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Lew Crampton Associate Administrator


Charles Osolin
Director of Editorial Services

John Heritage Editor

Karen Flagstad Associate Editor

Teresa Opheim Assistant Editor

Gregg Sekscienski Assistant Editor

Ruth Barker Assistant Editor

ecycling. Millions of Americans are demonstrating their environmental

concern by cooperating in recycling initiatives. Clearly, recycling has popular appeal as something real and relatively simple that individuals can do to help protect the environment.

But as is made clear in this issue of EPA Journal, recycling is a several-step process. It begins, of course, when a citizen separates out old newspapers for curbside pickup, takes bottles and plastic milk jugs to a community recycling bin, or puts empty soda cans into receptacles at work. But that is just the beginning. True recycling continues through processing collected items, finding markets, and reusing the materials in new products.

"Closing the loop," so to speak-proceeding full circle from collection to finding new, marketable uses for recyclables-is proving to be quite a challenge, and government agencies, legislatures, and companies are focusing a lot of attention on the matter. There are situations around the country where collected material has piled up, unprocessed, unused, because the recycling system has not yet fully developed-perhaps the plant is not there to process the material to the standards required; the market may not have developed for the product containing a certain recycled material; the price may not be right ....

Adding to the complexity is the question, Why is the United States relying so heavily on recycling when there is another approach that might alleviate a hefty portion of the municipal solid waste problem? The approach is source reduction, which means, for example, using reusable rather than throwaway cups, so that waste isn't produced in the first place.

It used to be said that the environment is a “mom and apple pie" issue, easy to support. But with recycling as an example, bridging the distance between great public concern and enthusiasm and actual, meaningful change—in place for the long run-takes some time and ingenuity.

Nancy Starnes Assistant Editor

Marilyn Rogers Circulation Manager

Editorial Assistance Leighton Price

Design Credits Ron Farrah James R. Ingram Robert Flanagan

Front cover: Making the recycling process complete and effective is a contemporary environmental challenge. Illustration by Robert Flanagan.

John Heritage

EPA JOURNAL Subscriptions The annual rate for subscribers in the U.S. for EPA Journal is $10. The charge to subscribers in foreign countries is $12.50 a year. The price of a single copy of EPA Journal is $3.50 in this country and $4.38 if sent to a foreign country. Prices include mail costs. Subscriptions to EPA Journal as well as to other federal government magazines are handled only by the U.S. Government Printing Office. To subscribe to EPA Journal, send a check or money order payable to the Superintendent of Documents. The requests should be mailed to: P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954

EPA JOURNAL is rrinted on recycled paper.

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EPA is charged by Congress to protect the nation's land, air, and water systems. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions which lead to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.

EPA JOURNAL is published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Administrator of EPA has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this agency. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. Views expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect EPA policy. No permission necessary to reproduce contents except copyrighted photos and other materials.

Contributions and inquiries should be addressed to the Editor, EPA JOURNAL (A-107), Waterside Mall, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, D.C. 20460

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Several leading computer Participants in the program promising feature is a manufacturers have signed include such high-profile so-called 'sleep' mode, partnership agreements with computer makers as Apple which turns off the display EPA to promote

Computer, Hewlett-Packard, screen and reduces power to and we're building on that,' energy-efficient personal IBM, NCR, Compaq

other key components until a said Eileen Claussen, director computers (PCs). The new Computer, Zenith Data

user hits a key. 'There seem of EPA's Office of PCs could save enough Systems, and Smith-Corona. to be really dramatic

Atmospheric Programs. If electricity to power Vermont Energy usage is a new issue possibilities here,' said Jeff that isn't leverage enough, and New Hampshire each in the PC world. Yet,

Harris, a staff scientist at the EPA is hoping that year and save ratepayers up according to studies cited by Lawrence Berkeley

federal government, one of to $1 billion in annual bills. the EPA, PCs are the

Laboratory that has studied the nation's largest buyers of The agreements are the first fastest-growing category of the issue .... The EPA personal computers, will to be made under an EPA energy consumption, already already has succeeded with a require that most of the Energy Star program; the accounting for about 5

similar labeling approach in machines it buys have the Agency expects to extend the percent of the energy used by its so-called Green Light energy-saving feature, she program to manufacturers of businesses. One 1988 study

program aimed at

said .... The 'power other consumer appliances. predicted that electricity encouraging use of

management technology Administrator Reilly said consumption by computer energy-efficient bulbs."

called for by the EPA that the EPA Energy Star logo and office equipment would would make its debut on PCs grow from 25 billion

The San Jose Mercury News consists of special computer

chips and the software to

commented: “... You within one year, by which kilowatt-hours per year to time the Agency hopes to 125 [billion) kilowatt-hours

probably shut off your office control them and is used lights when you're not

widely in portable notebook have signed on the entire by 1996. Such figures mean

around. But energy-hogging

computers to conserve their industry. "Our partners in that PCs could indirectly

batteries. But the technology

personal computers are the computer world see boost pollution caused by

is used little in standard

hardly ever turned off, even energy efficiency as an energy

desktop machines that run

when they're not being used opportunity to serve their production—including the

.... Starting next year,

off wall current .... It is not customers, as well as the generation of carbon dioxide

clear how much the environment. Once again,

computers that automatically believed to contribute to a they're on the cutting edge of rise in the Earth's

power down, or 'sleep' when technology would add to the unused for a period, could

price tag of a personal a national trend." atmospheric temperature. But

computer, nor if consumers have an EPA 'Energy Star'

would be able to retrofit their The San Francisco Chronicle several energy-saving

logo affixed to them, and reported: "... Personal technologies have been

companies would be allowed current desktop machines to computer makers soon may developed by makers of

be more energy-efficient. But

to use the logo in their
get a star from the federal
laptop computers, and the
advertising. A lot of

Apple spokeswoman
EPA wants to encourage

Marianne Lettieri said, 'We government-if their

companies these days are machines sip rather than manufacturers to apply them interested in being "green,"

plan to make the cost guzzle electricity ....

invisible to the to desktop models. One


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$4 Million Awarded in Environmental Education Grants

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The first grants to be awarded under the 1990 National Environmental Education Act have been announced by EPA. A consortium of universities, businesses, and nonprofit organizations led by the University of Michigan received $1.6 million to assemble existing environmental education

curricula and to develop schools, universities, and
additional materials. Five other non-profit organizations
curriculum modules, each located in all 50 states and
focusing on a different topic, the District of Columbia. The
will be assembled. They will purpose of these grants is to
incorporate different

help improve environmental
disciplinary approaches, so education teaching skills and
that teachers can apply them curricula, promote teamwork
directly or integrate them to improve methods, and
into existing lesson plans. help the public in making
Smaller grants, totaling $2.4 decisions about
million, were awarded to 219 environmental issues.

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Ongoing Enforcement Actions

Mack Trucks Penalty for Diesel Engine Violations Valued at $323,872

Chevron to Pay $8 Million for Violations of Clean Water Act

Mack Trucks, Inc., will pay a can be sold. The penalty valued at $323,872 manufacturer submits test for selling 177 new diesel data to EPA to apply for a truck engines that were not certificate of conformity for manufactured to the

the model or models in specifications listed in an question. In this case, models application to EPA. Sixty-one were sold that didn't match of the engines also failed to those listed on the meet the federal standard for application. EPA discovered smoke emissions. Under the the violations during an audit Clean Air Act, prototype

of Mack's assembly plant in engines representative of a Hagerstown, Maryland. Mack particular model must be will pay a $174,863 cash tested and shown to conform penalty and will carry out an to federal emissions

engine rebuild test program standards before the model valued at $149,009.

Chevron U.S.A., Inc., has expensive, inadequate agreed to plead guilty to 65 treatment method. The criminal violations of the

company then diluted Clean Water Act and to pay samples of wastewater taken $6.5 million in criminal and for testing, concealed test $1.5 million in civil

results, and, in certain penalties. The crimes were instances, bypassed treatment committed on Platform

altogether, allowing raw Grace, an oil drilling rig in wastewater to discharge to the Santa Barbara Channel off the ocean. Additionally, California. Chevron admitted Chevron admitted to to several kinds of violation dumping sandblast waste of its permit issued under the directly into the ocean on National Pollution Discharge numerous occasions, rather Elimination System. Between than barging it to shore, as 1982 and 1987, samples of required. The waste Platform Grace's wastewater, contained old paint and rust

removed from the platform toxic to marine life, were prior to repainting. shown to exceed the permit The four-year investigation limits approximately half the was overseen by the time. The company could Department of Justice and have prevented the

carried out by special agents exceedances by operating a of EPA and the Inspector carbon filter system it had General's Office of the tested earlier but chose,

Department of Interior. instead, to use a less

Seven Indicted in Hazardous Waste Export which contained chemicals

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A grand jury in Charleston, Hy-Tex; and Robert Weaver, South Carolina, has indicted general manager at the Stoller four companies and three plant in Jericho during the executives for conspiring to period of the indictment. All illegally treat, then export,

defendants were charged more than 3,000 tons of with conspiring to violate the hazardous waste to

Resource Conservation and Bangladesh and Australia. Recovery Act, as well as with According to the indictment, the actual transportation of Gaston Copper Recycling of hazardous waste without a Gaston, South Carolina, paid manifest. Stoller Chemical Hy-Tex Marketing, located in and Robert Weaver were also Beaufort, South Carolina, to charged with treating process baghouse dust from hazardous waste without a its smelting furnaces. The permit and exporting it dust contained cadmium and without consent of the lead. The processed dust was receiving country. Weaver then shipped to a Stoller could face up to 20 years in Chemical plant in Jericho, prison and a fine of $1.75 South Carolina, where it was million; Heinel and mixed with other materials to Betterton could face make fertilizer. Stoller

seven years in prison and exported the fertilizer to $500,000 in fines. The Bangladesh and Australia corporations could face up to without obtaining the

$500,000 in fines on each consent of the governments count of the indictment. of those countries.

The case was investigated Gaston Copper's parent, by agents of the South Southwire Corp., of

Carolina Department of Carrollton, Georgia, was also Health and Environmental named in the indictment, Control, the U.S. Customs were three individuals: Bruce Service, the Ninth Circuit Bettenton, who participated Solicitor's Office, and the in the management of

Charleston County Sheriff's baghouse dust at Gaston; Office, as well as by agents Arthur Heinel, president of from EPA.


A new rule issued by EPA when temperature inversions requires that car and truck push cold air down and trap prototypes tested for

pollutants at the ground, compliance with federal levels of CO in the air emissions standards for

increase dramatically. carbon monoxide (CO) be Currently, 39 metropolitan subjected to startup

areas in the United States temperatures of 20 degrees experience CO levels that Fahrenheit. Currently, CO is exceed the federal health measured at temperatures standard. More than half the between 68 and 86 °F. The violations occur at new rule goes into effect with temperatures below 45 °F. 1994 model


vehicles. When the new EPA rule is It is common knowledge completely phased in, startup that cars and trucks use more emissions of CO measured at fuel and produce more CO 20 °F will be reduced 20 to during engine warm up. 29 percent. In addition, the Further, a car started at 20 °F nation will conserve 43,000 may emit more than 10 times barrels of oil each day by as much CO as the same car way of improved fuel started at 75 °F. In winter, combustion.




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