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November of 1989, Texas voters
colonias housing 215,000 Hispanic permitted the Economically Distressed farm workers in sixteen Texas and Areas Program to fund its operations New Mexico border counties. Until by issuing $100 million in bonds for local governments form or local water construction, acquisition, or
utilities show more initiative to handle improvements to water supplies,
sewage treatment, it will be difficult to and/or wastewater collection/treatment "micro-manage" large construction works, including all necessary
projects. engineering work but not maintenance Significantly, Lull, Texas—the first or ongoing expenses. In 1991, Texas colonia to receive construction money amplified that bond issue fund by from the state's Economically $150 million, creating a total pool of Distressed Areas Program $250 million for water works in the account-was recently annexed by an Texas colonias.
adjacent city, Edinburg, Texas. In Another resource that should be
August 1991, the Texas Water mentioned here is the $15 million EPA Development Board and the Edinburg put into a Colonia Plumbing Loan City Council approved the use of a Program back in 1990; the first
$565,000 loan and an $885,000 grant applicants for these internal plumbing to finance water improvements and and house hook-up loans are now construction of a wastewater system awaiting the ruling of the Texas Water for the Lull colonia. Lull is a Hispanic Development Board, which will also community in Hidalgo County with manage whatever colonias millions
nearly 1,300 inhabitants-all U.S. Congress appropriates in the fall. (New citizens in good standing and a Mexico's colonias effort is dwarfed by history dating back to the 1920s. that of Texas; from 1972 to 1990, the In Lull, as throughout the U.S. state's Environment Department gave colonias, few current citizens now out only $12 million in grants and have access to sewage treatment, loans for drinking water and
except in the form of archaic, wastewater work in the New Mexico overcrowded, overworked septic tanks, colonias.)
while roughly 80 percent have some Discouragingly, some experts have kind of amateur fresh-water hookup, estimated that extending sewage
for cooking and bathing, but not treatment to all Texas colonias
necessarily for drinking and not residents would cost at least $500 necessarily within the home itself. The million, while further improvements in dwelling can range in quality from a the drinking water supply would cost handsome stucco house with several $250 million. In other words, total bedrooms to a broken-down hovel resolution of the problem, in its
built from cinder blocks, tin sheets, present scale, is still beyond our grasp. scrap lumber, plastic, and cardboard. Part of the rationale for tackling it Most residents use outhouse privies gradually is that local institutions do that flood every time rains inundate not yet exist in most of the 918
the undrained, muddy streets and
fields of the colonias, where children and animals are frequently seen playing the same day.
Some colonias residents—all of whom own cars or trucks, and many of whom own their own land and dwellings--drive as much as 30 miles to buy bottles of fresh drinking water. The poorest of the poor, however, drink directly from outdoor taps or from the wells feeding those taps, and the ground water that comes from these sources is contaminated with fecal coliform as a result of the repeated sewage floods. Outbreaks of dysentery and hepatitis A are commonplace in the colonias, even though in the rest of the United States these severe water-borne afflictions are considered Third World diseases.
Some 16 other colonia-related water and wastewater projects are now in the Texas Water Development Board pipeline, which will grow wider and wealthier in the fall. Six applicants with completed facility plans have, like Lull, recently been awarded cash. These projects include Socorro in El Paso County ($1.6 million); Cameron Park in Cameron County ($6.4 million); Granjeno and Madero in Hidalgo County ($2.89 million); areas outside Eagle Pass in Maverick County ($11 million); Westway in El Paso County ($100,000); Sebastian and Lasara in Willacy County ($3 million). The Hacienda Gardens colonia in Cameron County has a completed facility plan that is now being evaluated, while five other counties are now preparing their engineering facility plans. O
ON THE MOVE
Administrator William Reilly
To date, two judges, Ronald L. McCallum and Edward E. Reich, have been appointed to the Environmental Appeals Board; the third member has not been announced.
Until recently McCallum served as the Chief Judicial Officer in the Office of the Administrator. McCallum was promoted to the position of Chief Judicial Officer in 1984 after having served as the sole Judicial Officer since 1978.
McCallum came to EPA in 1974 as an attorney-advisor in what was then the Pesticides, Toxic Substances, and Solid Waste Management Division of the Office of General Counsel. In 1977, he was named Senior Trial Attorney at the conclusion of an extended pesticide cancellation hearing.
Prior to coming to EPA, McCallum was an associate attorney for over four years in a major law firm in Indianapolis, Indiana,
specializing in corporate real Education and Training
universities throughout the estate and tax matters.
Foundation until a president country.
Smith received a B.A. in
Prior to EPA, from 1983 political science and
international relations in he received his A.B., M.B.A.,
Executive Director for the 1972 and an M.A. in 1974 in and J.D. degrees. While
Jennison Nature Center and political science and public attending law school, he Tobico Marsh National
administration from Western served on the Law Journal as Refuge of Michigan's
Michigan University. He a Junior Writer. Department of Natural
holds a Ph.D. (1981) in Edward E. Reich's most
Resources. He was also a natural resource policy and recent position was Legal professor in both the Political management from the School Advisor to the Administrator. Science and Biology
of Natural Resources at the Previously, he was the Acting Departments at Delta College University of Michigan. Assistant Administrator and in Michigan from 1975 until Deputy Assistant 1991.
Margo T. Oge is the new Administrator in the Office of Smith was a program
Director of the Office of Enforcement where he was administrator for the
Radiation Programs. The responsible for management Department of Environmental Office oversees radiation and oversight of enforcement Protection, City of Grand protection programs that litigation under the various Rapids, Michigan, from 1972 implement provisions of the statutes administered by the until 1975.
Clean Air Act, the Superfund Agency.
His extensive related
Reauthorization Act, the
Radon Gas and Indoor Air includes participation on Deputy Assistant Administrator, Reich was several advisory boards, such Quality Act, and the Atomic Associate Enforcement as member of the
Energy Act. The programs Counsel for Waste, with
International Advisory Board span a wide gamut of responsibility for civil
of the 1992 Environmental responsibilities that include enforcement litigation under Education/United Nations
environmental monitoring RCRA and the Conference in Toronto,
and surveillance, radiation Comprehensive Canada, and a past member
protection standards and Environmental Response, of EPA's National Advisory
guidelines, compliance Compensation, and Liability
Council for Environmental activities, and development
of public information.
Oge, with EPA since 1980,
From 1982 to 1985, she Law Center in 1968 and is a Advisory Board in 1990 and served as Section Chief of the member of the bars of the currently is a continuing
New Chemical Section under
the Office of Toxic
Substances. In 1985 and
1986, she was Legislative Bradley F. Smith has been co-authored several
Aide to Senator John Chafee named Director of the Office textbooks, including the
of Rhode Island, the ranking of Environmental Education. recently published 4th
minority member on the While assuming his new
edition of Environmental Senate Environment and duties, he will continue Science: The Study of
Public Works Committee. She coordinating activities for the Interrelationships, a work
also served as Deputy
Division Director of the
Economics and Technology ownership on private and Section from 1985 to 1989.
He was Acting Chief of the Toxic Substances from 1986 negotiated oil and gas leases Environmental Enforcement though 1988. Prior to her in the Rocky Mountian states. Section from October 1990 to current position, she was She also monitored state and April 1991. While at the DOJ, Director of the Radon
federal regulation compliance Van Heuvelen served as lead Division, Office of Radiation during lease acquisition and counsel in environmental Programs, from 1988 to 1991. performed surface
enforcement litigation under Oge earned her M.S. degree inspections on proposed all major federal from Lowell University in drilling sites.
environmental statutes. 1975 and her B.S. degree in In 1984, she was
Prior to his service at the chemical engineering from consultant to the A & W
Department, Van Heuvelen Lowell Technological
Production Company, where was Assistant Counsel to the Institute in 1972. she participated in
U. S. Senate Subcommittee force-pooling hearings at the on Environmental Protection Laurie D. Goodman, the new Oklahoma Corporation
from 1977 until 1980. He was Associate Administrator for Commission. She also
Legislative Assistant to the Office of Regional
designed and organized the Senator Quentin Burdick Operations and State/Local company lease records
(D-North Dakota) from 1975 Relations, comes to EPA after system and devised a draft until 1977. more than four years with the payment system that
He graduated cum laude U.S. Senate. There, she
coordinated bank records, from Macalester College with served as Deputy to the Chief land department data, and a B.S. in political science in of Staff in the Office of budget figures.
1972. He earned a J.D. from Senator Alan K. Simpson
Goodman received her B.S. George Washington (R-Wyoming). As Legislative degree from the University of University in 1979 and an Assistant, she was involved Oklahoma in 1983. She has
M.A. in public policy from in areas of energy,
had additional studies at the the University of Minnesota environment, science, American University in
in 1974. He is a native of commerce, transportation, Washington, D.C., and the Bismarck, North Dakota. public lands, and public University of Haifa in Haifa, works.
Israel. During 1986, Goodman
Zeda (Zee) Anne Homoki is developed and managed
Robert Van Heuvelen is the the new Special Assistant to right-of-way acquisition for new Acting Director of the the Administrator and White the municipal water delivery Office of Civil Enforcement. House Personnel Liaison for pipeline as a consultant for For the past two years, he EPA. She is responsible for the Board of Public Utilities served as Deputy Chief of the coordinating special projects, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. She Environmental Enforcement implementing policy and coordinated and negotiated Section, U.S. Department of procedure, and distributing extensively with rural
Justice (DOJ), which litigated and following up on all landowners, corporations, nearly 1,000 environmental White House information to and county, state, and federal enforcement cases referred by the 60 noncareer appointees agencies, finalizing the
the federal government in 88 now at EPA. project without a single
of the 94 U.S. federal district Prior to coming to EPA she condemnation. courts.
served as the Associate From 1984 to 1986, she
Van Heuvelen, who joined Director for owned and managed her own the DOJ in 1980, served as a Intergovernmental Affairs firm which researched
trial lawyer until 1985 and as and Deputy White House
Liaison for personnel at the
Before joining the ICC staff, she was the Special Assistant to the Director of Congressional Affairs and State Liaison at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
In 1989 she was detailed to the White House Liaison Office in the Office of the Secretary, Department of Interior. She served as Legislative Assistant for Representative Bill Archer (R-Texas) from 1986 until 1988.
Homoki taught first grade at the Department of Defense Dependent Schools in Germany from 1979 until 1981, where she received the “Sustained Superior Performance Award.” She has also done extensive volunteer work.
A native Texan, she received her B.S. degree from the University of Houston. She has lived in Europe and Asia and now resides in Burke, Virginia, with her husband, Steve. Their daughter Elizabeth is a sophomore at Sweet Briar College. a