempt to raise their achievement levels. One treatment consisted of the experimenter's working with the parents in an attempt to help them better understand their children, and thus exercise a positive effect on the children's self-concept. In the second treatment, a counselor worked directly with the student. The third treatment involved an expert from the university who attempted to help the child overcome his low evaluations of others. The parent treatment succeeded in inducing positive changes in self-concept and academic ability, while the other two treatments did not. The students are now being followed through high school to determine possible long term effects of each treatment. 1828 Ralph 0. Smith and others. “Community Support of Public Schools,"

Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Mich. These investigators concluded that the level of support for schools is dependent upon the kinds of people who live in the community.

If you were to develop a continuum of supportiveness, you would find that people who have attended college, who have children of school age, who are active in formal organizations, are quite active and supportive at the polls. At the other end of the continuum, those persons who are least supportive at the polls for educational costs are those who have not attended college and who have no children under the age of 18. 2394 L. N. Nicholas, E. Virgo, and W. W. Wattenberg. “Effects of Socioeco

nomic Setting and Organizational Climate on Problems Brought to

Elementary School Offices,” Wayne State University. These investigators found that the kind of challenges which confront the principal in the low socioeconomic versus the high socioeconomic settings are quite different. In the low socioeconomic setting the principal's office is so inundated with urgency problems that there is seldom time for planning. Certainly one implication of this study is the fact that a different and more elaborate staffing pattern is required in the low socioeconomic schools. 2418 Paul A. Hunsicker and Guy G. Reiff. "A Study and Comparison of Youth

Fitness 1958–65," University of Michigan. This project was designed to make a comparative study of youth fitness today with that of pupils attending school during 1957-58. The youth fitness test as developed by the Research Council of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation was selected as the instrument for comparison. This particular test is the only physical fitness test which has been administered to a carefully selected nationwide sample of boys and girls. As such, the test results represented the best available data in the field. The study showed that the physical fitness level of public school children, grades 5-12, in 1965 was above that in 1958. 2610 Charles G. Hurst. “Psychological Correlates of Dialectolalia,” Howard

University. This study was concerned with developing more effective procedures for improving the speech patterns of Negro college students. Dialectolalia, sometimes referred to as substandard speech and Negro dialect, is a speech condition which interferes with effective communication, frequently results in an underestimation of an individual's ability, and sometimes leads to maladjustment. The condition has been very resistant to standard remedial speech procedures. The results of the study revealed that students identified as poor speakers differed from the good speakers on the basis of a wide array of psychological factors, such as emotional tolerance level, anxiety level, attitudes, and group conformity and identification. Attempts must now be made to determine the specific effects of the various correlates of, or factors associated with dialectolalia, and then to devise effective procedures of correcting and preventing their deleterious effects. 2709 Arthur W. Heilman. "Effects of an Intensive In-service Program on

Teacher's Classroom Behavior and Pupil's Reading Achievement,” Penn

sylvania State University. This project was designed to study the effects of an intensive in-service program on (1) teacher's classroom behavior and (2) the reading achievement of

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