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MARCH 16, 1967

Kantrowitz, Dr. Adrian, director of surgical services, Maimonides Hospital Page
and Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y.

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Kantrowitz, Dr. Arthur, director, Avco Everett Research Laboratory, vice
president and director, Avco Corp., Everett, Mass...

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Sabin, Dr. Albert B., distinguished service professor of research pediatrics,

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, chief, Divisio Virology
and Cancer Research, Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio.---

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RESEARCH IN THE SERVICE OF MAN: BIOMEDICAL

DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION OF EXISTING FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1967

U.S. SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT RESEARCH,
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:10 a.m., in room 3302, New Senate Office Building, Senator Fred R. Harris (chairman) presiding

Present: Senators Harris and Hansen.
Also present: Dr. Steven Ebbin, staff director.
Senator HARRIS. The subcommittee will be in order.

OPENING STATEMENT OF THE CHAIRMAN

Our hearings today grow out of a conference which I sponsored in cooperation with the Oklahoma Frontiers of Science Foundation in Oklahoma City, October 24 to 27, 1966. The conference was entitled "Research in the Service of Man: Biomedical Knowledge: Development, and Use."

At the close of that conference, I issued a statement which I will read into the record at this time:

The Conference, “Research in the Service of Man" will, I think, have a far reaching effect on national science policy. We have helped to clear inter-disciplinary channels of communication among those involved in the broad field of biomedicine and to show the need for greater effort toward inter-disciplinary communication and cooperation and programming to encourage it. We have learned how important is a widening dialog between the political and scientific communities, because a proper national science policy requires the best and mutually understandable judgments of each.

We have seen that basic research and the application, development and use of biomedical knowledge are interdependent. We have been able to catch a glimpse of the great opportunities in these areas to improve the life span and health of man. It is my judgment that this Conference will, especially when the unfortunate war in Vietnam is concluded, result in greater support for the whole field of biomedicine, to develop new knowledge and new personnel in both research and application.

We have seen that the social and behavioral sciences are equally important, that we must seek better understanding of man, himself, and his relationship to his environment and to other men, and that this is necessarily inter-related with his health and life span.

We have seen that greater efforts are needed to discover and provide proper means to encourage a stronger role for industry in biomedicine and bioengineering. We have seen that there must be better coordination and use of existing Federal programs and facilities and better dissemination of research results and new knowledge, if they are to be fully exploited and used.

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That conference grew out of three science policy seminars we held last spring. In the seminars we examined the broader issues of science policy including a resolution (S.J. Res. 96) on the interagency coordination of biomedical research introduced in the Senate by former Senator A. Willis Robertson of Virginia and assigned to this subcommittee. We will, without objection, place a copy of S.J. Res. 96 in the record at this point.

[S.J. Res. 96, 89th Cong., 1st sess.]

JOINT RESOLUTION To establish an Advisory Commission on Health Research Activities

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

DECLARATION OF PURPOSE

SECTION 1. Recognizing the importance of research in conquering disease and prolonging life, Congress has progressively increased the level of Federal expenditures for health research activities. Such activities are now spread out among many and diverse agencies of the Government. It is the purpose of this joint resolution to establish a high-level Commission to examine the entire range of health research activities of the Government with a view to determining (1) whether there has occurred an unnecessary proliferation of such activities among too many different Federal agencies, and (2) ways and means of centralizing and coordinating such activities in order to eliminate waste and duplication, and to achieve maximum efficiency and productivity.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMMISSION

SEC. 2 (a) There is hereby established the Advisory Commission on Health Research Activities (referred to hereinafter as the “Commission") which shall be composed of nine members as follows:

(1) Two Members of the Senate to be appointed by the President of the Senate;

(2) Two Members of the House of Representatives to be appointed by the Speaker; and

(3) Five members to be appointed by the President from private life. (b) Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

(c) The Commission shall elect a Chairman and Vice Chairman from among its members.

DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION

SEC. 3. (a) The Commission shall make a comprehensive study and investigation of the health research activities of the Federal Government with a view to carrying out the purpose set forth in the first section of this Act.

(b) The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress a final report with respect to its findings and recommendations not later than January 1, 1966.

POWERS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS SEC. 4. (a) The Commission or, on the authorization of the Commission, any subcommittee or members thereof, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this joint resolution, hold such hearings, take such testimony, and sit and act at such times and places as the Commission deems advisable. Any member authorized by the Commission may administer oaths or affirmations to witnesses appearing before the Commission or any subcommittee or members thereof.

(b) Each department, agency, an instrumentality of the executive branch of the Government, including independent agencies, is authorized and directed to furnish to the Commission, upon request made by the Chairman or Vice Chairman, such information as the Commission deems necessary to carry out its functions under this joint resolution.

(c) The Commission shall have power to appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director without regard to the civil service laws and the Classification Act of 1949. Such appointment shall be made solely on the basis of fitness to perform the duties of the position and without regard to political affiliation.

(d) Subject to such rules and regulations as may be adopted by the Commission, the Chairman, without regard to the civil service laws and the Classification Act of 1949, and without reference to political affiliation, shall have the power

(1) to appoint and fix the compensation of such other personnel as he deems necessary, and

(2) to procure temporary and intermittent services to the same extent as is authorized by section 15 of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946 (5 U.S.C. 55a) but at rates not to exceed $50 a day for individuals.

COMPENSATION OF MEMBERS

SEC. 5. (a) Members of the Commission who are Members of Congress shall serve without compensation in addition to that received in their regular public employment, but shall be entitled to reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of duties vested in the Commission.

(b) Members of the Commission, other than those to whom subsection (a) is applicable, shall receive compensation at the rate of $75 per day for each day they are engaged in the performance of their duties as members of the Commission and shall be entitled to reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of their duties as members of the Commission.

EXPENSES OF THE COMMISSION

SEC. 6. There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to carry out this joint resolution.

EXPIRATION OF THE COMMISSION

SEC. 7. The Commission shall cease to exist thirty days after the submission of its report.

Senator HARRIS. I will also place in the record a memorandum which I sent to the members of our subcommittee on the subject of this series of hearings. Without objection that will be placed in the record. (The memorandum referred to follows:)

U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT RESEARCH,

Februray 24, 1967.
MEMORANDUM

To: Members, Senate Subcommittee on Government Research.
From : Chairman, Fred R. Harris.
Subject: Hearings, “Research in the Service of Man: Biomedical Development,

. Evaluation of Existing Federal Institutions." In June 1966, at the launching of Medicare, President Johnson expressed concern that insufficient attention was being given to the application of results to the health problems of our Nation by government agencies supporting laboratory health sciences research. He called for more attention to the application of biomedical knowledge.

The President's statements caused uneasiness in the basic science community; this concern was based in the belief that this statement proposed a shift in policy; to an emphasis on applied research at the expense of basic or fundamental research. The science community countered by emphasizing the following two points:

1. Basic research is essential to and underlies all practical applications. Interfering with the development of fundamental knowledge will damage our ability to continue contributing to the welfare of man. In other words, biomedical applications imply a sufficiently developed science base.

2. Federal sponsorship and support for science is essential to our universities, they have become dependent on government funds for support of basic science research on which modern academic science is built. Interfering with the flow and continuity of that support would threaten universities and academic environment. And would, as well, discourage students from making

science a career. Because these questions and their answers are central to our national science policies and priorities, the Subcommittee on Government Research is taking steps to explore the various issues raised. Along with the Frontiers of Science of Oklahoma, I sponsored a conference held October 24–27 in Oklahoma City entitled, “Research in the Service of Man: Biomedical Knowledge; Research, Development and Use". The conference was held for the following reasons :

1. To obtain some insights as to the need for more attention to the application of biomedical knowledge.

2. To begin to make an inventory of opportunities in the biomedical science where greater attention to application might well benefit the health of the nation.

3. To evaluate expressions of concern by the science community relating to the President's statement and the resulting policy shifts.

4. To begin a dialogue with the interested business community to learn what contribution they might make in applied biomedical research and what

federal inducements and institutions are needed to accomplish this. I have attached a copy of the conference program and a copy of an article which appeared in Science magazine relating to the conference in Oklahoma. The major points developed may be summarized as follows:

1. It is likely that significant additional benefits to the health of the Nation would follow from more attention to the application of biomedical knowledge.

2. Mounting such a program at the expense of basic research would be disasterous for future progress in solving our national health problems.

3. Existing federal facilities already active in this field could do significantly more if provided with the necessary stimulus.

4. Present federal administrative structures may or may not be adequate for assuring more application of biomedical knowledge.

5. Under proper conditions industry could contribute much more to the field than it now does. The experiences of the Conference clearly support the need for a continuing inquiry into these important matters. Hearings have been set for February 28, March 1, 2, 3 and 16 entitled, “Research in the Service of Man: Biomedical Development, Evaluation of Existing Federal Institutions”. The agenda for each of these days is attached. Witnesses have been invited to respond to specific questions detailed in the sample letters attached. In essence, the hearings seek information on the following questions:

1. Is there a need for additional attention by federal agencies in the field of biomedical development ?

2. An evaluation of existing federal procedures for the establishment of research priorities and long-range plans in the field of biomedicine.

3. Are existing techniques for implementing plans and priorities adequate? If not, what is needed for improvement?

4. An evaluation of existing means of communications between the scientific community (research scientists, engineers, medical practitioners, and hospitals) and federal agencies concerned with biomedical research.

5. Are new, or additional, federal institutions needed to further development and applications of biomedical knowledge?

6. What further steps might be taken by government agencies to bring about more biomedical development without diminishing basic research and without disorienting institutions involved in basic research?

U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT RESEARCH,

January 24, 1967.

SAMPLE LETTER OF INVITATION TO GOVERNMENT WITNESSES

The Subcommittee on Government Research will hold hearings on February 28, March 1, 2, 3 and 16, to evaluate the role of government institutions

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