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hasty search throughout the bill, observe in the other titles, and that is a provision by which the Secretary of Labor is entitled to make allotments to the various States in addition to the amount calculated under a mathematical basis which bears in mind the financial need of the State for assistance.

Mr. BALLARD. That is very important.

Senator DONNELL. I do not think, Mr. Chairman-is there something of that kind in the other titles !

Mr. BALLARD. The Social Security Act should provide more help from the Federal Government to the poorer States.

Senator PEPPER. Section 102 (a).
Senator DONNELL. 102 (a).
Senator PEPPER. Is that not the same thing?

Senator DONNELL. Well, now, it may be 102 (b). I see. I think it is. I did not observe that as I looked at it.

You regard that as an important feature, do you not? ?

Mr. BALLARD. That is right, because, you see, the care of a child in Arkansas or Mississippi, where the awards are not as large, is just as important for the individual child as is the more adequate care provided in the larger, richer communities.

Senator DONNELL. Have you considered, Mr. Ballard, particularly the provision of title I-I understood you to say that title III is the one with which you have been most concerned ?

Mr. BALLARD. That is right.

Senator DONNELL. Have you given consideration to whether or not it is advisable to ascertain benefits to title I to all mothers and all children who elect to participate in the benefits of the program, without regard to their financial need?

Mr. BALLARD. I think I would agree with the previous witness. I thought she was very competent.

think I would agree with her.

Senator DONNELL. One other statement I would like to make as an observation with respect to the testimony of Mrs. Cook.

I think there was one question that I asked Mrs. Cook that appeared to me in a subsequent sketching through this bill is probably answered, at least in part, and that is the question as to whether or not there should be any provision stating the amount of financial participation of the State.

There are matching provisions, I observe here, which may well answer that proposition.

I am not prepared by a hasty glance to state whether it meets it in full, but I would like to mention that for the record.

Now, I think, that is all.
Senator PEPPER. Before you go, Mr. Ballard, I have one question.
Mr. BALLARD. Yes, sir.

Senator PEPPER. That is, whether or not you think it is in the public interest that the Children's Bureau should retain its entity even in the event the Federal Security Agency is in charge?

Mr. BALLARD. I am convinced of that. I will tell you one principal reason why.

Because this service to dependent and neglected children is such a specialized function.

When I set up a county-welfare department, I realized that it was more difficult to raise the standards in adoption procedures, to plan for children with behavior problems, for example, than it was to investigate the financial need of a widow and her dependent children, and then give her a check, which, in effect, became a pension.

I had hoped that in the financial aid given to dependent children living in the homes of responsible relatives that we might provide more services to these children and, for instance, work more closely with the schools; but we never got caught up with the investigation of need and the reinvestigations of pension cases in a relief program.

The specialized services to homeless, neglected children, and children in danger of becoming delinquent requires a high degree of skill. The infinite amount of time it takes for a child-welfare worker to go into a hospital and protect some unmarried mother from a doctor or a lawyer, who would steal the baby from her bedside and agree to pay

the cost of confinement, if the mother would sign a release, requires skill as well as time.

We have had that experience. It is a long story and such cases take a lot of time and it is a pretty special service. I think that it was a happy day for children when the $1,510,000, a mere pittance, was provided the Children's Bureau to help local counties raise the standards of child care. I want the Children's Bureau to remain intact, as an entity, even though it may be transferred to the Federal Security Agency. May I make this further point. We spent in our country in a given year $150,000 for child welfare services, and $1,000,000 for aid to dependent children, living with certain relatives specified by law. But it took as large a staff to supervise adoptions, locate foster homes, arrange for care and hospitalization for crippled children, prepare the evidence on a particular child for consideration by the children guidance clinic, as it did to provide pensions of $1,000,000 annually for dependent children living with their widowed mothers or other responsible relatives.

If the Bureau is to be transferred, I am convinced that much would be lost if the work of the Bureau were to be scattered among other departments of the Federal Security Agency.

I do not see any conflicts between the Children's Bureau and the Social Security Agency at the State or county levels. I have had 5 years of experience. That is not very extensive, but we found no conflicts. Both agencies were concerned that we do an adequate job in the State and in the county.

We got great help, and great satisfaction out of seeing children's conditions improved.

Senator PEPPER. Well, I thank you very much.

Mr. BALLARD. Your giving me so much time is greatly appreciated, gentlemen.

Senator PEPPER. We thank you.
Miss Mary E. Leeper.



Miss LEEPER. Thank you for the telegram.
Senator PEPPER. Thank you.
Miss LEEPER. It brought me home from Oklahoma.

Senator PEPPER. We are glad to have you here, Miss Leeper, and for the record, will you give your home address and official capacity in which you come, and then make your statement.

Miss LEEPER. I am the executive secretary of the Association for Childhood Education, an organization of teachers of young children with a membership in the 48 States and Puerto Rico and Hawaii, and with headquarters at 1201 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.

As a representative of the members of the Association for Childhood Education, I should like to clear the record, because of the happenings within the last few weeks, to say that our members have taken action on this matter, through their representatives.

We, too, try to have a representative government.

We have resolutions and a plan of action that are studied by the members. We are now working under our plan of action for 1945–47.

This bill to provide for the general welfare by enabling States to make more adequate provision for the health and welfare of mothers and children and for service to crippled children is actively supported by our Association under a portion of our Plan of Action dealing with improving the health of children.

I would like to give as evidence that we are working on the national level, this booklet. “Healthful Living for Children," and another entitled "What is Happening to the Children ?", a summary of a survey made by one of our national committees in an attempt to find out what is happening to children in relation to education, health, and welfare in different parts of our country.

That same survey has been made for 3 years. Each year we find that health needs are increasingly evident. More interest is exhibited by adults in meeting those health needs, but not too much encouragement about how much is actually being done.

Now, the statement that our delegates have approved is this: The health of every person must be a matter of broad social concern. Experiences during the war period have shown that conditions related to the health of children can and must be improved.

Members of the A. C. E., believing that the beginning of later physical diffi. culties frequently can be avoided or corected through attention during the early years and that the relation of the social well-being of the child to the health of the child is a proved point, will work to establish the conditions that promote healthful living for children and will seek to gain the cooperation of others in this undertaking.

I am here today, to seek to gain your cooperation and to say we are glad you are considering this bill. It is a known fact that children today in many places are living, are

. entering school under the same handicaps as the children of 20 years ago. Unless specific health help is given to States and communities, the adult of tomorrow will suffer from the same preventable handicaps as do adults of today.

To illustrate, I would refer to my neighbors with four children, a medium salary on the part of the father; the mother attempting to make a good home, and she does, for those children.

Thank you.

How would you feel if, because of necessary doctor bills, you had to let the dental work go for your children, and then when you took the children to find out what it was going to cost, you found out it would cost $1,000. Where would you begin. The medium-income families need help, too.

Ours is a great and powerful Nation. We will not continue in this role unless for all citizens early in life provisions are made that result in strong, healthy bodies, governed by alert, intelligent, courageous minds.

The Children's Bureau has, through the years, fulfilled with courage, skill, and with relatively little money its obligations to society by safeguarding the health and welfare of children. That obligation is heavier than ever before. It cannot be met without funds. The need is immediate.

We, of the Association for Childhood Education, hope very much that you and the members of your committee will give favorable and serious consideration to this bill, to the principles in it, and to make as you see fit the necessary amendments.

Senator PEPPER. Senator Donnell, do you have any questions?
Senator DONNELL. Just one or two questions.

Miss Leeper, do you have any amendments that have occurred to you?

Miss LEEPER. No; I think those have been covered by Cenator Pepper's suggestions.

Senator DONNELL. Have you made any investigation of the cost of the provisions particularly of title I? That is to say, the maternal and child health services?

Miss LEEPER. We have not made our own investigation of the costs.

Services under this bill should remove the stigma from the middleclass family that does need medical protection and uses public health services.

It will still leave the way open for the family who wishes to choose its own doctor.

Senator DONNELL. I judge that you favor the idea of having the medical services that are contemplated by the title, maternal and child health services, rendered to all mothers and children who elect to receive them regardless of whether or not they are in financial need?

Miss LEEPER. I do.
Senator DONNELL. For the reasons you indicated ?
Miss LEEPER. Yes.
Senator DONNELL. Where is your home?
Miss LEEPER. My home is Silver Spring, Md.
Senator DONNELL. Silver Spring.
I thought maybe you had come from out near Missouri.

Miss LEEPER. I came through Missouri by daylight, and instead of flying, I came on the train,

and you know what one sees as the train comes through the towns. Those children by the tracks reminded me of the necessity for the passage of S. 1318.

Senator DONNELL. I am glad you came through Missouri.
Mr. BALLARD. Senator, I came from Oklahoma.

Senator PEPPER. Mr. Ballard, I do not recall that you stated, but I would like for you to state your view for the record.


Do you approve of the provision of this bill for no means test in order to get the benefits?


Mr. BALLARD. I certainly do. I am against the means test.

Senator PEPPER. It has been your experience that it is contrary to the public interest to have these means tests?

Mr. BALLARD. I think so, yes. I know too many youths that were hurt as little children because they were on relief and were embarassed · because of it. It seems to me in a time of crisis, if we can provide medical care for all of our boys in the service, we ought to be able to provide medical care in time of peace just as we provide education.

I just remember my son taking a colored boy, who had been turned down four times before being accepted for military service to the hospital in Denver for tuberculosis.

I thought, “What a pity in this great Nation of ours that a boy has to be inducted into the Army before they find out he has tuberculosis and not until then is he sent to a hospital for treatment.

Senator PEPPER. Thank you very much.

The other witness is Mrs. Evelyn B. Jacobs, of the National Society for Crippled Children and Adults.

Will you give us, please, for the record, your address and the organization that you represent. STATEMENT OF MRS. EVELINE B. JACOBS, NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR

CRIPPLED CHILDREN AND ADULTS, INC. Mrs. Jacobs. I represent the National Society for Crippled Children and Adults, the headquarters of which are in Chicago, at 11 South La Salle Street.

Senator PEPPER. Will you give your statement.

Mrs. Jacobs. The National Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Inc., earnestly supports the passage of the Maternal and Child Health Act with suggested changes which are set forth herein. These provisions will be discussed following a brief description of the membership, program, and objectives of the national society.

The National Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Inc., was founded in 1921 in answer to the need for a central clearing agency for information, and the establishment on a national scale of services to the handicapped. Celebrating its silver anniversary this year, it has grown steadily until it now comprises a headquarters unit in Chicago with 43 affiliated State societies and over 2,000 local societies having a total membership of many thousands of persons interested in crippled children. The board of directors of each affiliated unit is made up of citizens who serve voluntarily and without pay,

The aim of the society is to do all that it can through voluntary effort of ordinary citizens to close the gap which exists between our knowledge of how to care for the handicapped and the application of that knowledge. In relation to the handicapped individual these aims are expressed by (1) finding, registering, and enumerating; (2) diagnosis and physical correction; (3) providing adequate educational, cultural, academic, and vocational opportunity; (4) opportu

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