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Erplanation of changes An increase of $5 million will provide a total of $24,500,000 for training grants, and will support an additional 2,555 awards. The increase will be distributed as follows:

Amount Mentally retarded

$1,950,000 Deaf

650,000 Speech and hearing-

650,000 Other handicapped areas.

1, 750, 000

Total.

5, 000, 000 For research and demonstrations, an increase of $2,100,000 will provide a total of $8,100,000, and will support an additional five projects as well as the construction of a comprehensive research facility.

Educational improvement for the handicapped

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NOTE.--Amounts appropriated for "Expansion of teaching in education of the mentally retarded "and "Expansion of teaching in education of the deaf" are combined with this account.

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JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATE Training grants

Public Law 85-926 as amended authorizes a program of grants-in-aid to institutions of higher learning and State education agencies for training professional personnel related to the education of children who are mentally retarded, hard of hearing, deaf, speech impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed, crippled, or otherwise health impaired. Public Law 89–105 extends the program an additional 3 years through 1969. The amount requested in fiscal year 1967 for such training is $24,500,000, representing a $5 million increase orer fiscal year 1966.

During the past 15 years one of the most serious obstacles to educating handicapped children has been the lack of qualified professional personnel at all levels of education. Almost 10 percent of all school-age children in the United States are numbered among the handicapped. To meet the special training requirements for the preparation of these afflicted boys and girls, 300,000 special education teachers are needed this year. Only 60,000 are available; from 30 to 60 percent of these are essentially untrained and acquiring training on a part-time basis. To reach the requisite number of teachers for 1970, a minimum of 53,000 persons would have to be trained each year for the next 5 years, and this addition would not account for attrition.

The fiscal year 1965 appropriation of $14,500,000 is providing training for over 5,000 personnel beginning in academic year 1965–66, and it is expected that 6,577 persons will start training in academic year 1966–67 under the 1966 appropriation of $19,500,000.

It is estimated that over 1,000 applications requesting more than $42 million to train professional personnel in all areas of the handicapped will be processed in fiscal year 1967. The request of $24,500,000 would make possible the award of about 4,902 fellowships and traineeships to State education agencies, and about 4,230 awards for institutions of higher learning. In addition, approximately 20 grants will be awarded to develop teacher-training programs in geographic regions not currently served.

Included in the estimate for State education agencies is an amount of $1,475,000 for administrative costs in implementing their State plans. Currently, up to 10 percent of funds awarded to State agencies may be used for the support of one or more professional staff members who are directly responsible for developing the program. However, the Advisory Council on Education of Handicapped Children and Youth has recommended that this be increased to 20 percent to assist the States in providing the necessary leadership to carry out the program effectively.

Allocation of grants by area of handicapped

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Mental retardation..
Deal..
Speech and hearing -
Visually handicapped.
Emotionally disturbed
Crippled and other health impaired.
Administrators.
State administration..

$6, 569, 815
2,068, 350
1, 706, 623

865, 850
1, 475, 910
1, 369, 035

$7, 700,000
2, 550, 000
2,500,000
1,360,000
2, 300,000
1, 745, 000

429

$9, 550,000 3,150,000 3, 120,000 1,680,000 2, 850, 000 2, 170,000

Total.

242, 900
200, 961

505, 000
840, 000

505, 000 1, 475,000 24,500,000

548
69

5,015

14, 499, 444

19,500,000

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Fellowships:

Number of grants.
Cost per stipend
Average cost for support..

Total cost

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$1,668, 800 $7, 151,200 $1,540,000 $10, 505, 600 $1,810, 600 $13, 422, 600

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Short-term traineeships
(institutes):
Number of grants, at $110

average cost.
Number of grants, at $572

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0

45

0

51

0

76

average cost..

$117, 373

$20, 160

$162, 000

$29, 200

$284, 480

$43, 320

Total cost.
Program development grants:
Number of grants, at

$18,000.

Total cost Administrative costs of State education agencies..-

Total amount.
Total grants.

0
59

0
40
0

20
0 $824, 600
0 $720,000

0 $360,000 $200, 961 0 $840,000

0 $1,475,000 $3, 437, 334 $11,062, 110 $4, 200,000 $15, 300,000 $4, 125, 000 $18, 375,000 2, 524 2, 550 3, 133 3, 484 4, 902

4,250

Research and demonstrations

Handicapped children in the United States today do not have the educational opportunities that enable them to realize their full potential as contributing members in our democratic society. Public schools are generally unable to provide equal educational opportunities for handicapped children. Gaps in our knowledge about handicapped children are so great that educational programing cannot be as effective as it should be. Not only is our basic knowledge and understanding of handicapped children deficient, but there exists a critical shortage of competent research persons who can investigate these questions. Without adequate knowledge and trained personnel, little can be accomplished toward realizing the goal of equal educational opportunities for the handicapped. The research and demonstration program for handicapped children and youth was established as a means to reduce the knowledge gaps and to improve the education of these children.

Public Law 89–105 increases the support of research and demonstration projects in education of the handicapped and authorizes grants to institutions of higher education for the construction, equipping, and operation of research facilities. It raises the 1966 authorization from $2 to $6 million; and authorizes $9 million for 1967. An amount of $6 million has been appropriated for 1966, and $8,100,000 is requested for 1967.

The research and demonstration program is concerned with two significant problems—the drastic need for improved services for handicapped children, and the severely limited national resources for meeting these needs, including research personnel and physical facilities. If the educational needs of handicapped children are to be met, it is necessary to develop effective remedial techniques, classroom procedures, new methods of instruction, special materials, and appropriate curriculums, and to translate research findings into practical application.

i. Program research.—This program provides for thorough investigation of a problem area over a number of years. Grants will be awarded to experienced researchers who have demonstrated competence in a particular area of study. Examples of such studies might be the development of tests for the diagnosis of learning problems of brain-injured children, or the modification of behavior in severely emotionally disturbed children. During 1967, it is expected that approximately 8 to 10 new_program grants will be awarded at an average cost of $100,000 to $150,000. During fiscal year 1966 three or four such grants are to be awarded.

2. Construction of research facility. It is proposed that one comprehensive facility be budgeted in fiscal year 1967 in the amount of $2 million. The facility will be developed to serve as a center for research, demonstration, dissemination, and training relating to several areas of the handicapped. The unique features of such a center will be the combination of basic and applied research within a setting which integrates activities over several fields of the handicapped. The facility will include experimental classrooms, research equip ment, office space, laboratory space, and a major dissemination program.

The anticipated cost of the facility is based upon an analysis of construction costs for public school classrooms and research facilities. Specialists within existing research facilities were consulted as to equipment costs. Expense of the building construction, including planning costs and architect's fees, will approximate $1,750,000; necessary equipment is estimated to cost $250,000.

A review committee will select the site from applications, taking into account the overall excellence and cohesiveness of the institution's program for the handicapped, the institution's firm commitment to conduct research in the specified areas for a period of not less than 20 years after completion of the facility, the potential of the institution to attract experienced researchers and train new research specialists, the number of children for study, and the ability of the institution to provide the necessary administrative and financial support after completion of the center.

3. Project support program.—This program supports specific projects relating to the education of handicapped children. For example, grants have been awarded to develop home teaching techniques which can be used by parents of preschool deaf children and to demonstrate the effectiveness of an experimentally developed curriculum and teaching method in educating retarded children. In 1967 an amount of $600,000 will support new awards under this program. A summary of grants actually made in each area of the handicapped is presented in the accompanying table.

4. Small grants program.—This program supports exploratory pilot studies on a small-scale basis. Grants are limited to a maximum of $7,500 plus 20 percent indirect costs and a time period of no more than 18 months. Approximately 20 new grants will be awarded in 1967.

5. Regional demonstration program.—These activities facilitate the implementation of effective educational practices by local school districts. In sparsely populated regions, there is a serious lack of special classes for retarded children. A project demonstrating how a number of small school districts can support special education classes by joining together in a cooperative program will provide a model for the school districts of the State or region. About seven additional projects will be funded in 1967 at an average cost of $75,000.

6. Curriculum materials centers. Two such centers are currently being supported—one at the University of Southern California in the area of mental retardation and one at the University of Wisconsin covering all handicapping conditions. These centers are engaged in the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of educational materials related to handicapped children. The 1967 request will provide for the continuation of 6 to 10 materials centers and the initiation of 6 to 10 additional centers.

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